Ok. So in this video we are gonna be looking at
relational operators, boolean operators and conditional statements.
And then we’ll look at applying all these concepts
to a specific program.
Let’s get started.
All right, let’s take a look at relational operators.
And quite a many of you’re familiar with
a lot of these relational operators
cause you’ve seen them in
various maths classes that you’ve probably had.
The first relational operator we have is the Greater Than operater.
So we gonna have the 6 expression here
to test to see if 10 is greater than 6,
and that is true,
so the result of this expression here
would be a true value,
a boolean value.
Ok. So, Less than,
we keep compare character value,
so we are comparing capital C to capital A.
And since capital C comes later in the alphabet than capital A,
this is where you result in a false value.
So C is not less than A,
since C is coming after A in the alphabet.
So it’s pretty cool that you’re gonna actually
compare character values using these relational operators.
Greater Than Or Equal To.
So in this case we are comparing 10.5 to 10.5.
We know that those would be equivalent values.
So it qualifies based off of this.
This equals here, so it is Greater Than Or Equal To,
uh, 10.5 is greater than or equal to 10.5, so that’s true.
Less Than Or Equal To.
Is 5.5 less than or equal to, excuse me,
is negative 5.5 less than or equal to negative 100?
And the answer there is false
because negative 100 would be less than negative 5.5
so that turns out to be false.
What about Equals?
So the way we test for equivalence when we using these relational operators
is not to just simply use a single Equal.
If we use the single equals that would be assignment.
So we don’t want to do asignment, we want to do equivalent,
so we have to do equal-equal.
This is a very common mistake that people make
when they are first learning how to program is,
they are wanning to compare two things to one another
and see if they’re the same,
but they’ll just simply use a single equal sign.
You need to use two.
So we may have a string value.
In this case we have “hi”.
And we will assign it to the string variable x.
And here we have “Hi” again.
But this time the first letter H is capitalized
where is here was actually lower case.
So if we try to compare those two values.
We would find out that they were not equal
since we do have a difference in
capitalization of this first letter.
So that would return a false value.
And then the last relational operator we have.
So we only have 6 of these.
Last one is the Not Equal To.
So it’s the exclamation point and then the equal sign.
So we have integer value, say, a,
that was assigned the value of 5,
and we have intanger value b that was assigned 12.
We could see if a was not equal to b
and that would, in fact, be true.
So that’s basically that we have, 6 relational operators,
and we can use them with various types of operands.
We can use them with the numeric data type.
So we’ve seen the int, we ‘ve seen the double,
we can use them with character types,
we can also use them with string types,
and we will see that we can also use them with
other data types as well
that we haven’t talked about just yet.
All right. So let’s look at some of the boolean operators.
And the first we’ll look at is the and operator.
And basically it says we have to have 2 things being true
in order for the overall expression to be true.
So we see here what we have is the truth table.
So we can have some expression
that resolves down to true or false
for P, and also for Q.
If we and those together, using our And operater
which is this double ampersand.
Then in order for that whole expression to be true,
then both P and Q have to be true.
So we have false and false results in false,
false and true results in false,
and truth and false results in false,
and then finally true and true results in true.
so maybe an example that we could think of is
testing to see if someone could vote in the United States
based off of their age, and based off of
whether they are US citizens or not.
So maybe allowing P to be their age
and Q to be their citizenship.
So if it turns out that they’re 17 years of age,
but yet they’re, uh, Canadian citizens,
then they would not be able to vote.
If they were 17 years of age and US citizens,
they still wouldn’t be able to vote.
Say, they were 18 years of age
and they were not US citizens. They were Canadians.
They wouldn’t be able to vote.
But if they were 18 and they were US citizens,
then they could vote.
Of course this is not taking into account,
then being a felon, and maybe being locked up in prison.
That comes down to a states’ right,
rights issue in the United States.
So we are ignoring that.
I don’t want anyone to get confused.
It’s only 18 and being a US citizen.
There are some other things, but this is a simplistic view.
So let’s basically the boolean operator, double ampersand.
We have to have both operands, both sides,
P and Q being true
in order for the whole expression to be true.
All right. So now that’s look at the boolean operator for Or,
which is 2 pipes.
2 pipe symbols back to back, so that’s what we have here.
A pipe symbol and then another pipe symbol.
And the way that you create the pipe symbol
from the keyboard is to hold down the shift key
and then to hit the backslash key.
At least this is the case on most keyboards.
So you may want to check that out,
normally it just gonna be a vertical looking symbol.
It may have a break in the middle of it, it may not,
but typically just shift and backslash
will create the vertical pipe symbol.
So what is the Or operation mean?
Or basically says that we have to have at least
one of the operands being true
in order for the whole entire expression to be true.
So the only time we end up with a false,
if we look at our truth table here,
is if both operands, both P and Q, are in fact false.
So an example where we may use the or operation
is to test to see if two individuals
can get on a rider in a amusement park.
And maybe the stipulation for this ride
is that you have to be 18 years old
or older, in order to get one the ride.
Unless you are accompanied by an adult.
If you have a kid and their parent that is 18 years of age,
then the kid would be able to get on the ride.
So, maybe P represents the age of one individual
and Q represents the age of another.
So if we had, say, two, you know, a 16 years old for P and
a 7 year old for Q,
they could not get on that ride.
But if you had a 6 years old for P
and a 20 years old for Q,
then they could get on the ride.
Same thing here we if had a 25year old
and a 4 year old
then they would be able to get on the ride.
And if both of them were adults,
over the age of 18 or older,
then they would be able to get on the ride.
So basically the Or operation just says
as long as we have one of the operands being true,
then the whole expression is true.
All right. So let’s look at the Exclusive Or operation.
And the Exclusive Or symbol in c++
is the little hat or caret symbol.
So the way that you gonna make that is
holding on the shift key
and then hitting the six key.
So not the six on the numeric keypad,
but the other six.
And the Exclusive Or is very similar to our other Or
except for you cannot have both operands being true.
So it says that one and only one in our operands
can be true for the whole expression to be true.
So an example that we may think of is two lights,
which is they may be wired to the same exact light bulb.
And if both of those light switches are in the on position
then the result of the light switch will be off.
Whereas if either one and only one of those
light switches is in the on position,
then the light bulb will be on.
So, that would be a simple example, I guess,
to use for the Exclusive Or.
One and only one of the operands can be on
for it to be true.
Otherwise we have a false situation.
OK. So the last boolean operator that we are gonna look at is the Not operator.
So the Not operator is just simply the exclamation point.
And the Not operator is diffrent from the other boolean operators
in that it is a unitary operator,
meaning it only able works on one operand,
or is the other boolean operators was –
they were binary operators, so they worked on two operands.
And the Not operator is real simple. It basically says,
whatever our boolean expression is, we wanna flip it.
So if P is false, not P will be true,
If P was true, not P would be false.
So maybe P represents whether something is empty or not.
So we can test to see if it was not empty by doing not P.
So that’s a basic example using Not operator.
We’ll see other examples as we continue on in the series.
So that’s the last boolean operator.
So now we will look at actually solving a program, or a problem statement
and write a program that makes use of all these
only some of them, maybe not all of them.