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黄油vs人造奶油

Butter vs Margarine

甭管是用来煎蛋 烤土豆 爆爆米花 或是直接抹在吐司片上
Whether you use it to fry your eggs, melt and bake potatoes, use on popcorn
黄油无疑在人们的饮食起居中占有一席之地
or simply spread on toast. Chances are butter has been part of your life and diet.
等等! 是黄油还是人造奶油?它俩有什么区别?
Or is it margarine? What is the difference between butter and margarine and is one
哪种对人体更健康呢?黄油是从牛奶或奶油中提取而来 千百年来一直为人所用
healthier than the other? Butter, made from cream or milk has been used for
可是科学家们最终还是注意到了它极高的饱和脂肪含量
thousands of years. But scientists eventually took notice of its high
平均一茶匙黄油的热量就超过35卡! 不怕胖就尽管吃吧!
levels of saturated fat. With more than 35 calories per teaspoon, butter
微观黄油的分子结构 我们发现其中含有碳 氢 氧 这三种构成生命体的基本元素
is fattening. When we look at the molecules of butter we see some of the
但是 黄油里的碳原子完全被氢原子包围了
building blocks of life, carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. But these carbon atoms are
如此之高的饱和率很快便和心血管疾病间发生了联系
completely surrounded by the hydrogen atoms. And this saturation level
而且通常被认为是心血管疾病的主要诱因
quickly became associated with, and commonly believed to contribute to
另一方面 人造奶油最初却是从植物油脂中提取
cardiovascular disease. Margarine on the other hand is created primarily from
植物油脂与动物油脂化学构造相似 却略有差异
plant oils which have a similar but different chemical composition. The
植物油脂中的碳原子间以双键结合 这样一来 结附其上的氢原子便会变少
carbons double bond with each other so that fewer hydrogen can fit and we call
我们将这样的脂肪称为不饱和脂肪
this unsaturated fat. So far so good, a similar tasting substitute with less
拿来替代黄油 口感相似饱和脂肪却更少 看起来还不错 对吧?
saturated fat. Right?
等等 先别急 不饱和脂肪的熔点较低 因此它的自然状态不是特别稳定
Not so fast, unsaturated fat has a lower melting point and so its natural state
比如说植物油脂
is less solid, like vegetable oil.
为了让人造奶油和黄油性状一致 更稠密一点
In order to get the consistency of butter scientists decided to make it a
科学家决定让它变得稍微饱和一点
little more saturated.
可是 问题来了 为了使人造奶油更稠 在加工的过程中运用到了一种叫做氢化的工艺
The problem is through this process called hydrogenation where more
氢化过程需要很高的温度
hydrogen is added and the oil becomes more solid, high temperatures are used
这样就产生了一些恼人的变化
which cause some troublesome changes.
看 人造奶油中的大部分碳双键结构都是所谓的顺式键
You see, most of these double bonds are in a configuration known as ‘cis bonds’,
可是 氢化过程会让这些顺式键发生翻转 这就产生了所谓的反式结构
but hydrogenation often flips them into something called a ‘trans configuration’.
哈 反式脂肪的旭日冉冉升起
Ah, the dawn of trans fats.
从顺式键到反式键
And while it may seem trivial, this simple yet unwitting flip from ‘cis’ to
这样简单却无意的变化看起来似乎微不足道
‘trans’
然而一旦卷入到我们身体处理和代谢分子的过程中 就会导致发生重要的变化
leads to significant changes in the way our body processes and metabolizes the
本质上 反式脂肪减少了对人体有益的胆固醇 却增大了对人体有害的胆固醇
molecules. Essentially trans fats lower good cholesterol and higher the bad
这些有害的胆固醇会增高罹患冠心病的风险
cholesterol which increases the risk of coronary heart disease. So while margarine was
你看 人造奶油本来是个更健康的选择 可是现在它的威胁却开始慢慢出现了
initially seen as a healthier option, it’s own hazards slowly came to light.
事实上 现在有很多人造奶油公司都声称自己的产品不含反式脂肪 有些公司的产品却含有反式脂肪
But the truth is that many margarine companies claim to be trans fat-free
最后要是我们拿黄油和人造奶油来做个比较
nowadays, and some are. At the end of the day if we compare them side by side
你会发现它们各有优劣 黄油完全天然 仅用牛奶便可生产
there are pros and cons for each. Butter is completely natural and typically made
而人造奶油制程复杂 原料繁多
from one ingredient, whereas margarine is processed and has many ingrediants. Butter
黄油富含人体所必需的维生素和矿物质 比如 维生素A和E
also has some essential vitamins and minerals such as vitamin a and e. But margarines
人造奶油种类繁多 难以做精确的比较
now vary so much it is difficult to make an accurate comparison. Many hard
许多硬梆梆的人造奶油仍然含有大量反式脂肪
stick margarines are still high in trans fats and much worse than butter. But some
但新一代人造奶油的饱和脂肪含量和热量却十分低 而且无反式脂肪
newer margarines are much lower in saturated fat, lower their calorie count and
我们在选择的时候就要十分小心了
contain zero trans fats. The bottom line is to be aware of what you are eating.
人造奶油种类繁多 在选购时看清成分标签
Margarine can vary so drastically that looking at the label to understand what
有助于你做出明智的选择
is or isn’t and it will help you make informed decisions.
如果你仍在黄油和人造奶油间举棋不定 还有一种更加健康的选择
And there are healthier alternatives to both,
比如选择用植物油 或者用橄榄油去蘸面包
such as vegetable oil spreads or using olive oil to dip your bread instead
而不是抹上一层厚厚的黄油
of buttering up.
无论你怎么选择 关键就在于
No matter what you choose, the recommended goal is to limit the intake
限制摄入饱和脂肪和避免摄入反式脂肪
of saturated fat and avoid trans fats altogether.
本集“即刻科学”由audible.com网站赞助播出
This episode of AsapSCIENCE is supported by audible.com, a leading provider of
audible.com是业内领先的有声书下载提供商
audiobooks with over one hundred thousand downloadable titles across all
其书库资源丰富 各种文学作品无一不包
types of literature. If you would like to learn more about food science
想要了解更多有关食品科学的细节 我诚意向你推荐Robert Wolke所著的《爱因斯坦对他的厨子说了什么》这本书
I recommend the book ‘What Einstein Told His Cook’ by Robert Wolke.
你可以访问audible.com/asap免费下载本书或其他任何你感兴趣的内容
You can download this audiobook or another of your choice for free at audible.com/asap.
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Special thanks to audible.com for making these videos possible
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and for offering you every audiobook at audible.com/asap,
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and subscribe for more weekly science videos.

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