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公牛鲨

Bull Sharks | JONATHAN BIRD'S BLUE WORLD

嗨 我是乔纳森·伯德
Hi, I’m Jonathan Bird
欢迎来到我的世界
and welcome to my world.
鲨鱼可能是海洋中被人误解最深的动物
Sharks are perhaps the most misunderstoodanimals in the ocean.
尽管事实上
In spite of the fact
人们极少被鲨鱼攻击
that people are only very rarely attacked by sharks,
但他们仍背负着坏名声
they suffer with a bad reputation.
世界上最大的鲨鱼 即鲸鲨
While the world ’ s largest shark, the whale shark,
众所周知 对人类没有威胁
is known to be harmless to people
因为它是滤食动物
because it ’ s a filter feeder,
其他鲨鱼则因偶然的攻击事件而臭名昭著
other sharks have been known to attack people occasionally.
虎鲨和白鲨
The Tiger shark and the White shark
就是两大所谓的“食人鲨”
are two of the largest so-called “man eaters”,
而且它们有着相当的坏名声
and they have an equally large bad reputation
就是对人类来说极度危险
for being extremely dangerous to people.
但如果我说它们并不是最危险的鲨鱼呢
But what if I told you that these are not the most dangerous sharks?
事实上
In fact,
公牛鲨可能才是世界上最危险的鲨鱼
the most dangerous shark in the world is probably the Bull shark.
这可能令人难以置信
It might seem hard to believe.
公牛鲨看上去就像礁鲨 只是体型大些
The Bull shark looks just like a reef shark, but a little bigger.
看上去它并不那么吓人
It doesn’t seem all that intimidating.
那么它有什么了不起的呢
So what’s the big deal?
有研究表明
As it turns out,
相较其他种类的鲨鱼
Bull sharks are responsible for more documented attacks on people
公牛鲨才是更多袭击记录的罪魁祸首
than any other species of shark.
1916年 在新泽西州
In 1916, there were several people killed
短短两周内
by one or more sharks off New Jersey
就有数人被鲨鱼咬死
in the span of two weeks.
鲨鱼于争夺男孩身体中杀害人类另一少年跛足走下拉利坦河岸
鲨鱼在城市海滩上捕食
科学家猜测 鲨鱼非单独行动
那时大多数人都怀疑是一条大白鲨干的
At the time, most people suspected a Great White shark.
但其中有一起发生在十英里外的一条河上
But one of the attacks occurred more then ten miles up a river,
而我们从未听说过白鲨
and white sharks have never been known
会冒险来到离海洋这么远的淡水域
to venture that far from the ocean.
这次袭击更像是公牛鲨所为
It ’ s much more likely that the attack came from a Bull shark.
公牛鲨是唯一一种会定期
The Bull shark is the only species of shark
在咸水和淡水间活动的鲨鱼
that regularly moves between salt water and fresh water.
其实在伊利诺伊州500英里外的
In fact, it has been caught by fishermen
密西西比河上 渔夫曾抓住过公牛鲨
more than 500 miles up the Mississippi River…in Illinois!
鲨鱼袭击是极少的
Shark attacks are rare,
一般我们也将其归因于鲨鱼的错误识别
and most often they are believed to be a case of mistaken identity
因为袭击游泳者的事件大都发生在
since attacks on swimmers often occur in shallow, silty water
鲨鱼难以清楚辨认猎物的浅的咸水区域
where the shark has a hard time seeing its prey clearly.
尽管如此 在某些情况下公牛鲨
Nonetheless, bull sharks are considered
仍被看作是极度危险的生物
extremely dangerous animals under some conditions.
所以当我收到卡门海滩幻影潜水员的
Which is why I was so excited when my friend Jorge Loria
朋友豪尔赫·洛里亚的邀请
from Phantom Divers in Playa Del Carmen
他邀我去拍摄鲨鱼 我高兴坏了
invited me to come film these sharks!
他在用手喂食那些鲨鱼!
He’s hand-feeding them!
我先飞往墨西哥 并在坎昆下机
I fly on down to Mexico, landing in Cancun,
然后去向南边的卡门海滩
then heading south to Playa Del Carmen—
沙滩爱好者的天堂
a beach-lover ’ s paradise,
也是全世界天然井潜水我最爱去的地方
and my favorite place in the world for cenote diving!
但这次我不会去天然井潜水
But this time I’m not diving the cenotes.
我要去海中一个秘密的潜水点
I ’ m heading out to a secret dive site
希望那里满是鲨鱼
in the ocean—hopefully filled with sharks.
大鲨鱼
Big sharks.
我动身去幻影潜水员
I make my way over to Phantom Divers
和我的老伙计豪尔赫和查理见面
to meet my old buddies Jorge and Charlie.
“嗨 豪尔赫!
” Hey Jorge!
查理!
Charlie!
你们过得好吗?
How ya doing?
准备好去拍摄鲨鱼了没?
You guys ready to film some sharks?”
查理和豪尔赫已经喂食鲨鱼多年
Charlie and Jorge have been feeding Bull sharks
他们要教我一些有预见性的技巧
for a few years and they give me a few tips on
以及拍摄的最佳方式
on what to expect and the best way to film it.
当然了 还有一些安全措施
And of course, some safety tips!
千万不要移开盯着诱饵的眼 这十分重要
It’s very important, never lose sight ofthat bait.
不要拿着诱饵又看向这个方向
Don’t have the bait and be looking thisway.
你必须一直盯着诱饵
You have got to be looking at the bait the whole time.
因为鲨鱼可能会从其他方向过来
Because it could be the shark comes the other way.
通常它们是从正面过来
Usually they come from the front.
我和我的妻子前往沙滩
My wife Christine and I head down to
登上幻影潜水员的船
the beach to climb aboard the Phantom Divers boat.
那么在墨西哥这晴朗美好的日子里
Then it ’ s off to the dive site
我们出发了!
on a beautiful sunny Mexico day!
(音乐起)
(Music up)
不久后我们到达潜水地点
Before long we have reached dive site and Charlie suits up
查理也穿上了防鲨服
in his stainless steel shark suit.
在我们其他人之前
He ’ ll drop down a few minutes
他会先拿好诱饵潜下去开始喂食
before the rest of us to get the chumming started in advance.
这可以给我们留出更多的拍摄时间
This saves us some bottom time for filming.
现在我们这些人也穿戴整齐准备下潜了
Now the rest of us get suited up and prepare to dive.
和之前下潜寻鲨一样
As usual when diving with sharks,
我要全副武装减少我皮肤的暴露
I cover up to I don ’ t have much skin showing. Well,
让我们一起去一探究竟吧!
lets go see some sharks!
穿过温暖澄澈的海水
I descend towards the bottom
我终于降落在了水深80英尺的
through crystal clear warm water and eventually end up on
一片铺满细沙的海床上
a sandy sea floor at a depth of 80 feet.
一条黄貂鱼游过来
A stingray glides past.
它闻到查理带下来的鱼的腥味儿了
It can smell the fish Charlie brought down.
豪尔赫代替查理手拿诱饵
Jorge takes over for Charlie
满足一群逐渐壮大的鱼群因饥饿张开的嘴
and hand feeds a growing school of hungry mouths.
我则呆在后面以免鲨鱼被我吓到
I stay back a ways so I won’t spook thesharks.
我知道这很不可思议 但对
I know it ’ s hard to believe,
鲨鱼来说 从我们水肺中呼出的气泡很响很可怕
but our scuba bubbles are loud and scary to sharks.
没过多久第一对公牛鲨就来了
It doesn ’ t take long for the first couple
但它们和我们保持着距离
of Bull sharks to arrive, but they keep their distance,
它们不确定能期待我们会带来什么
not sure what to expect from us.
几分钟后 它们离豪尔赫更近了
A few minutes later, they approach Jorge closer to see
想看看到底是哪来的美食香味
where the yummy smell is coming from.
但它们还是不够相信豪尔赫
But they are not ready to trust him
并没有吃掉他手中的鱼
enough to take the fish from his hands.
即使这黄貂鱼正设法从他手上吃点美食
Even the stingray has managed to procure a snack from Jorge.
我都开始觉得这些鲨鱼简直就是懦夫
I’m starting to think these sharks are wimps!
终于第一条鲨鱼向我们游来
At last the first shark makes her move.
她吃掉了豪尔赫手上的鱼
She takes the fish right from Jorge’s hand.
下一条鲨鱼并没有吃到鱼
The next shark actually misses the fish,
也没有任何回头吃到的可能
and doesn ’ t have the maneuverability to turn
所以她只好放弃 又转了一圈
around and get it, so she finally gives up and goes around again.
现在鲨鱼都已经明白我们并非威胁
Now that the sharks have figured out that we are not a threat,
我能靠豪尔赫再近些来拍摄
I can move a little closer to Jorge for filming,
鲨鱼也并不介意
and the sharks won’t mind.
万一豪尔赫的手指离鲨鱼的嘴太近
Jorge ’ s steel mesh gloves protect him from the sharks ’ teeth
他的铁网手套可以让他鲨口脱险
just in case his fingers get too close to their mouths.
这是由摄影师蒂姆在上方以鸟瞰的姿势俯拍
Cameraman Tim has floated up above the action for the Bird ’ s eye view.
鲨鱼有着相当大的胃口
The sharks have a voracious appetite.
她们一直吃 直到吃完了我们全部的鱼
They keep eating until we are out of fishy snacks.
我没法忽略她们那
I can ’ t help but notice are
相较于潜水员无比庞大的体型
monstrous they are compared to a diver.
公牛鲨或许看上去像礁鲨
Bull sharks might look like reef sharks,
但公牛鲨要大得多
but they get a lot bigger!
最后水下的时间已经所剩无几
At last we have reached our bottom time limit
是时候浮上海面了
and it ’ s time to ascend towards the surface.
当我们在水面下做安全减压的措施时
While we do a safety decompression stop near the surface,
两条鲨鱼也凑上来研究一番
the sharks come up to investigate.
很明显 她们已经克服了对我们的恐惧
Clearly they have overcome their apprehension about us.
事实上
In fact, it kind
她们似乎有些舍不得我们
of seems like they don ’ t want to see us go.
豪尔赫还有最后一条鱼
Jorge has one last piece
他将此作为分别的礼物抛给了鲨鱼
of fish and he offers it to the sharks as a parting gift.
在这样一段刺激的潜水经历的最后
At the end of an exciting dive like this,
我难以抑制心中的兴奋激动
I can’t help but be totally pumped
哇哦!
Whoa!
那些鲨鱼超级大!
Those sharks are huge!
我简直不敢相信
I can ’ t believe I ’ m going to
我居然有机会去喂鲨鱼
get a chance to feed them.
之后 回到店里
Later, back at the dive shop,
我和豪尔赫 查理聊了聊我明天的活动
I chat with Jorge and Charlie about what I ’ ll be doing
——穿上类似锁子甲的防鲨服
tomorrow—wearing the chain mail shark suit!
你之前穿过防鲨服吗?
Have you ever worn a chain mail before?
不 从没有穿过
No, no, never.
好的 这东西非常重
Well, these things are very heavy,
一整套大概30磅左右
they are about 30 pounds for the full suit.
那么我们将要穿上它
So we’re going to put on the suit.
穿上防鲨服之后还要穿靴子
It ’ s very important that you put your boots over the suit,
这很重要 不然
because if not, on the boat
要知道船上很滑 你会摔跤伤到膝盖
it ’ s super slippery and you can hurt your ankle
就想我昨天那样
like I did yesterday.
好的!好建议!
Okay! Good advice!
那么当穿上靴子进入水下世界时
So put the boots on, and when we go in the water,
很重要的一点是你要往BCD
it ’ s very important that you put
充入很多气体
a lot of air in your BCD,
这样才能重重地沉下去
so you can sink like a rock.
当我们到达海底
When we get to the bottom,
就释放BCD里的气体 我也会开始喂食
completely deflate that BCD and I ’ m going to start the feeding part,
你知道的 这些鲨鱼
you know, so the sharks get
就会靠近 一旦
close to us, and once we ’ ve
我们行动了
got the action, I ’ ll
我就会把桶交给你
hand the chum bucket to you.
有我和查理在
Me and Charlie will be right behind you.
你一点事儿都不会有
You’ll be fine man.
我当然没事了
I’ll be fine.
我就要穿上防鲨服了 那可是相当酷的
I’m gonna wear chain mail man, that’sgonna be so cool!
又是一个风平浪静晴朗的早晨
The next morning we head back to the same dive site,
我们又回到同样的潜水地点
on another beautiful, flat calm day.
我真的太爱在墨西哥潜水了
Boy do I love diving in Mexico!
又是先让查理带着装着诱饵的桶
Once again Charlie gets in first with his container of bait
先行一步
to get the action started in advance.
一旁我则学习着怎么穿上防鲨服
while I learn how to put on the chain mail.
防鲨服是
The chain mail suit is made of
上千个不锈钢铁环相连编织出的
thousands of interlocking rings of stainless steel which
有如布匹的网状物
form a kind of fabric.
防鲨服超级柔顺
It ’ s super flexible,
但鲨鱼尖锐的牙齿就是对它无可奈何
but the sharp teeth of a shark can ’ t bite through it.
不幸的是 它重足足30英镑
Unfortunately it weighs 30 pounds,
就是说在我毫无准备的情况下
so I will sink like a rock when I hit the water
一挨着水我就会像石头一样沉下去
if I’m not prepared.
豪尔赫自然要和我同行
Jorge of course is diving with me,
还有一位是研究鲨鱼的生物学家毛利西奥·帕迪利亚
as is a shark biologist named Mauricio Padilla, who
他准备采集一个鲨鱼的组织样本
will be attempting to take a tissue samplefrom a shark!
“一 二 三!”
“One two three!”
穿着30磅的防鲨服我迅速地沉到了海底
I sink rapidly down to the bottom in my 30 pound shark suit.
一到海底 豪尔赫递给我一块鱼
When we arrive, Jorge hands me a piece of fish and
现在引诱鲨鱼是我的任务了
now it ’ s my job to entice the sharks over.
我们昨天喂过一次
We were feeding yesterday
所以没过多久鲨鱼就来了
so it doesn ’ t take them long to come over.
我摇晃着手中的鱼块
As I wave my piece of fish around,
毛利西奥跟在我后面
Mauricio is behind me, .
伺机取得组织样本
waiting for his chance to take his tissue sample.
很快一条公牛鲨便凑近看了一眼
Soon a big Bull sharks comes up and takes a close look
我递上前的鱼块
at the piece of fish I ’ m offering.
她喜欢眼前的一切 她又转了一圈
She likes what she sees because she makes another pass around
轻轻地从我手中叼走鱼块
and takes it gently from my hand.
我去拿下一块鱼块时
Jorge takes a turn next
豪尔赫接上我的工作
while I grab another piece of bait.
然后又由我来喂 鲨鱼经过其他围观的
Then I feed again, and the shark makes a nice close
潜水者时 离他们相当近
pass to a few other divers that are watching.
鲨鱼就像我们一样是那么平静放松
The sharks are calm and relaxed, just like us.
毛利西奥一直在后方徘徊
All this time, Mauricio has been hanging back,
观察鲨鱼并做着笔记
watching the sharks and making notes.
他知道哪一条鲨鱼的组织样本才是他要的
He knows which shark he needs the tissue sample from
现在 是时候行动了
and now it ’ s time to make his move.
他拿着他的梭标枪
He has with him a spear gun.
但枪里不是梭标
But instead of a spear,
它的尖端经过特殊设计
it has a special tip designed to grab a tiny sample of skin and
可以抓取鲨鱼皮肤肌肉样本
muscle from a shark.
这沉重的防鲨服使我的工作十分简单
The heavy chain mail makes my job really easy,
我仿佛扎根在海底
I ’ m planted on the bottom!
毛利西奥必须得耐心
Mauricio has to be patient.
因为鲨鱼皮无比坚硬
The shark has to be really close
必须得等它十分靠近
because its skin is so tough.
他的梭标枪上方装有摄像头
He has a camera mounted on the speargun
所以他可以晚些去确定是什么鲨鱼
so he can identify the shark later.
终于 目标鲨鱼靠近了
At last the right shark comes close
毛利西奥开枪了!
…and Mauricio fires!
枪上摄像机的连续镜头完美地显示着
The gun camera footage shows perfect aim.
这组织样本就是来自背鳍的根部
The tissue sample came right from the thick skin
厚厚的鲨皮
at the base of the dorsal fin.
鲨鱼必然感受到了刺痛
The shark absolutely feels a pinch,
但是取样并不会伤害鲨鱼
but the sample does not harm the animal, and in fact
事实也是如此 她转了一圈又来了
she comes around and feeds again.
在那尖端的仪器里装有
Inside the tip of this instrument is a
鲨鱼的微量组织标本
tiny sample the shark ’ s tissue that will be used
它将被用于研究鲨鱼平时的饮食
to learn what these sharks normally feed upon,
以及她们是否存在和在加勒比海域的
and if they are interbreeding with other populations
其他公牛鲨杂种繁殖的情况
of Bull sharks around the Caribbean. Later,
之后 我和毛利西奥聊了下他的研究项目
I chat with Mauricio about his researchproject.
公牛鲨是他在墨西哥研究的唯一一种鲨鱼
Bull sharks are only one of the species he is studying in Mexico.
他向我展示了之前获取的组织样本
He shows me the tissue sample we got.
这是细胞核 你还能看见肌肉组织
So this is the core, and you can see the muscle.
那些红色的东西 就是肌肉组织
That’s the red thing, that’s the muscle.
我们还有皮肤组织
And also we have the skin.
我们将要进行两种分析实验
We are going to do two kinds of analysis.
皮肤的话 用来做基因测试
With the skin, genetic analysis,
以了解这种公牛鲨是否
in order to know if this population is related with
和其他种类有血缘关系
other populations.
至于肌肉
And with the muscle,
它将被用于一个叫稳定同位素分析的实验
we are going to do an analysis that is called Stable Isotope Analysis.
通过这个 你就会知道
With that, you can know
鲨鱼是否曾在科罗纳多吃过鮣鱼或是其他鱼
if the sharks when they are here are feeding on Coronado or remoras or whatever.
那么你现在有多少标本?
So how many have you taken so far?
11个
Eleven.
那对于研究来说可能不够
That’s probably not enough to learn much yet.
对 我们需要至少30个样本
No, we need at least 30.
毛利西奥的样本项目结合一些卫星追踪
Mauricio’s sampling program, combined withsome satellite tagging,
已经慢慢揭开了公牛鲨的神秘面貌
is already shedding some light on the mysteries of the Bull shark.
豪尔赫这样徒手喂食也终结了一些
And Jorge ’ s hand feeding is helping
关于这些鲨鱼的不实传言
to dispel some myths about these sharks. Well,
那么
there ya go.
我曾喂过世上最危险的鲨鱼
I fed the most dangerous sharks in the world.
它们是食人鲨?
Man eaters?
你觉得呢?
What do you think?
我不这么认为
I don’t think so.
事实上 我玩的超嗨
In fact, I had so much fun,
我要再去看看它们
I ’ m going to go see them again.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vrkkQO9zVfA

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