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世界能100%依靠可再生能源吗? – 译学馆
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世界能100%依靠可再生能源吗?

Can 100% renewable energy power the world? - Federico Rosei and Renzo Rosei

全世界每年要消耗350亿桶石油
Every year, the world uses35 billion barrels of oil.
过度依赖化石燃料会对地球造成污染
This massive scale of fossil fueldependence pollutes the Earth
化石燃料也不是用之不竭的
and it won’t last forever.
科学家估计 我们已经消耗了世界上大约40%的石油
Scientists estimate that we’ve consumedabout 40% of the world’s oil.
根据目前的估算
According to present estimates,
这样下去 大约50年后
at this rate, we’ll run out
石油和天然气就会被消耗一空
of oil and gas in 50 years or so,
大约100年后 煤炭就会被用完
and in about a century for coal.
另一方面 我们拥有丰富的太阳能 水能和风能
On the flip side, we have abundantsun, water, and wind.
这些都是可再生能源
These are renewable energy sources,
这就意味着 在很长一段时间内 它们是不会被用完的
meaning that we won’t use them upover time.
如果我们能将对化石燃料的依赖转移到
What if we could exchangeour fossil fuel dependence
一种单一可再生能源上 会怎样呢
for an existence basedsolely on renewables?
几十年来 我们一直在思考这个问题
We’ve pondered that question for decades,
然而 在我们对能量的需求中 可再生能源仍然只占13%
and yet, renewable energy still only provides about 13 % of our needs.
因为 要想100%依靠可再生能源 那就需要找到
That’s because reaching 100% requiresrenewable energy that’s inexpensive
便宜的 可开发的再生能源
and accessible.
即使忽略其中的政治因素 将精力放在科学和工程研究上
This represents a huge challenge,
这也意味着一项巨大的挑战
even if we ignore the politics involved and focus on the science and engineering.
了解能源的使用途径 能很好帮助我们找到问题的所在
We can better understand the problem by understanding how we use energy.
全球能源消费体系是一个多样 复杂的体系
Global energy use is a diverseand complex system,
不同的问题需要不同的解决方法
and the different elementsrequire their own solutions.
但现在 我们重点关注
But for now, we’ll focus on two
日常生活最熟悉的两大能源:
of the most familiar in everyday life:
电和液态燃料
electricity and liquid fuels.
电可以为高炉 电梯 计算机的运行提供能量
Electricity powers blast furnaces,elevators, computers,
也为各种家电 商业电子产品和电子制造业提供能量
and all manner of things in homes,businesses, and manufacturing. Meanwhile,
液态燃料
liquid fuelsplay a crucial role
在各种形式的交通运输中发挥着重要的作用
in almost all forms of transportation.
先来看看电能这一块
Let’s consider the electricalportion first.
我们的技术已经上升到了一个新的阶段
The great news is that our technologyis already advanced enough
所有的电能都能通过可再生能源获得 这无疑是一个好消息
to capture all that energyfrom renewables,
而且 可再生能源能提供充足的电能
and there’s an ample supply.
太阳不断向地球发送
The sun continuously radiates
的能量是一亿七千三百万的四次方瓦特
about 173 quadrillion wattsof solar energy at the Earth,
是我们目前需要量的一万倍
which is almost 10,000 timesour present needs.
据估计 一个跨越数百上千公里的表面
It’s been estimated that a surface that spans several hundred thousand kilometers
就能满足人类现有的使用需求
would be needed to power humanityat our present usage levels.
因此 为什么不建立个太阳能发电站呢?
So why don’t we build that?
因为 在这个过程中会遇到许多困难
Because there are otherhurdles in the way,
如 功效以及电力的输送
like efficiency and energy transportation.
为了提高效能
To maximize efficiency,
太阳能发电站必须建在
solar plants must be located in areas
全年都有太阳的地方
with lots of sunshine year round,
比如 建在沙漠里
like deserts.
但那些地方又远离电能需求高的
But those are far awayfrom densely populated regions
人口密集区域
where energy demand is high.
还有几种我们可以利用的可再生能源
There are other forms of renewable energywe could draw from,
如水能 地热能和生物能
such as hydroelectric, geothermal, and biomasses,
但它们在实用性和地域性上都有限制
but they also have limits based on availability and location.
总的来讲 用输电线在全球
In principle, a connected electricalenergy network
交叉相连的电网
with power lines crisscrossing the globe
能帮助我们把电从电能集中地
would enable us to transport powerfrom where it’s generated
输送到每个需要电的地方
to where it’s needed.
但建立这样的大型电力体系需要投入的资金将是个天文数字
But building a system on this scale faces an astronomical price tag.
我们可以通过提高技术来降低成本
We could lower the cost by developingadvanced technologies
更有效地获取电能
to capture energy more efficiently.
还要逐步改变输送电能的设施
The infrastructure for transporting energywould also have to change drastically.
在电能输送过程中 目前的电线会损耗6-8%的电能
Present-day power lines lose about 6-8%of the energy they carry
因为通过电阻时 电线上的电能会被消耗掉
because wire material dissipates energythrough resistance.
电线越长 消耗掉的电能就越多
Longer power lines would meanmore energy loss.
使用超导体材料能够解决能源消耗的问题
Superconductors could be one solution.
这种材料在传输电能的过程中 不会产生耗损
Such materials can transport electricitywithout dissipation. Unfortunately,
不好的一点是 超导体材料要在低温的情况下才不会消耗电能
they only workif cooled to low temperatures,
这仍然会消耗电能 所以也达不到我们的要求
which requires energyand defeats the purpose.
要让这项技术造福人类社会
To benefit from that technology,
我们就要开发能在常温下
we’d need to discover new superconducting materials
运行的新超导体材料
that operate at room temperature.
要用什么替代最重要的由石油制造成的液态燃料呢?
And what about the all-important,oil-derived liquid fuels?
这里遇到的技术难题是 要让储存可再生能源
The scientific challenge there is to storerenewable energy
的容器便于携带 最近
in an easily transportable form. Recently,
我们已经在生产锂离子电池
we’ve gotten betterat producing lithium ion batteries,
它们的特点是重量轻 具备高能量密度
which are lightweightand have high-energy density.
但即使是容量最大的电池 存储量也不过是2.5兆焦/千克左右
But even the best of these store about 2.5 megajoules per kilogram.
是1千克汽油产生能量的1/20左右
That’s about 20 times less than the energy in one kilogram of gasoline.
但想要真正有竞争优势
To be truly competitive,
汽车电池就要在不增加成本的情况下
car batteries would have to store much more energy
能够储存更多的能量
without adding cost.
这对体积更大的船只和飞机来说 就是难题了
The challenges only increasefor bigger vessels, like ships and planes.
为了给飞越大西洋的飞机提供能量
To power a cross-Atlanticflight for a jet,
就要给飞机装上一个重1000吨的电池
we’d need a battery weighingabout 1,000 tons. This,
要生产出新材料 高能量储存密度 储存性能更好的电池
too, demands a technological leaptowards new materials,
也要实现技术性的飞跃
higher energy density, and better storage.
另一个行得通知办法就是 想法子将
One promising solution would beto find efficient ways
太阳能转化为化学能
to convert solar into chemical energy.
这已经在实验里实践过了
This is already happening in labs,
但这个方法的效率很低 还不能将它投入到市场里
but the efficiency is still too low to allow it to reach the market.
想找到新的解决方案 就需要源源不断地创造和创新
To find novel solutions, we’ll needlots of creativity, innovation,
以及丰厚的奖励
and powerful incentives.
在向100%再生能源社会转变的过程中会遇到许多复杂的问题
The transition towards all-renewableenergies is a complex problem
其中包括技术 经济和政治问题
involving technology,economics, and politics.
要解决这一系列的问题
Priorities on how to tackle this challenge depend
我们就要做出具体的推测
on the specific assumptions
优先解决遇到的难题
we have to make when trying to solve such a multifaceted problem.
但还是会有充分理由去相信我们能够成功
But there’s ample reason to be optimisticthat we’ll get there.
世界上一些顶尖科技人员一直在努力解决这些问题
Top scientific minds around the worldare working on these problems
在技术上也一直有所突破
and making breakthroughs all the time.
许多国家和企业都在投资能充分
And many governments and businessesare investing in technologies
利用周边能源的技术
that harness the energy all around us.

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视频概述

传统的能源总会有消耗完的一天,如果寻找可再生能源来替代传统能源,那么有可能完全依赖可再生能源吗?

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RnvCbquYeIM

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