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病毒有可能感染病毒吗?

Can a Virus Get a Virus?

This video was sponsored by Lastpass
该视频由Lastpass赞助
Hey there, welcome to Life Noggin!
嘿 欢迎来到《品生活》
Getting sick is the absolute worst,
生病绝对是生活中最糟糕的事
but it’s just a part of being, well, alive.
好吧 但这只是我们活着的一部分
On Earth every living organism has at least one virus that can infect it,
在地球上 每个活着的生物都有可能感染病毒
from plants and animals, to bacteria and single-celled archaea.
从动植物 细菌到单细胞的古生菌都如此
But what about non-living things?
但对非活体的东西而言呢?
You’ve probably heard that viruses aren’t technically alive,
严格意义上来说病毒并不是一种活的生物
so can a virus catch another virus?
那么病毒能感染另一种病毒吗?
Before we get into the nitty gritty,
在我们进入今天的主题前
I wanna thank LastPass who sponsored this video!
我要先感谢该视频的赞助商LastPass!
LastPass eliminates the struggle of having to look for all your passwords,
LastPass避免了你要找账户密码的痛苦
and relieves the anxiety around getting locked out your accounts.
也避免了用户因账号被锁可能产生的焦虑
Because LastPass is your own personal password manager
因为LastPass是你的个人密码管家
and remembers everything for you,
能够帮你记住你所有的密码
you’ll no longer need to write, or reset your password.
你再也不用写下来或是重置忘记的密码
And don’t worry, all your passwords are encrypted,
也不必担心 你所有的密码都是经过加密的
so only you can see them.
只有你自己看得到
LastPass will even autofill passwords automatically
当你在安卓或是苹果上登陆APP和网页时
when visiting android or IOS apps, and mobile sites,
LastPass能够自动填充密码
so logging in is seamless,
所以账号登录是无缝对接的
and you can get to the things you love quicker.
你可以更快地登陆到你想登陆的地方
Since downloading LastPass
自从下载了LastPass后
I’ve had so much extra time to focus on the things that actually matter,
我有更多的时间专注在我真正重要的事情上
like beating all my friends at trivia games.
比如在trivia游戏赢过我所有的朋友
LastPass let you keep track all your passwords easily,
LastPass可以帮你轻松记录密码
so you can stay stress free.
这样你就可以远离记密码的压力了
Put your passwords on autopilot with LastPass.
用LastPass设置自动填充密码
Click the link below to find out more
请点下方链接获取更多信息
and try LastPass today,
从今天就开始试用LastPass吧
and now back to the episode!
好了 现在回归正题!
so can a virus catch another virus?
那么一种病毒能否感染另一种病毒呢?
Well, until recently, the answer was no.
好吧 就目前看来 答案好像是:不能
Viruses are simple, submicrosopic parasites,
病毒是简单的亚显微寄生虫
a hundred times smaller than bacteria.
它比细菌要小一百倍
Without a metabolism or proteins for transcription and replication,
没有新陈代谢或蛋白质的转录和复制
they’re little more than zombies,
它们和僵尸差不多
borrowing life from other creatures.
靠其它生物续命
So if viruses can’t even keep themselves alive,
因此 如果病毒都无法让自身存活
how can they sustain another?
它们又如何繁殖下一代呢?
Nature, it seems, is always surprising us.
大自然似乎总是能令我们感到惊讶
In the early 2000s, scientists discovered an exceptional virus
在21世纪初期 科学家发现了一种特殊的病毒
that altered our understanding of life itself.
这种病毒改变了我们对生命本身的理解
At first, experts assumed it was bacteria,
起初专家认为这是一种细菌
but what they’d actually found was a giant virus,
但实际上他们发现的是一种巨大的病毒
so large it could be glimpsed with a simple microscope.
该巨型病毒大到仅用显微镜就能将其观测到
Inside, this virus had many more genes than normal,
该病毒内部具有比一般病毒更多的基因
encoding for proteins, metabolic pathways,
可以编码蛋白质 有代谢途径
even replication machinery.
甚至还有复制机制
Experts named it the mimivirus, short for mimicking microbe,
专家们称它为“ 米米病毒” 是拟菌病毒的简称
and soon they began to find others just like it.
不久他们就发现其它类似米米病毒的病毒
That’s when things got really matter.
这时事情真的开始变得复杂了
Because while the mimivirus was a surprise,
因为如果米米病毒的发现 是一个惊喜
the discovery of its relative,
那么它的亲戚
the so-called mamavirus, was a bombshell.
所谓的“妈妈病毒”的发现则是一枚重磅炸弹
Slightly larger than mimi,
“妈妈病毒”比“米米病毒”稍大一些
the mamavirus turned out to be hiding an itsy-bitsy virus of its own
在它的内部还隐藏了一种极微小的病毒
with just 21 genes, this little fella, named Sputnik,
这个名叫Sputnik的小家伙 只有21组基因
is the first example of a virus infecting a virus infecting an amoeba.
这是首例受病毒感染的病毒又感染了变形虫的案例
Since then, dozens of other virophages have been found,
从那以后 又发现了几十种其他的病毒噬菌体
and while there’s still a lot we don’t know about this madness,
虽然我们还不大了解这种复杂情况
the basics are familiar.
但基本原理是相似的
After infecting its first host,
在感染第一个宿主的之后
Sputnik releases its DNA into the amoeba.
Sputnik病毒将它的DNA释放进变形虫内
Unable to reproduce on its own,
由于它不能自己繁殖
it then attaches to an already-present mamavirus,
于是它附着在一个准备就绪要进行繁殖的“妈妈病毒”上
injecting its genetic material into that second host too.
以同样的方式将自己的基因感染到第二个宿主
Once inside,
一旦进入“妈妈病毒”体内
this foreign DNA hijacks the host’s ‘viral factory’
这个外来DNA就会劫持宿主的“病毒工厂”
so it can begin to replicate,
从而开始复制
ultimately making it harder for the mamavirus to do the same.
最终使妈妈病毒更难复制
It’s David and Goliath on a miniscule scale.
这是缩小版的David和Goliath
Today, we know virophages can infect both mama and mimiviruses, as well as plenty of others.
今天 我们知道了病毒噬菌体是可以感染米米病毒和妈妈病毒以及许多其它的病毒的
As such, some consider them viral parasites,
因此 一些学者认为它们是病毒寄生虫
representing a whole new class of virus
代表了一种全新的病毒
While others think they are too basic to be called even that.
另一派学者则认为它们太简单了 甚至不能被称为病毒
Whatever they are, they’re probably important.
但不管它们是什么 它们可能很重要
And we keep learning more and more about virophages and giant viruses.
我们越来越了解病毒噬菌体和巨型病毒
In fact, just last year,
事实上 就在去年
a paper was published stating that some giant viruses,
一篇论文发表说发现了一些巨型病毒
called Pandoraviruses,
称为潘多拉病毒
are so large they can encode thousands of proteins,
潘多拉病毒体型巨大到可以编码数千种蛋白质
90 percent of which are not seen anywhere else on Earth.
其中90%的蛋白质是地球上其他地方没有的
Plus, not only do giant viruses appear to create genes,
另外 巨型病毒不仅会产生基因
they also appear to steal them.
还会窃取基因
Sputnik and other virophages
Sputnik病毒和其他噬菌体
have remarkably similar genes to their hosts,
与它们的宿主有着惊人的相似的基因
which has experts wondering if these giant viruses are defending themselves
这让专家们怀疑这些巨型病毒是否
by stealing genetic material from their viral parasites.
在通过窃取它们的病毒寄生虫的基因来保护自己
All that is still up for debate,
所有这些仍有待讨论
but the idea that viruses can create and transfer genes
但病毒可以创造和转移基因的观点
does fit well with another theory.
确实与另一种理论相吻合
More than a billion years ago,
10多亿年前
a giant DNA-based virus is thought to have infected a budding eukaryotic cell,
一个发育中的真核细胞被一种以DNA为遗传物质的巨型病毒感染了
somehow creating the first cell nucleus
以某种方式创造了第一个细胞核
Like I said, nature is full of surprises.
正如我说的 大自然充满了惊喜
Sometimes they’re scary surprises, but still.
虽然有时他们是惊吓 但也算一种“惊喜”吧
So are there any questions about the body that you have for us?
那么关于今天的视频内容有任何问题吗?
Let me know now in the comment section below
在下方留言让我知道
and your question could become a future video.
也许你的问题可以成为未来的视频主题
As always my name is Blocko!
我是Blocko!
This has been Life Noggin!
这里是《品生活》
Don’t forget to keep on thinking.
别忘了要保持思考哦

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视频概述

我们都知道人类经常因为感染病毒而生病,那么病毒呢?病毒有可能感染病毒吗?2002年,首例病毒感染病毒又感染了微生物的案例被发现了,为这带来了可能性,想了解更多内容就来观看视频吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

邓·鱼鱼小仙女🇨🇳

审核员

审核员SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkkfzYY2QJc

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