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蜜蜂能蜇蜜蜂吗? – 译学馆
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蜜蜂能蜇蜜蜂吗?

Can a Bee Sting a Bee? (and much more)

蜜蜂会蛰蜜蜂吗?
Can a bee sting a bee?
它们是衣着条纹的杀手 是潜在的威胁
Striped assassins, hidden threat,
这儿 那儿 都有它们的身影 它们无处不在
they are here, they are there, they are everywhere.
它们的数量以万亿计
They number in the billions and trillions,
它们创造出专属于它们的城市和领地
they create cities and colonies,
它们的族群比人类还要古老
their race is older than human kinds.
在它们存在的数百万年间
And over the millions of years of their existence,
地球上几乎所有的宜居地区都为它们所侵占
they have captured virtually all the territories on earth suitable for habitation.
在地球上 是它们最先使用蜂窝技术
It was they who brought the first cellular technology to the planet,
而且使用这项技术的时间超过1亿年
which is more than 100 million years old.
它们几乎承担了地球上所有的授粉工作
They also carry out almost all of the earth’s pollination,
帮助着数百万种生物生产食物
helping to produce food for millions of other living beings.
但需要注意的是 森林中这些狡猾的 精于算计的
Beware, however, as these cunning calculated
具有高度组织性的带刺的战士们
perfectly organized warriors of the stabs in forest,
对那些“拦路者”以及阻碍它们实现伟大计划的一切生物
carry a mortal danger to all living things that come their way and
都是致命的危险的存在
try to prevent the implementation of their grand plans.
多数人在很小的时候
Bees, most people learnt about these creatures
就已经了解蜜蜂这种生物了
in the early years of their life,
从图片 书籍和幼儿园中
from pictures and books and kindergarten,
从笨重不便的蜜蜂变装服饰中
from heavy and uncomfortable costumes
或是从他们喜欢的动画片中
or from their favorite cartoons.
进一步说 在人的一生中
Further, throughout life,
每个人都会不断地接触到蜜蜂的活动及蜜蜂副产品
one is constantly confronted with the activity and byproducts of bees.
至少也会吃蜂蜜
At least, at the level of consumption of honey
或蜜蜂的其它的用以谋生的产品
and other products of their livelihoods.
有些人甚至用这些带条纹的
Some people even engage in self-torture with
可爱又顽皮的小家伙的又大又尖的尾刺进行自我折磨
the help of these lovely striped prankster with their large sharp stingers.
比如说几年前
For example, a few years ago,
一名来自康奈尔大学的学生 迈克·史密斯
a student at Cornell University, one Mr. Michael Smith,
在整整38天中
over the course of 38 days,
让蜜蜂蛰他的肉体凡胎
experimented with bees by forcing them to sting his mortal body.
他解释说 那是为了科学实验
As he claimed for the sake of the scientific experiment,
每次他都用自己身上的不同部位做实验
each time the young scientist substituted different parts of himself for science,
他甚至都没放过他的臀部和阴茎
he did not forgo even his own buttocks and penis.
“我之前以为被蛰的最疼的地方会是睾丸
“I thought the most painful bite would be for the testicles,” he said.
但是并没有我想象中的疼” 他说到
“but it did not hurt as much as I expected.”
让迈克大失所望的结果也让全世界大跌眼镜
Michael disappointed the world with his disappointment.
事实证明 被蜜蜂蛰的最疼的地方其实是在鼻孔里
It turned out that the most painful bee sting is in the nostril.
但是这些弱小的授粉者却能造成巨大的威胁
But these weak carriers of pollen pose serious threat,
这种威胁不仅仅是让人失望那么简单
one that does not end with simple disappointment.
美国的年度数据统计显示 蜜蜂蛰咬致死的事件
More than 50 deaths from bee stings than other insects
比其它昆虫蛰咬致死的事件多出50多例
are recorded annually in the United States.
有48人死于大黄蜂 蜜蜂及马蜂的蛰咬
48 people died from the stings of hornets, bees and wasps
这还仅是美国1998年的数据
in this country just in 1998.
较为近期的研究是关于澳大利亚人
More recent studies on the mortality of Australians
在与动物接触以后的死亡率
after contact with animals were conducted by
这项研究是由墨尔本大学教授罗内勒·韦尔顿主导的
professor Ronelle Welton of the University of Melbourne.
他们的成果在2016年年末首次公布
Their results were first made public at the end of 2016.
这项研究改变了人们对澳大利亚最危险的动物的认知
The studies have changed the generally accepted view that
他们之前认为蜘蛛 蛇和水母是澳大利亚最危险的动物
spiders, snakes and jellyfish are the most dangerous creatures in Australia.
而根据韦尔顿教授和他的同事
As Dr Wilton learned, along with his colleagues
大卫·威廉姆斯和丹尼·刘的研究
David Williams and Danny Liew,
2000年至2013年
between 2000 and 2013,
更多的澳大利亚人死于蜜蜂 马蜂和大黄蜂的蛰咬
many more Australians were killed by the bites of bees, wasps and hornets
在遭到有毒动物蜇咬的
of the 42,000 people who suffered from
42000人中 包括被咬死的
the bites and stings of poisonous animals including fatalities.
其中31%是被大黄蜂 马蜂 蜜蜂蜇咬的
31 percent were attributed to the stings of hornets, wasps and bees.
这个比例甚至超过臭名昭著的澳大利亚蜘蛛
In these stings surpassed, even the infamous Australia spiders,
澳大利亚蜘蛛咬伤和咬死的人仅占30%
which are accounted for just 30 percent.
在各种膜翅目昆虫中 其哲咬造成人类高死亡率的
A high mortality rate from the poisons of various hymenoptera,
是马蜂 蜜蜂和蚂蚁
that is wasps, bees and ants,
其致死率与毒蛇和毒蜘蛛旗鼓相当
was comparable to the bites of snakes and spiders.
科学家解释 因为人们被蜜蜂或马蜂蛰时
The scientists explained that people bitten by bees or wasps
常会低估其危险值而不及时寻找医疗救助
often underestimate the danger and don’t seek medical help in time.
致死的主要原因是过敏反应
The main cause of death is allergic reactions,
大量的估算显示
they occur according to various estimates
在总人口中 1%到7%的人会出现过敏反应
in between 1 to 7 percent population.
而在养蜂人中 这个比例则提升到22%
This figure reaches 22 percent with bee keepers,
因为每多咬一口反应就会严重一分
as the severity of reactions increases with each bite.
需要注意的是 近几年的过敏症显著增加
Note that in recent years the amount of allergies has increased noticeably.
蜂毒里究竟有什么成分?
What exactly is in the poison of bees?
在实验中 与马蜂毒相似的毒
And in practice the analogous poison of wasps
会造成下面一系列致命症状
that results in such dreadful consequences,
像发痒 荨麻疹 高烧 恐惧
like itching, hives, fever, fear,
呼吸短促 腹痛 眩晕 呕吐 窒息
shortness of breath, abdomenal pain, dizziness, vomiting, choking,
思维错乱 即将死亡的感觉
incoherence of thoughts, feelings of doom,
失去知觉 有时甚至造成死亡
lost of consciousness and even sometimes death.
蜂毒中最致命的元素是蜂毒肽
The most toxic component of bee venom is melittin,
蜂毒肽是种能破坏红血细胞的肽
a peptide that is able to destroy red blood cells,
它激活多种能诱发炎症的物质
activate substances that cause various kinds of inflammation,
增强血管壁的渗透性 分解肌肉
increase the permeability of the vascular wall and reduce muscle.
最糟糕的是磷脂酶A
The worst thing is enzyme phospholipase A,
占到毒素中的10%至12%
which is about 10 to 12 percent of the poison,
磷脂酶A能破坏细胞膜
is able to destroy cell membranes,
进而破坏细胞本身
and as a consequence, the cells themselves,
另一种物质“组胺”会引起过敏反应
another substance histamine causes an allergic reaction,
症状包括肿胀 细支气管痉挛和血压下降
swelling, spasms in the bronchi and a drop in blood pressure.
最后 透明质酸酶这种酶破坏黏多糖
Finally, hyaluronidase is an enzyme that breaks down mucopolysaccharides,
进而导致瘤腺体快速扩散
which leads to a rapid spread of edema.
众所周知 蜜蜂是种努力工作而又有纪律严明的动物
We all know that bees are hardworking and well-organized beings,
但很少有人知道它们独特的做爱方式
but very few people know the peculiarities of their love relationships.
蜜蜂的繁殖方式只能用“令人震惊”来形容
The way that bees reproduce is simply shocking,
而与此同时 它们的繁殖方式又属于一场
and is, at the same time, one of the
最美丽却又最可怕的大自然戏剧
most beautiful and terrible of natural dramas.
蜜蜂结对的过程是非常令人惊异的
The process of the pairing up bees is a truly amazing undertaking,
成千上万的蜜蜂飞涌到空中
tens of thousands of the insects soar into the air,
形成一个蜂群 然后飞到离它们的蜂巢2.5至3英里的地方
forming a swarm and fly 2.5 to 3 miles away from their bee hive,
蜂群里的蜜蜂大部分是工蜂 即不育的雌蜂组成
The bulk of this swarm of bees are workers, sterile females,
一只蜂王有5到7只专门负责交配的雄蜂
the single queen has between 5 to 7 drones that are directly responsible for mating.
蜂群一成型
When the swarm is formed,
蜂王就会散发出一种独特的气味吸引雄蜂
the queen bee begins to emit a special scent to attract the males,
她可以和多个雄蜂交尾
and she can mate with several partners,
最起码她要获得足够的精子完成受精 她才会停止交尾
at least until she gets enough sperm for successful fertilization.
交尾后 雄蜂的生殖器经常会断掉
After that, the genitals of the male drone often break off
保留在蜂王的生殖器内
well remaining in the queen’s crocheted pocket.
雄蜂即刻死去
The male perishes at once,
顺便一提 悲剧也同样会发生在母蜂身上
by the way, tragedy can overtake the queen mother as well,
如果蜂群靠近池塘 交尾的一对会互相带动
if the swarm is near pond, then the couple, carried away by each other,
它们可能在未达到性高潮之前就直接落水死亡
can simply fall into the water and die without reaching orgasm.
得救的雄蜂的生活也好不到哪儿去
The fate of the surviving drone is no less tragic.
由于采粉并不是雄峰的工作 蜂王受精以后
After fertilization, as their nature is not adapted to collecting pollen,
雄峰就没有用了
they’re no longer useful,
因此而被其它蜜蜂赶出蜂巢
and are expelled from the hive by the other bees,
最终死于饥饿
and die of starvation.
现在提到了雄蜂还有更重要的工蜂
And now speaking of the males, and more importantly the females,
我们终于贴近了我们的主要问题
we finally come close to our main question,
蜜蜂会蛰蜜蜂吗?
can a bee sting a bee?
好 大家都急不可待了 我们马上揭晓答案 是的
OK, we have no patience, we will immediately answer YES.
一只蜜蜂会蛰另一只 原因有很多
A bee can sting a bee, there are several reasons for this,
我们先从外部的威胁说起
let’s start with an external threat.
来自其它群体的蜜蜂们会袭击另一个群体的蜜蜂
Bees from another colony can attack,
来获得好处 比如偷蜂蜜
seeking profit, for example stealing honey.
在这种情况下 当它们要入侵蜂房和蜂巢时
In this case, when trying to enter the hive or nest
它们会被领主们攻击
they’ll be attacked by the owners.
蜜蜂种族中的其它代表也可能会攻击
Other representatives of the species may attack,
大黄蜂就经常如此 把侵略者蛰死
bumblebees often do this, they can sting to death,
但更多的时候就是咬一口 把侵略者驱逐出去
but most often they simply bite and expel the bees from their nest.
有趣的是 像在这样的情况下
Interestingly, in a case such as this,
大黄蜂能躲在敌营内部
a bumblebee can hide inside the nest of its enemy,
甚至成为其中一员
and even become a member of the colony.
值得一提的是 除了叮咬之战之外
It’s worth noting that in addition to the battle of the stings,
有些蜂种的工蜂有它们独有的技巧
the worker bees of some honey species have their own special techniques
以抗衡外来威胁
to combat this external threat.
比如说 在与个子比它们大数倍的大黄蜂作战时
For example, with huge hornets that exceed them several times in size,
它们就会大批大批地围住大黄蜂
bees encircle the hornets by the hundreds,
形成一个舞圈
forming a dance circle,
快速地煽动翅膀 振动空气
and actively vibrate the surroundings with their wings.
由于这一举动
Due to this action,
圈内的温度升高 二氧化碳含量增加
the temperature and level of carbon dioxide inside the circle increases
继而杀死大黄蜂
and from this the hornets die.
当然 其中一个最残忍却又最具戏剧性的
Of course, one of the cruelest, most dramatic,
同时 又是动物界中常见的蜜蜂之争
and at the same time, familiar to the animal world of bee conflicts
就是雌性蜜蜂间的竞争
is the struggle of females.
蜂后对其它蜂群入侵的工蜂并不特别感兴趣
The queen bee is not particularly interested in worker bees from other colonies.
无论工蜂如何威胁
No matter how they try to threaten,
她也只会蛰咬 叮死她的竞争对手
she stings and kills only her rivals.
新任蜂王一旦掌权
The new queen as soon as she gains the strength,
就开始为蜂群繁衍
goes to respect the colony.
一旦发现有仅仅是正在发育中的蜂王
Upon finding other queens who are only just developing,
就会毫不迟疑地将它们蛰死
she mercilessly stings them to death.
但不要把蜜蜂想成魔鬼
But let’s not demonize the bees,
这些身穿条纹的小小化学工程师和微生物学家们
these little striped chemical engineers and miniature biologists,
为动物界
bring enormous benefit to the animal world,
植物界和人类世界带来了巨大的效益
to the plant world and to man.
同一种对人体造成不良反应的蜂毒
The same bee venom which causes negative reactions in the human body
也会有治疗的效果
can also have a therapeutic effect.
蜂毒可以加速新陈代谢
This product from the world of bees can improve metabolism,
刺激免疫系统 降低血压
stimulate the immune system, reduce blood pressure,
减缓炎性过程病变
reduce the activity of the inflamatory process,
抑制有害微生物的致病活动
inhibit the vital activity of harmful microorganism,
使心脏正常活动 减轻抗凝血反应
normalize cardiac activity, ease an anticoagulant
由于具有抑制痉挛和止痛的作用
as antispasmodic and analgesic action,
蜂毒肽能够刺激酶和内分泌系统
can activate the enzyme and hormonal system,
总而言之 就是创造了奇迹
and in general create real miracles.
蜂毒甚至能救人的性命
And it can even save human lives.
举个例子来说 27岁的美国人埃莉·洛贝尔
Case in point, 27-year-old American Ellie Lobel,
说是一大群蜜蜂蛰了她
argues that it was the numerous bee stings she received
才把她从可怕的致命疾病中救起
that saved her from a terrible deadly disease
她的病是从其它的昆虫——扁虱——那感染的
that she had contracted from other insects——ticks.
扁虱传染的细菌使她患上莱姆关节炎
She had Lyme disease which is caused by tick-borne bacteria.
仅一年不到 就令这位年轻女性
In less than a year, it turned this young woman
成为一个身心残疾的人
into a physically and mentally disabled person,
她甚至不能正常思考
into a being that couldn’t even think logically.
这样生活了15年后
After living like this for 15 years,
埃莉搬到加利福尼亚州准备等死
Ellie moved to California to die,
就在那里 她受到一群非洲混种蜜蜂的攻击
it was there that she was attacked by a swarm of hybrid Africanized bees,
她觉得她必死无疑
and she believed they were her last moments of life.
然而她并没有死
but she did not die,
相反 她从可怕的疾病中康复了
and on the contrary recovered from her terrible illness.
显然 蜂毒所含的物质消灭了致病的细菌
The substances in the bee venom apparently had destroyed the pathogenic bacteria.
这种物质正是我们前面提到过的蜂毒肽
It turns out that the same melittin which we mentioned earlier
只要用量合适 在特定的条件下使用
in the right dosage and under certain conditions,
蜂毒肽可用作一种有效的抗菌剂
can be used as a powerful antimicrobial agent.
蜂毒肽能轻而易举地杀菌 而且不会有过度的化学反应
It does this easily and without excessive chemical activity,
它还能攻击并杀死多种细菌和真菌
and fights off and kills various bacteria and fungi.
许多研究者认为利用蜂毒
Many researchers believe that using bee venom
我们或许可以治疗关节炎 多种硬化症
we may now be able to fight arthritis, multiple sclerosis,
甚至可治疗癌症和HIV传染病
and get this cancer and HIV infection.
蜂毒肽能破坏有细胞膜保护的
Melittin is capable of destroying the protective membranes
人类免疫缺陷病毒且不损害其他人体细胞
of the human immunodeficiency virus without damaging other cells of the body,
而病毒却没有进化出抵抗蜂毒肽的机能
and the virus can not develop mechanism for resistance to melittin.
密苏里州圣路易斯华盛顿大学医学院研究员
Researchers at the University of Washington School of Medicine in St.Louis Missouri
公布了这项发现
made the discovery.
该研究的组长及编辑员之一约书亚·胡德
Joshua Hood, one of the leaders and authors of the study on the subject,
在记者发布会上称
said at a press conference,
蜂毒肽能使HIV病毒不再具有传染性
melittin destroys the inherit physical property of HIV.
理论上说 病毒是不能在此情况中存活的
In theory, the virus can not adapt to this scenario,
因为外层的防护对病毒而言至关重要
the protective shell is vitally important to the virus.
未来 科学家们希望可以通过注射
In the future, scientists hope that with an injection,
把携带蜂毒肽的特殊纳米粒子
it will be possible to introduce special nano particles with melittin
注射到人体循环系统中
into the human circulatory system,
从而清除艾滋病病毒
and thus to purify it of the virus.
如此看来 蜂毒
It turns out that bee venom,
就好比核能源
well, it’s like nuclear energy,
全看你们怎么使用
it all depends on how you use it,
而未来 这些嗡嗡作响的昆虫
and these small buzzing insects in the future,
将会让人感到惊艳 而不仅仅是惊吓
will not just shock, but surprise humanity in a good way.
如果把你一圈圈用胶带缠起来会怎样?
What will be if we wrap you round and round with a scotch tape?
裹成团扔进微波炉
throw the whole package into a microwave oven,
烤得非常棒
roast it quite well.
把你放到一头又大又饿的鲸鱼面前 然后把你扔到海里
See that to a giant hungry whale after that drown you in the ocean,
然后活埋你 送你入太空
then bury you alive, send you into space,
再垂直坠落回地球上的马里亚纳海沟海底
then let you drop back down to the earth straight to the bottom of Mariana Trench.
之后拉你到夜里的雷雨中电干水分
After that, take you out and dry you under a night through lightning storm.
为你梳妆打扮
Dress you up, comb you up,
把你放一架飞机上 升到3万英尺的高空
stick you on a plane climb to high to 30,000 feet,
再次扔你下去
and toss you off once more.
你坠落到坚硬地表的过程中
When you plummet back down to the unyielding surface,
当然是没有降落伞的
of course without a parachute.
之后会发生什么?
What would happen then?
我们问问阿诺德
Let’s ask Arnold,
你是何感受 伙计?
how are you feeling, buddy?
还好吗?
You still on your feet?
那么 这个呢?
Well then, how about this?
没时间解释了
There’s no time to explain,
点击描述中的链接
just click on the link in the description
收看酷炸天的新卡通系列的第一集
and watch first episode in this awesomely great new cartoon series
它很快就会火爆整个该死的网络
soon to explode across the entire damn Internet.
来吧 按下这个按钮
Come on, press the button,
你一定会按忍不住要订阅本频道
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视频概述

蜜蜂有毒也有益,它们是一种令人感到惊艳的存在。

听录译者

牵贝贝到处逛

翻译译者

Moana

审核员

审核员 D

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v0Zt9YTYvBw

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