Unit 2 Motivation in the workplace
Kim Turnbull James教授是克兰菲尔德管理学院的行政教授
Professor Kim Turnbull James is professor of executive learning at Cranfield School of Management.
She is discussing theories of motivation in the workplace.
The study of motivation in the workplace has a long pedigree,
and going back before the second world war.
There was the famous study that was done at the GC plant
and the Hawthorne studies conducted by Elton Mayo and a whole team of people.
What they did in the Hawthorne experiments was to take away a group of people
who were equally as skilled as the rest of the workforce and
separate them and then subject them
to different things and to see what actually happened
to the way they worked.
And some of the things that they did you might consider to be
highly motivating so they were showed them lots of interest and attention,
some of the things were to do with how they measured their work,
some of the things were to do with rewards or coercions and
what they found which is really interesting was that every single change that they made
led to a better performance from those people.
So in trying to make sense of their studies, what they realized
was that they were tapping into what perhaps most of us know anyway that
that real human beings come to work,
real human beings like to interact with others.
因此 如果你引起别人的注意力 你就会和他们产生互动
And so in that if you start to give people attention you interact with them,
then in fact that’s very motivating for people and indeed
their performance does seem to improve as a result.
So it wasn’t the specific things like the shift patterns or the lengths of time
that they have breaks and so on,
it was actually the interaction with people, that was the crucial factor.
Then we might see some other studies which are very well known.
We see for example, Abraham Maslow’s, famous Hierarchy of Needs.
What we observe is that at the bottom of his hierachy,
他说 实际上 如果你感到寒冷 疲倦
he said actually if you are cold, tired,
hungry, no where to live,
your life is miserable,
then fixing those things is going to be the most important thing for you.
So if we translate that into the working environment,
then of course people need to know they can pay,
the, the wages will be paid at the end of the week that they can pay their way and for their bills.
他们没有恶劣 寒冷 悲惨
They are not working in condition that are degradating,
or cold, miserable.
当然 一旦你满足了这些需求 人们就有了其他的需求
But of course, once you satisfied those, then people have other needs that come to the fore.
So again their social needs, how do people interact with them?
Are they treated as the member of a team?
Do people accept them?
Are they liked in the workplace?
And that leads us on to another level of importance, which is:
Do people feel that there is any esteem for them?
Do they have self esteem?
Do they think what they are doing is a value?
Do they value themselves?
At the very top of his Hierarchy of Needs
is something he calls self-actualization,
which is a bit of a mouthful, but basically it means people want to become
all they possibly could become.
And in the work place where they can do it through their work,
then that’s highly rewarding and highly motivating.
Hertzberg came along and said actually
let’s just take this one stage further in the workplace,
and divided things he called the motivating factors
into hygiene and motivators.
And the hygiene factors are all those things
that mean we won’t leave a job.
比如 如果工资不错 我们就不会辞职
So we won’t leave a job if the pay is good necessarily,
we won’t leave a job if the conditions are fine.
We won’t leave a job if the work is something that
we can get on and do, and
we have sufficient instructions so there’s lots of things
that just keep us in the workplace.
But if you want to really get people to go the extra mile,
he argues that it’s more than those conditions.
It’s actually about whether people intrinsically enjoy the work,
whether they get recognized for what they do,
and those are the motivating factors.
I think what’s important about all of these theories
is that they can provide us with some guidelines
and some insights about what people find
important in motivating others.
What they do not do is provide a set of formula,
ways of doing things in a mechanistic way.
And if managers try to apply,
any model, any theory in a mechanistic way,
then that’s hugely problematic.
What people want is a genuine relationship with their manager,
and managers need to step back sometimes,
from being very task-focused just to ask the question:
What do people need?
What am I doing that motivates them?
Am I appreciating what they do?
Do I value what they do?
Do I know them individually well enough to know
what’s important to each of these people?
How does this team work
and does it feel like a good place to work?
How is what they’re doing connected to the rewards
that we want to offer people in the organization?
And that’s not a formula,
that’s, those are genuine questions,
and curiosity that a manager needs to have
about the best way to work with his or her staff.
So none of these should be treated as techniques.
They’re all insights for the busy manager,
not techniques to be used indiscriminately.