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子弹蚁的毒液

Bullet Ant Venom

– So the other group of ants [Dr. Corrie Moreau, curator/ants]
接下来另一群蚂蚁 [科瑞·莫罗博士,管理者/蚂蚁]
that we have today are bullet ants. [Dr. Corrie Moreau, curator/ants]
我们今天要讲的是子弹蚁 [科瑞·莫罗博士,管理者/蚂蚁]
– Why are they called bullet ants? [Bullet ant, Paraponera clavata]
为什么叫它子弹蚁呢? [子弹蚁]
– Well, they’re called bullet ants [Bullet ant, Paraponera clavata]
之所以叫子弹蚁 [子弹蚁]
because their sting is so painful [* causing excruciating pain, numbness & trembling]
是因为它们的螫咬非常痛 [引起剧痛 麻木&震颤]
it feels like you were shot by a gun. [* causing excruciating pain, numbness & trembling]
感觉就像挨了一枪 [引起剧痛 麻木&震颤]
– And you’ve experienced this firsthand?
你亲身体验过吗?
– I have, just once, I’d like to keep it that way.
我只体验过一次 终生难忘
And so you can see they’re actually quite tremendous ants,
所以它们的确是相当恐怖的蚂蚁
I mean, they’re really foreboding, [* worker bullet ants are 18–30 mm long]
我的意思是 它们是真正的凶兆 [工蚁身长18-30毫米]
they’re crazy big and they’re cool. [* worker bullet ants are 18–30 mm long]
它们太大了 真酷 [工蚁身长18-30毫米]
– Are they the largest ant?
它们是最大的蚂蚁吗?
– They’re one of the largest ants.
它们是最大的蚂蚁之一
There’s another genus called Dinoponera. [Dinoponera, Dinoponera australis]
还有一种蚂蚁叫巨猛蚁 [(学名)]
In some ways larger. [* females may surpass 30–40 mm in length]
在某些方面更大 [雌蚁身长能超过30-40毫米]
Not as painful of a sting, though. [* females may surpass 30–40 mm in length]
但是螫痛没那么剧烈 [雌蚁身长能超过30-40毫米]
This is Paraponera. [Bullet ant, Paraponera clavata]
这是近猛蚁属 [子弹蚁]
We’re studying the gut bacteria actually in this group of ants.
实际上我们正在研究这种蚂蚁的肠道菌群
But we’re also interested in the venom.
但我们也对它们的毒液感兴趣
And so what I was telling you is part of the reason
所以我说要把它们活着带回来的
I brought them back alive is that at one point
一部分原因是因为有一次
I had tried to milk them, because my colleague was like,
我尝试抽取它们的毒液 因为我的同事说
It’s because we weren’t sure if we’d have permits to bring back alive.
不知道我们可不可以把它们活着带回来
– Yeah. – You can just milk them.
-是 -你只能取它们的毒液
So I can show you how I attempted to do it
所以 我来告诉你怎么做吧
and I will tell you that it didn’t work in the end.
然后最后 我会告诉你这没什么用
When I got the venom back it was actually not usable.
因为当我带回毒液时 它已经失去实际作用了
But let me grab my equipment.
现在让我拿一下设备
– It’s not every day you get to milk a venomous ant. At work.
不是每天你都能去提取蚂蚁毒液的 在工作室里
– So this is our fancy equipment.
这是我们的特殊装置
So if you think about, like,
如果你思考一下 比如
how they milk the venom from spiders, right?
他们怎样提取蜘蛛毒液?是的
Usually they just have them bite something
通常他们会让蜘蛛叮咬些什么
and squirt the venom inside and it’s the same principle.
然后毒液就会喷注进去 跟蚂蚁是一样的道理
So again, we just have our empty tubes,
所以 我们用空的小管
and we have a little bit of parafilm, right,
然后封上一小片膜 好了
which is essentially just like a waxy kind of papery thing
这很有必要 就像一种蜡制的薄纸片的东西
that we can stretch across the top of this.
我们将它铺展在小管顶端
And we’re going to get them to try to sting through the tube
然后我们要尽量让它们叮破薄膜
and deposit their venom on the side of the tube.
并把毒液留在管内这一边
– Wow. – Yeah.
-哇哦 -耶
One thing I have noticed is,
我注意到了一件事
what’s really interesting actually, is with these bullet ants,
真正有趣的是这些子弹蚁
when you collect them in the wild they’re incredibly aggressive.
当你在野外采集它们时 它们的攻击性极强
You disturb them at all, and they just go into immediate attack mode.
你骚扰它们 它们会立刻进入攻击模式
In fact in the field, if you even like blow on them,
事实上 在作战状态 即使你只向它们吹一口气
you can physically hear them stridulate,
都能听到他们尖锐的摩擦声
which is a way of communicating between individuals.
那是它们个体之间的一种交流方式
And now that they’ve been in the lab for just a few days,
现在它们已经在实验室呆了几天了
they’re actually almost docile.
基本上是温驯的
And so I’m curious to see whether they’ll even sting through this.
所以我很好奇他们是否还会叮刺这个膜
But we’ll try.
但我们可以试一下
Yeah, see, this one stridulates.
耶 快看 这只尖叫了
So now let’s see if we put her abdomen up,
现在让我们看看能不能让她隆起腹部
yeah, she is depositing her sting through.
她正把螫针刺进去
– Oh! – See that?
-噢! -看到了没?
– Sting it! Sting it!
-刺了! 刺了!
– So you see, she’s got her sting out,
-你看 她已经伸出了螫刺
this is where I don’t want to lose control of her.
不能让她的刺失去控制
She’ll try to sting through,
她会努力去刺穿它
oh, there, you saw that sting go?
这儿 你看到螫针了吗?
That’s huge. – Yeah.
-好大 -是的
Wow. Focus your anger.
哇 愤怒吧
– We will try to get another one to sting – Come on, ladies.
-我们打算让另一只也螫叮一下 -来吧 女士
– You look like a new victim, raaah, let’s get her all mad.
-你看起来像是一个新的受害者 -来吧 愤怒吧!
– Yeaaaah! Oh, she’s stridulating.
耶! -她在发出摩擦声了
– She’s actually kinda not mad as much anymore.
-她好像怒得不能再愤怒了
– They’re—they’re just like, they’re like,
-她们 -她们就像 就像
“Come on Corrie, we wanna hang out, I thought we were cool.”
“科瑞 我们出去走走吧 我想我们很酷”
– I know, that’s probably exactly what they think.
-我知道 她们也许就是这么想的
– Like, “Come on, Corrie,”
-“来吧 科瑞”
“I read your latest paper about climactic regional distribution”
我读了你最新发表的 我们姊妹物种
“of my sister species.”
峰值区域分布的论文
I don’t even know if that’s what you’ve written about,
我甚至不明白你写的是什么
I don’t even know if that— those words even make sense.
我甚至也不知道那些文字是否言之有理
– You don’t read all my scientific publications?
-你没读过我所有的科学出版物吧?
– Um, I probably couldn’t get through the abstract.
-嗯 可能我理解不了这么抽象的东西
Not—not just yours, but most.
不 不只是你们 而是大多数
– I won’t take it personally.
没关系 我不会介意
Oh, yeah, she’s got a very big sting, so let’s see if I can get her to—
噢 耶 她有一个很大的刺 看看我是否能让她
– Yeah. Sting it.
-耶 刺进去了
– So that’s how you milk a bullet ant for their venom.
-所以 那就是你提取子弹蚁毒液的方法
So essentially, just getting them to sting through this material,
基本上就是让它们刺穿这种材料
they have now deposited their venom
现在它们储存的毒液
all over the top of this and inside of that tube,
都在这个顶部 在这个小管里了
so I can just shove that in there
然后我只需把这个塞进去
and then take it back to an analytical lab
之后就能拿回到实验室
to look at what are the—what’s the chemistry within the venom.
去分析毒液的化学成分是什么
Now, I’ve already told you that that didn’t work so successfully,
现在 我已经告诉你它进展的并不是那么顺利
so in a sense, what we need to do is dissect out the venom glad,
从某种程度来说 我们需要做的是解剖分离出毒腺
and that’s where it gets a little more tricky,
这里就需要点技巧
because in this case, you can see they’re big and—
因为在这种情况下 你知道它们块头大
– Cranky.
也很暴躁
– Cranky. And they don’t like to hold still.
暴躁 并且它们不喜欢待着不动
Do this under the microscope.
在显微镜下操作
Okay, so now, again, we’re gonna just pull off her abdomen,
好的 那么现在 我们再次取下她的腹部
oh God, these are some tough ants. [* abdomen]
欧 天啊 这些蚂蚁好顽强 [腹部]
Even tougher than the bullet ants. – Wow.
-甚至比子弹蚁更顽强 -哇哦
– So now we’ve got— – You did it.
-现在我们得到了—— -你成功了
– —her body separated from her abdomen.
-她的身体在腹部那里分离
I wanna just tease apart some of the parts of the abdomen
我想只切取腹部的几部分
and then we can usually pull the venom gland out through the sting.
然后通常我们就能把毒腺从刺里拽出来
So I’m just gonna start pulling apart the body,
所以我想先从分离身体开始
and since I don’t want to rupture the venom gland,
还有因为不想破坏毒腺
I wanna try not to stab too much.
我尽量避免刺得太深
– Yeah, this is meticulous work, dissecting ants. – Yeah.
-嗯 这是个精细活 解剖蚂蚁 -没错
– What is the smallest ant that you’ll work on under a microscope?
-你需要在镜下操作的最小的蚂蚁是哪种?
– Oh, I’ll work on anyone.
欧 每一只我都会这样
– Even the ones that are so small
即使它小得
that you can’t even see them on the labels?
你甚至在标签上看不到它
– Yep, even those. I’ve had to dissect out their guts, too.
是的 即使这样 我也要解剖出它们的消化道
– How do you even get forceps that small?
你从哪拿到那么小的钳子?
– Suspense, right? – No, the pressure.
-很疑惑是吗 -不 是好奇心驱使
– Yeah, nothing like having to dissect on camera, too.
-是的 也一点都不像在摄像头下解剖的样子
As if it’s not hard enough, right?
好像它没那么硬 是吗
– Yeah, all the viewers are at home, quietly judging you.
-是的 观众都在家 默默给你评判
They’re like, “Well, when I dissected ants last—”
他们就像“好吧 当我解剖完蚂蚁——(怎样怎样)
– I was thinking they were biting their fingernails in suspense.
我在想他们迟疑时在咬手指甲
– Yeah, that too.
-会的
– So at the one end,
在一边
let’s see if I can put it in a good orientation—
看看我能不能把它摆正
you can actually see the left side,
你能明确看到 左侧
if you look through the microscope,
如果你用显微镜看的话
you can actually see the sting
你会看到刺
hanging all the way out. [* sting]
一直伸在外面 [螫刺]
– Oh yeah! – It’s like a giant hypodermic needle.
-哦是的! -就像一个大号注射器
– Yeah.
-是的
– And then starting at the other end on the right side,
-然后从右侧另一端开始
we can actually start to see those parts of the digestive system.
可以明显看到那些消化系统的部分
So first you have the crop, right? [* crop]
所以你先看到的是嗉囊 是吗 [嗉囊]
So it’s that social food sharing organ, which then transitions into the mid gut
是群体分享食物的器官 然后过渡到中肠
and then into what’s called the ileum [* mid gut, * ileum]
然后送入回肠 [中肠 回肠]
and then finally into the rectum, [* rectum]
最终到达直肠 [直肠]
and then alongside that
然后沿着直肠旁边
is where the venom gland sits. [* venom gland]
就是毒腺的位置 [毒腺]
– That’s amazing. – Yeah, it’s really awesome.
-好神奇啊 -是啊 真是棒极了
One of the things that’s cool when you first open them up
一件很酷的事是当你第一次剖开
is that the contents within the gut,
消化道及其内容物
you can see fat and you can see the trachea
你会看到脂肪 气管
and all those other things, and even within the gut,
还有剩下的 甚至消化道里的东西
it’s either clear like it almost looks like water,
它澄清得就像是水一样
or sometimes you can see things that look like waste,
或有时你看到了像排泄物的东西
but within the venom sac, it’s actually almost like oil.
但在毒囊里的更像油
And so when you burst it, it’s literally like oil coming out,
当你把它弄破 类似油的东西流出来了
not like liquid, like, you know, in the same sense.
那个的质感不像一般状态的液体
– Cool. – Yeah.
-很酷 -是的
– Nice. – So now the question is,
-很棒 -所以现在的问题是
are you gonna hold a bullet ant for 10 seconds?
-你愿意抓住一只子弹蚁10秒钟吗 -(笑)
The Brain Scoop is brought to you by the Field Museum in Chicago
The Brain Scoop由芝加哥自然历史博物馆为您呈现
It still has brains on it.
它的大脑还在

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视频概述

介绍了是如何从子弹蚁身上提取毒液,并如何把它的毒腺以及内脏解剖出来

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

HOUKI

审核员

审核员EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wNCD3rLbCBk

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