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水牛城:美国最佳设计城市

Buffalo: America's Best Designed City

这座城市就如同亚马逊地区一般
Tim Tielman: It’s almost, you know…you have to look for new word metaphors. Amazonian!
它坐落于一片巨大的湖区边
We’re at the foot of this gigantic series of lakes
而且是淡水湖区
and it’s fresh water.
这就是在美国历史初期阶段
Chris Hawley: It’s the reason we became a bustling and important city
这里便成为一座繁荣而重要的城市的原因
in the early part of the American story
也可能是在21世纪我们将再次成为重要城市的原因之一
and perhaps one of the reasons we’ll become an important city again in the 21st century.
水牛城 美国最佳设计城市
Buffalo: America’s Best Designed City
伊利湖所赋予我们的事物之一便是这向西延伸
Tim Tielman: Well one of the great things that Lake Erie gives us is this oceanic view,
200英里的水域所呈现的海洋景观
over two hundred miles of water to the west.
坐在这里看着夕阳西下的景色是多么美妙的事
It’s just spectacular to sit out there and watch the sunset over the water
这是生活在美国东部的人们享受不到的
and that’s something no one else in the eastern U.S.
因为在波士顿 芝加哥 纽约 费城这些城市
has because all our other cities: Boston, Chicago, New York, Philadelphia
都没有如此这般美丽的水上日落
they don’t have sunsets over the water, we do.
水牛城四面环水
Jill Jedlicka: The city Buffalo is surrounded by water.
西临伊利湖
We have Lake Erie to our west.
北有尼亚加拉大瀑布
Niagara Falls to the north,
南邻水牛河
and Buffalo River meandering to the south.
我们的聚落形态以傍水而居为主要特点
Robert Shibley: The settlement patterns in our community came up from the water.
水牛城是具有巴洛克式街道系统的城市之一
Chris Hawley: Buffalo is one of the few cities that have a truly baroque street system.
在1804年乔瑟夫.埃里克特来到了这里
Robert Shibley: In 1804 Joseph Ellicott came to town.
乔瑟夫•埃里克特是安德鲁•埃里克特的兄弟
Chris Hawley: Joseph Ellicott was the brother of Andrew Ellicott
后者是参与华盛顿城市设计的皮埃尔昂方团队的一员
who was on Pierre L’Enfant’s team to design Washington DC.
水牛城体现了华盛顿建设方案中的很多元素
Tim Tielman: And lots of elements of the plan of Washington DC are visible in Buffalo.
遍布全城的放射网状道路系统
A grid overlaid by a radial system of streets.
放射网状的道路系统为我们城市的发展
Chris Hawley: The radial and grid street system gave us
构建了一个令人惊叹的精致的框架
an incredibly elegant framework for developing our city.
放射状的道路系统最让人惊叹一点就是他们塑造的景观
Robert Shibley: One of the really terrific things about radials is the way they shape the view.
如果你从拉菲特广场沿着法院街一直走
So when you’re coming down Court Street from Lafayette Square
你们能够看到阿达·路易斯·赫特斯可布尔口中的美国最美城市街景
you have what Ada Louise Huxtable called the greatest urban vista in America.
中央公园的设计者弗雷德里克·劳·奥姆斯特德
Tim Tielman: Frederick Law Olmsted is perhaps the greatest
可以说是美国最杰出的景观设计师
landscape architect that America has produced, designer of Central Park.
这位景观设计之父受邀来到水牛城
Robert Shibley: The father of landscape architecture, came to Buffalo with an invitation to
设计一个城市公园
put a park in the city,
然而他真正做的是将城市建立在公园之中
decided instead that the real thing to do is put the city in a park
它是美国第一个设计最为杰出的园林系统
Stephanie Barber: It was the first, best-designed park system in America.
公园和公园道路系统建设在
Chris Hawley: That park and parkway system was built on
埃里克特的放射状街道系统的枢纽处
the armature of the Ellicott radial street system.
这里没有正门 你可以从任何一个方向进入
Robert Shibley: There is no main gate. You come in from any direction.
你可以穿过林荫道前往其他的公园并感受不同公园的特色
You can move through the parkways to other parks and have very different experiences in each one.
弗雷德里克·劳·奥姆斯特德称
Stephanie Barber: Frederick Law Olmsted called Buffalo
水牛城如果不是世界最佳设计城市 也是美国最佳设计城市
“the best planned city in America, if not the world.”
让人难以置信的是这是他在提出他的
Robert Shibley: The thing that makes that marginally credible is that he said it
园林系统建设方案前说的 所以在园林和园林道路系统建成前
before he offered his park system, so it was the best planned city in America
水牛城便是美国最佳设计城市
before the park and parkway system
他实际上是在锦上添花
and he added value to that best plan.
公园本身及其内部环境无疑是美丽的
Howard Zemsky: The Parks, of course, are beautiful in and of themselves,
但有时我们忽视了园林大道的壮观
but sometimes we forget how significant the parkways are
以及它们是如何构建这座城市的
and how they frame the city
它们是如何反映奥姆斯特德关于
and how they reflect Olmsted’s vision of
民主城市和平等主义的愿景
a democratic city, an egalitarian approach
也就是 让生活在水牛城的每一个人
where, you know, anyone and everyone in Buffalo
漫步在这些林荫道上时 都觉得自己是城市的主人
felt like they were royalty by virtue of being on these parkways.
对于我们这些生活在街道旁 经常往来的人们来说
Tim Tielman: To those of us who live along some of these streets or who traverse them regularly,
今天我们明白了埃里克特和奥姆斯特德想让大家感受是
we get the idea today of what Ellicott and Olmsted wanted you to feel:
你是一个个体 但当你穿梭于这些伟大的城市建筑之中时
You’re an individual, but when you cross these great civic works
你就成了这个庞大的系统的
you’re part of a much
一部分
larger thing
你是一个庞大社会中的一员 这个社会只能是由
you’re part of a larger society, you’re part of something that can only happen
人们的共同意志 共同努力 共同愿景所组成
with the collective will, effort, aspirations of your fellow citizens.
骑骑自行车或是
And to ride a bike,
在查宾路溜溜狗都能让我们十分开心
to walk your dog along Chapin Parkway is just tremendously uplifting.
在水牛城 我们也可以溜遛狗来让我们开心
And in Buffalo we get that by walking the dog.
道路 湖泊 园林系统
Robert Shibley: The radials, and the water, and the park system
美国最佳设计城市
the best planned city in America —
成为了美国最佳建筑设计的标杆
set the table for the best architecture in America.
水牛城里有很多建筑是
Tim Tielman: Buffalo of course has buildings by
被今人视为美国三大杰出建筑师的作品
what are today seen as the three greatest
他们分别是弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特 H.H. 理查森 路易斯·沙利文
American architects:Frank Lloyd Wright, H.H. Richardsonand Louis Sullivan.
放射网格状街道系统和这些美丽的建筑
Tim Tielman: The grid overlaid with the radial streets provides you with these fantastic
吸引着杰出的建筑师们并让他们灵感迸发
building sights that really attract great architects to do their best work.
整个城市看起来景色宜人 适宜步行 简约大方
Chris Hawley: And that is all integrated within incredible, walkable, compact neighborhoods.
当你走在水牛城的街道上时 你会看到
Tim Tielman: So when you go down the streets of Buffalo, you are going to see — yeah,
哇哦 这是弗兰克·劳埃德·赖特设计的房子 天呐
holy cow, there’s a house by Frank Lloyd Wright, my gosh!
但你会看到街道旁都是
but you’re going to see lining the streets really
大师的杰作 有时还能触摸到大师精湛之作
wonderful and sometimes touching examples of craftsmanship.
1950年左右 水牛城与许多城市一样 出了一些大差错
Chris Hawley: Buffalo, like so many cities, made some tremendous mistakes starting around 1950.
如果罗伯特•摩西没有在此处建设城市高速公路
Tim Tielman: If we didn’t actually have a highway built by Robert Moses
我们也会受其启发 自主建设城市高速路
through a city, we were inspired by a highway built by Robert Mosses through a city.
我们建成了横跨奥姆斯特德公园的
Chris Hawley: We brought the Scajaquada Expressway directly through
卡加华达高速公路 我们也将肯辛顿高速公路建在了
an Olmsted park, Delaware Park. We rammed the Kensington expressway
奥姆斯特德公园原来的一条林荫道 洪堡路的位置
down one of Olmsted’s parkways displacing entirely, Humboldt Parkway.
神奇的是 有很多
Tim Tielman: It’s fascinating. There were photographs of
砍伐榆树的照片
these giant elm trees being sawed down
照片的标题不是洪堡路的悲剧
and the caption on the pictures wasn’t “Tragedy on Humboldt Parkway!”
而是 哈利路亚 发展即将到来
It was “Hallelujah, progress coming!”
他们说 诶 发展 怎么个发展法
Stephanie Barber: They said, “Hey! This is progress!” How is it progress?
你们怎么把整个街区的树都砍倒了
How do you just cut right through a neighborhood?
道路的一侧的树被砍倒
And one side gets destroyed because of it
另一侧的树也所剩无几了
and other side barely holds on!
这会让你落泪
It will make you cry.
你会说 究竟发生了什么
You’ll say, “Well, what in the world happened?”
每一份公开记录向我们表明这里有公投
Every public record shows us that there were public votes,
也有公众听证会 会上人们说 不要这样做 这会毁了街区的
there were public hearings, where people said, “Don’t do this, this is going to really destroy neighborhoods!”
不管怎样 他们还是做了
And they did it anyway.
这难道是大错特错的一件事吗
Robert Shibley: Is there the mistake of all mistakes, the mother of all mistakes?
我们将高速公路修建在城市周围的水面上
We built the expressway system that surrounds our city on the water.
190线高速公路和高架路将水牛城和湖滨分割开
Jill Jedlicka: The 190 and the Skyway just cut Buffalo off from its waterfront.
所以那些都是重大的错误 我们仍然承受着其产生的后果
Chris Hawley: So those were huge mistakes. We’re still suffering from those mistakes.
我们可能有机会解决这些问题
We may have yet an opportunity to undo them.
那是我们未来五十年的任务
That’s our task for the next fifty years.
渐渐地我看到人们鼓起勇气说
Stephanie Barber: Little by little I’ve seen someone get the courage to say,
让我们改正错误吧
“Let’s fix it.”
拉金区是锈带区成功复苏的范例之一
Chris Hawley: The Larkin district is one of the true rustbelt success stories.
在过去的十年里 一群富有创造力的投资者
In the past ten years a group of imaginative investors have managed to
曾接管了一个十年前就基本荒废的地区
take a district which was basically abandoned ten years ago
并成功地让它成为今天城市中最富有活力的地区之一
and made it one ofthe most exciting and lively places in the city today.
这个地区实际上于1827年设立
Howard Zemsky: This area was established actually in 1827
作为水牛城第一个工业区 这里便是水力区
as Buffalo’s first manufacturing district known as the Hydraulics
它也是一个曾经繁荣但后来破败的旧城区
and it’s just a great historic district that was in tremendous dis-repair.
所以 如果你在十年前在其中漫步
So, if you wandered around here ten years ago
你能看到众多紧凑的荒废的建筑
you would have seen primarily bordered up and abandoned buildings.
而现在我们却看到许多职员在这里工作
We now have as many employees in the district
和蓬勃发展的拉金区一样
as Larkin had in it’s hey day,
我们又回到了以前的繁荣 很是欣慰
so we’ve come full circle that way, which is great.
刚开始我们只是下班后玩玩音乐
Leslie Zemsky: We thought we’d start out with just having some music after work and
但人们纷纷前来观看 然后我们儿子想出来一个主意
people really came out. So then the idea came about really from our son of,
为什么我们不让一些流动餐车也过来呢?
“Why don’t we invite food trucks down?”
大概有2000人集聚一处
The crowds have been around two thousand people.
这是水牛城复兴的一个部分 我认为人们
Howard Zemsky: This is a component of the renaissance of Buffalo and I think people
真正为能成为其中的一份子而开心
have really enjoyed being part of that.
在水牛城我们有机会重建我们曾经生活的街区
Chris Hawley: In Buffalo we have an opportunity to rebuild the neighborhoods that we still have.
这是除扩建城区外复兴城市的另一种方法
They are a proven alternative to sprawl.
我们从更新区域代码开始
We’re turning the page with a new zoning code to begin the process of
重建我们能够步行的城市街区
rebuilding our walkable urban neighborhoods.
我们已经取得了巨大的进步 希望这能给
There is tremendous incremental progress and hopefully that will create a better argument
一些重大举措提供条件 如拆除高速公路 重建有轨电车系统等
to make some of the big moves like highway removal, like restoring our streetcar system
或者恢复我们的奥姆斯特德公园和园道
or fully restoring our Olmsted parks and parkways.
他带给我的事物百分八十的尚存于此
Stephanie Barber: 80% of what he brought to us is still here.
如果我们能回到那个时代 并说
What if, what if we went back to that
我们将重建这个地方 会发生什么呢
and said, “We’re going to restore this place.”
这是一个正在进行的重大举措
Marcus Wise: It’s a very powerful movement that’s happening right now.
每天都能看到新的变化 我很高兴能成为其中的一份子
I am excited to be a part of it because you can see the changes happening everyday:
湖滨的新项目 旧建筑的保留
new projects on the waterfront, old buildings being saved.
我们开始发现了城市的复苏
Jill Jedlicka: We are now starting to see a reawakening
重新连接的水路让这个地区更加美好
and a reconnection to our waterways that made this region great.
没有什么比生活在运河旁更好的事了 我喜欢带我的孩子
Dana Marciniak: There is nothing better than Canalside. I love to bring my kids there
到这里跑跑跳跳 吃吃东西 在沙坑里玩儿
to run around, to eat, to play in the sand area.
我觉得十年的城市复兴期间
Chris Hawley: I think the crowning achievement so far in the past ten years of
至今为止取得的惊人成就当属拉菲特酒店
downtown’s revitalization has to be the Lafayette Hotel.
那是一个令人赞叹不已的地方 它也曾破败过
It’s an amazing space; it was a wreck…
我们恢复了它往日的壮丽
Rocco Termini: And we restored it to its original grandeur.
在开业那天 所有公寓全部租出
100% of the apartments were rented the day we opened.
很有趣的一件事 因为我看到一些银行家
It’s funny because I see some of the bankers
他们在七八年前曾认为我疯了
that they thought I was crazy seven or eight years ago
而现在他们却正请求和我进行商业合作
and today they’re calling me for my business.
市长承诺每年修建十英里的自行车道
Justin Booth: The mayor’s made a commitment to add ten miles of bicycle lanes per year.
我们是本州中第一个通过完整的交通政策的城市
We were the first city in the state to pass a complete streets policy.
平坦的地势 互通互达的街道
And our flat topography, our well-connected streets,
都有助于将这里建成全国最适宜骑行的城市之一
is really going to go a long way in making this one of the best bicycling cities in the country.
榆木村在二十世纪七十年代还是一个破败的街区 仅仅用了三十年
Chris Hawley: Elmwood Village was a wreck in the 1970s and only thirty years later
它便成了美国规划协会评出的全国十大最佳街区之一
it was rated as one of the top ten best neighborhoods in the country by the American Planning Association.
我们有步行街 自行车道 紧凑规整的街区 低矮的楼群
We’ve got walkable streets, bikeable streets, compact neighborhoods, short blocks; I mean,
这都是让该地在二十一世纪成功复兴的要素
these are all the ingredients for making a successful place happen in the 21st century.
对于我们来说 它只是一个重建的问题
For us, it’s merely a matter of restoring them.
我认为我们改变了人们离开这里
Marcus Wise: I think we’re beyond this idea of people wanting to leave
在另外的城市中寻找更好的生活的想法
and find something better in a different city.
人们愿意扎根水牛城 与之荣辱与共
I think people are putting in stakesand putting in roots here in Buffalo.
我觉得我们这一代人的态度就是乐观和希望
Dana Marciniak: I think the attitude of our generation is optimism and hope.
水牛城是一座
Bernice Radle: Buffalo is a city
对想要做出改变的人极具吸引力的城市
that appeals to a person who wants to make change.
你可以积极地参与时事
Marcus Wise: You can be an active participant in what’s happening.
你可以带着你的想法并实现它们
Bernice Radle: You can take your ideas and implement them.
这座城市的确一如既往的友好 初来水牛城的人们
Leslie Zemsky: It’s always been a really friendly city. People who are new to Buffalo
发现他们可以迅速地融入其中
find that they can get very involved very quickly
这里是一座包容新思想的城市
and it’s a welcoming place to new ideas.
我认我们将再次成为全国最棒的城市之一
Chris Hawley: I think we’re going to become one of the great cities in the nation again
我们给人们提供的是参与城市复兴的机会
and what we offer people I think is the opportunity to take part in that revitalization story.
水牛城正在发生着变化
Robert Shibley: The city of Buffalo is in transition.
水牛城正在回归 或者说它正恢复原来的繁荣
To say it’s coming back is to suggest it’s going back to what it was.
它是全新的一座城市 让我们见证它的复兴
It’s becoming something new. So come see it emerging.
让我们富有热情 给予我们勇气
Stephanie Barber: Help feed our enthusiasm and give us courage.

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