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无刷直流电机的工作原理 – 译学馆
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无刷直流电机的工作原理

Brushless DC Motor, How it works ?

为让运行更可靠
In order to make the operation more reliable,
高效 并减少噪音
more efficient and less noisy,
最近流行使用无刷直流电机
the recent trend has been to use brushless dc motors
相较有刷电机 它们更轻快
They are also lighter compared to brushed motors
还有着相同的能量输出
with the same power output
传统的有刷直流电机长时间工作会磨损
The brushes in conventional dc motors wear out over time
并且可能会冒火花
and may cause sparking
因此有刷直流电机
Thus the brushed dc motor
不应被用于长期且可靠度要求高的运作
should never be used for operations that demand long life and reliability.
让我们观察一下无刷直流电机是如何工作的吧
Let’s see how a brushless DC motor works.
无刷直流电机的转子
The rotor of a BLDC motor
是一块永磁铁
is a permanent magnet.
而它的定子则是一个线圈装置
The stator has a coil arrangement as shown.
当直流电通过这个线圈的时候
By applying DC power to the coil,
通电后的线圈就变成了电磁铁
the coil energize and become an electromagnet.
无刷直流电机的运作依靠的
The operation of a BLDC is based
就是永磁铁和电磁铁间
on the simple force interaction between the
简单的力的相互作用
permanent magnet and the electromagnet.
其具体过程如下
In this condition
线圈A通上电后
when the coil A is energized,
磁极相反的转子因磁吸力向定子旋转
the opposite poles on the rotor and stator are attracted to each other.
当转子靠近线圈A的时候 线圈B通电
As the rotor nears coil A, coil B is energized.
当转子靠近线圈B的时候 线圈C通电
As the rotor near coil B, coil C is energized.
然后线圈A通电呈相反极性
After that coil A energized with the opposite polarity.
这个过程一直重复 所以转子能持续旋转
This process is repeated and the rotor continues to rotate.
有一个幽默的 类似的例子来帮助记忆
A humorous analogy to help remember it is
想象无刷直流电机的运行就像
to think about BLDC operation like the story
驴和胡萝卜的故事
of the donkey and the Carrot.
驴尽力尝试吃到胡萝卜
Where the donkey tries hard to
但胡萝卜一直前移 驴一直够不到
reach the carrot but the Carrot keeps moving out of reach.
尽管电机可以这样工作 但它还有个缺点
Even though this motor works it has one drawback.
你可以发现任何时刻
You can notice that at any instant
只有一个线圈在通电
only one coil is energized.
那两个暂歇的线圈大大减少了
The two dead coils greatly reduce
电机能量的输出
the power output of the motor
这有一个技巧来解决这个问题
here is the trick to overcome this problem.
当转子转到这个位置
When the rotor is in this position
第一个线圈吸引转子的时候
along with the first coil which pulls the rotor
可以把转子后面的线圈通上电
you can energize the coil behind it
这样子
in such a way that
后面的线圈就会排斥转子向前转
it will push the rotor.
这个瞬间
For this instant
同样的极性电流通过第二个线圈
a same polarity current ispassed through the second coil
合效应产生更多的扭矩
the combined effect produces more torque
以及更多的电机输出功率
and power output from the motor
合力也能确保
the combined force also makes sure
无刷直流电机能有更连续平稳的扭矩
that a BLDC has a beautiful constant torque nature
由于这个结构 两个线圈就得单独通电
with this configuration two coils need to be energized separately
而通过定子线圈轻微的修改
but by making a small modification to the stator coil
我们就能简化这个过程
we can simplify this process
只需要将两个线圈的自由端连接即可
just connect one free end of the coils together
当在线圈A和B之间通电时
when the power is applied between coils A and B
我们注意一下电流在线圈间的流向
let’s note the current flow through the coil
就像一个独立的通电状态
it’s just like the separately energized state
这就是无刷直流电机的工作原理
that’s how a BLDC works but you
但你可能产生了一些有意思的疑问
might have some intriguing doubts in your mind
我怎么知道让每个定子线圈通电的具体时间
how do I know which stator coils to energize
我怎么知道该什么时候通电
how do I know when energizer
才能让电机连续旋转
so that I will get a continuous rotation from the rotor
在无刷直流电机里
in a BLDC
为了达到这个效果 我们采用一种电子控制器
we use an electronic controller for this purpose.
先通过一个传感器来判断转子位置
A sensor determines the position of the rotor
根据反馈的位置信息
and based on this information
控制器决定哪个线圈应该通电
the controller decides which coils to energize
一般霍尔效应传感器最常用在这里
most often a Hall effect sensor is used for this purpose.
目前为止我们讲的都是
the BLDC design we have discussed so far
外转型的无刷直流电机
is known as the outrunner type.
内转无刷直流电机在市场上也能见到
Inrunner BLDC design is also available in the market.
我们希望向你很好地介绍了无刷直流电机
We hope you had a nice introduction on the working of BLDC motors.
感谢您的观赏
Thank you.

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简单清晰地讲述其原理,来来来,看看你听懂了吗?

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