Can a bee sting a bee?
Striped assassins, hidden threat,
这儿 那儿 都有它们的身影 它们无处不在
they are here, they are there, they are everywhere.
They number in the billions and trillions,
they create cities and colonies,
their race is older than human kinds.
And over the millions of years of their existence,
they have captured virtually all the territories on earth suitable for habitation.
It was they who brought the first cellular technology to the planet,
which is more than 100 million years old.
They also carry out almost all of the earth’s pollination,
helping to produce food for millions of other living beings.
但需要注意的是 森林中这些狡猾的 精于算计的
Beware, however, as these cunning calculated
perfectly organized warriors of the stabs in forest,
carry a mortal danger to all living things that come their way and
try to prevent the implementation of their grand plans.
Bees, most people learnt about these creatures
in the early years of their life,
from pictures and books and kindergarten,
from heavy and uncomfortable costumes
or from their favorite cartoons.
Further, throughout life,
one is constantly confronted with the activity and byproducts of bees.
At least, at the level of consumption of honey
and other products of their livelihoods.
Some people even engage in self-torture with
the help of these lovely striped prankster with their large sharp stingers.
For example, a few years ago,
a student at Cornell University, one Mr. Michael Smith,
over the course of 38 days,
experimented with bees by forcing them to sting his mortal body.
As he claimed for the sake of the scientific experiment,
each time the young scientist substituted different parts of himself for science,
he did not forgo even his own buttocks and penis.
“I thought the most painful bite would be for the testicles,” he said.
“but it did not hurt as much as I expected.”
Michael disappointed the world with his disappointment.
It turned out that the most painful bee sting is in the nostril.
But these weak carriers of pollen pose serious threat,
one that does not end with simple disappointment.
More than 50 deaths from bee stings than other insects
are recorded annually in the United States.
48 people died from the stings of hornets, bees and wasps
in this country just in 1998.
More recent studies on the mortality of Australians
after contact with animals were conducted by
professor Ronelle Welton of the University of Melbourne.
Their results were first made public at the end of 2016.
The studies have changed the generally accepted view that
spiders, snakes and jellyfish are the most dangerous creatures in Australia.
As Dr Wilton learned, along with his colleagues
David Williams and Danny Liew,
between 2000 and 2013,
many more Australians were killed by the bites of bees, wasps and hornets
of the 42,000 people who suffered from
the bites and stings of poisonous animals including fatalities.
其中31％是被大黄蜂 马蜂 蜜蜂蜇咬的
31 percent were attributed to the stings of hornets, wasps and bees.
In these stings surpassed, even the infamous Australia spiders,
which are accounted for just 30 percent.
A high mortality rate from the poisons of various hymenoptera,
that is wasps, bees and ants,
was comparable to the bites of snakes and spiders.
The scientists explained that people bitten by bees or wasps
often underestimate the danger and don’t seek medical help in time.
The main cause of death is allergic reactions,
they occur according to various estimates
in between 1 to 7 percent population.
This figure reaches 22 percent with bee keepers,
as the severity of reactions increases with each bite.
Note that in recent years the amount of allergies has increased noticeably.
What exactly is in the poison of bees？
And in practice the analogous poison of wasps
that results in such dreadful consequences,
像发痒 荨麻疹 高烧 恐惧
like itching, hives, fever, fear,
呼吸短促 腹痛 眩晕 呕吐 窒息
shortness of breath, abdomenal pain, dizziness, vomiting, choking,
incoherence of thoughts, feelings of doom,
lost of consciousness and even sometimes death.
The most toxic component of bee venom is melittin,
a peptide that is able to destroy red blood cells,
activate substances that cause various kinds of inflammation,
increase the permeability of the vascular wall and reduce muscle.
The worst thing is enzyme phospholipase A,
which is about 10 to 12 percent of the poison,
is able to destroy cell membranes,
and as a consequence, the cells themselves,
another substance histamine causes an allergic reaction,
swelling, spasms in the bronchi and a drop in blood pressure.
Finally, hyaluronidase is an enzyme that breaks down mucopolysaccharides,
which leads to a rapid spread of edema.
We all know that bees are hardworking and well-organized beings,
but very few people know the peculiarities of their love relationships.
The way that bees reproduce is simply shocking,
and is, at the same time, one of the
most beautiful and terrible of natural dramas.
The process of the pairing up bees is a truly amazing undertaking,
tens of thousands of the insects soar into the air,
forming a swarm and fly 2.5 to 3 miles away from their bee hive,
The bulk of this swarm of bees are workers, sterile females,
the single queen has between 5 to 7 drones that are directly responsible for mating.
When the swarm is formed,
the queen bee begins to emit a special scent to attract the males,
and she can mate with several partners,
at least until she gets enough sperm for successful fertilization.
After that, the genitals of the male drone often break off
well remaining in the queen’s crocheted pocket.
The male perishes at once,
by the way, tragedy can overtake the queen mother as well,
if the swarm is near pond, then the couple, carried away by each other,
can simply fall into the water and die without reaching orgasm.
The fate of the surviving drone is no less tragic.
After fertilization, as their nature is not adapted to collecting pollen,
they’re no longer useful,
and are expelled from the hive by the other bees,
and die of starvation.
And now speaking of the males, and more importantly the females,
we finally come close to our main question,
can a bee sting a bee?
好 大家都急不可待了 我们马上揭晓答案 是的
OK, we have no patience, we will immediately answer YES.
A bee can sting a bee, there are several reasons for this,
let’s start with an external threat.
Bees from another colony can attack,
seeking profit, for example stealing honey.
In this case, when trying to enter the hive or nest
they’ll be attacked by the owners.
Other representatives of the species may attack,
bumblebees often do this, they can sting to death,
but most often they simply bite and expel the bees from their nest.
Interestingly, in a case such as this,
a bumblebee can hide inside the nest of its enemy,
and even become a member of the colony.
It’s worth noting that in addition to the battle of the stings,
the worker bees of some honey species have their own special techniques
to combat this external threat.
For example, with huge hornets that exceed them several times in size,
bees encircle the hornets by the hundreds,
forming a dance circle,
and actively vibrate the surroundings with their wings.
Due to this action,
the temperature and level of carbon dioxide inside the circle increases
and from this the hornets die.
Of course, one of the cruelest, most dramatic,
and at the same time, familiar to the animal world of bee conflicts
is the struggle of females.
The queen bee is not particularly interested in worker bees from other colonies.
No matter how they try to threaten,
she stings and kills only her rivals.
The new queen as soon as she gains the strength,
goes to respect the colony.
Upon finding other queens who are only just developing,
she mercilessly stings them to death.
But let’s not demonize the bees,
these little striped chemical engineers and miniature biologists,
bring enormous benefit to the animal world,
to the plant world and to man.
The same bee venom which causes negative reactions in the human body
can also have a therapeutic effect.
This product from the world of bees can improve metabolism,
stimulate the immune system, reduce blood pressure,
reduce the activity of the inflamatory process,
inhibit the vital activity of harmful microorganism,
normalize cardiac activity, ease an anticoagulant
as antispasmodic and analgesic action,
can activate the enzyme and hormonal system,
and in general create real miracles.
And it can even save human lives.
Case in point, 27-year-old American Ellie Lobel,
argues that it was the numerous bee stings she received
that saved her from a terrible deadly disease
that she had contracted from other insects——ticks.
She had Lyme disease which is caused by tick-borne bacteria.
In less than a year, it turned this young woman
into a physically and mentally disabled person,
into a being that couldn’t even think logically.
After living like this for 15 years,
Ellie moved to California to die,
it was there that she was attacked by a swarm of hybrid Africanized bees,
and she believed they were her last moments of life.
but she did not die,
and on the contrary recovered from her terrible illness.
The substances in the bee venom apparently had destroyed the pathogenic bacteria.
It turns out that the same melittin which we mentioned earlier
in the right dosage and under certain conditions,
can be used as a powerful antimicrobial agent.
It does this easily and without excessive chemical activity,
and fights off and kills various bacteria and fungi.
Many researchers believe that using bee venom
we may now be able to fight arthritis, multiple sclerosis,
and get this cancer and HIV infection.
Melittin is capable of destroying the protective membranes
of the human immunodeficiency virus without damaging other cells of the body,
and the virus can not develop mechanism for resistance to melittin.
Researchers at the University of Washington School of Medicine in St.Louis Missouri
made the discovery.
Joshua Hood, one of the leaders and authors of the study on the subject,
said at a press conference,
melittin destroys the inherit physical property of HIV.
In theory, the virus can not adapt to this scenario,
the protective shell is vitally important to the virus.
In the future, scientists hope that with an injection,
it will be possible to introduce special nano particles with melittin
into the human circulatory system,
and thus to purify it of the virus.
It turns out that bee venom,
well, it’s like nuclear energy,
it all depends on how you use it,
and these small buzzing insects in the future,
will not just shock, but surprise humanity in a good way.
What will be if we wrap you round and round with a scotch tape?
throw the whole package into a microwave oven,
roast it quite well.
See that to a giant hungry whale after that drown you in the ocean,
then bury you alive, send you into space,
then let you drop back down to the earth straight to the bottom of Mariana Trench.
After that, take you out and dry you under a night through lightning storm.
Dress you up, comb you up,
stick you on a plane climb to high to 30,000 feet,
and toss you off once more.
When you plummet back down to the unyielding surface,
of course without a parachute.
What would happen then?
Let’s ask Arnold,
how are you feeling, buddy?
You still on your feet?
Well then, how about this?
There’s no time to explain,
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