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英国最大的电池其实是个湖 – 译学馆
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英国最大的电池其实是个湖

Britain's Largest Battery Is Actually A Lake

我们在学校学过能量守恒
We learn aboutconservation of energy in school.
怎样将势能
How you can take potential energy,
比如这个电池中的化学能
like the energy in the chemicals in this battery,
转换成电能
and you can then just convertit to electrical energy.
然后将电能为你所用
And then convert that to whatever you can find a use for.
电池其实就是势能的仓库
A battery is just a storeof potential energy.
这种势能可以是化学能 也可以是重力势能
And that potential energy could be chemical, or it could be gravitational.
位于威尔士多雨地带的这个湖泊
This lake in this rainy bit of Wales is part
是不列颠最大的电池一部分
of the largest battery in Britain.
而且是可充电的
And it’s rechargeable.
欢迎来到迪诺威克发电站
Welcome to Dinorwig Power Station,
它也被称为“电山”
otherwise known as Electric Mountain.
山顶有一个巨大的水库
– What we have is a large reservoir at the top of the mountain
山脚也有一个大水库
a large reservoir at the bottom, and
这两座水库之间是发电站
between the two, a power station,
就是它将势能转换成电
which converts that potential energy into electricity.
发电站位于那座大山里的洞穴中
The power station itself is located inside that mountain in deep caverns.
我们释放具有势能的水流经水电站
We release that potential energythrough the station.
水的重力势能匀速驱动涡轮旋转
It drives a turbine that spins around at synchronous speeds,
连接着输电网的涡轮驱动发电机
connected to the grid. It drives a generator,
将水的势能转化成电能
converting that into electricity.
然后我们把电输送到国家电网上
We then export thatonto the National Grid.
到了晚上 我们反转这一过程
And then at nighttime, we justreverse the whole process.
涡轮机变成抽水机 发电机变成了引擎
The turbine turns into a pump.The generator becomes a motor.
将水泵回到山顶的马切林莫尔水库
And we push that water back up the hill into the reservoir at Marchlyn Mawr,at the top of the mountain.
工作原理是利用发电站白天产生的电
The operating principle here is that the generation that the station is able to do during the daytime
来满足电力需求的高峰期
helps the nation meet those peaksof electricity demand.
晚上电价便宜的时候
And overnight, it’s able to pump the water
将水再泵回到山顶水库
back when prices are lower.
将水的势能换算成电量
In electrical terms, we havearound nine gigawatt-hours
山顶存储了将近9千兆瓦的电力
of storage at the top of the mountain.
事实上每天经过发电站的水
And in fact over the course of a day, the water passing through the station is broadly equivalent
大致和英国生活用水量的总和相当
to the total householdconsumption of water in the UK.
满负载运转时生产的电量
At full load, we can be meeting
可以满足大约200万个家庭的用电需求
the demand of around about two million homes.
这听起来简单
– This sounds like a really simple idea,
但是当涉及到如此之多的能量的时候
but when there’s this much energy involved,
对于设计的挑战是很高的
the design challenges are ridiculous.
如果你曾住过关上水龙头就会听到
If you’ve ever lived in a house where you turn off a water tap
水管咚咚的声音的房子里
and the the pipes go clunk,
水管的响声就是水击现象
then you know about water hammer.
水是不可被压缩的
Water isn’t compressible,
所以一旦关掉水龙头
so closing a tap means that
所有带着压力涌向水管的水瞬间无处可去
all the water that is under presure and rushing down the pipe suddenly has nowhere to go.
如果家里的水管没有固定地很好的话
So if the pipes in your house aren’t secured properly,
所有这些水的撞击和反弹
the crash and rebound of all that water
会导致水管移动并产生噪声
can make the plumbing move and make noise.
如果区区家用水龙头都会出现响动
If that can happen withjust a tap in a house,
想象一下 关闭这些阀门中的一个会发生什么
imagine what could happenwhen one of the valves here closes.
满负荷下
At full capacity,
每秒有大约一个游泳池那么大量的水
there is somewhere around a swimming pool every second
通过这些管道奔流而下
rushing through the turbines down there.
一旦阀门关闭 所有涌向这里的水瞬间无处可去
When that valve closes, allthat water heading down here suddenly has nowhere to go.
产生的压力会造成巨大的破坏
The pressure would doenormous amounts of damage.
如果没有由百米深的传动轴组成的额外的管道系统
It will break everythingapartif it wasn’t for one extra bit of plumbing.
水压会压碎所有装置
A shaft hundreds of metres deep that acts as a pressure release.
遗憾的是 山体外或这下面都看不到保护装置
We can’t see anything, on the surface or from down here, sadly,
一切过程都发生在山体内部
it all happensdeep within the mountain.
但每一次这些阀门启动的时候
But every time those valves move,
[阀门声响]
[valve clanking]
解涌管保护了整个系统不受损伤
that surge pipe is whatstops the whole system from tearing itself apart.
这个发电站不是古怪的老古董
This station is not somequirky old curiosity.
它是给整个国家提供光亮的大工程
– Dinorwig Power Station is one of the largest
迪诺威克发电站是全球同类发电站中最大的
– Dinorwig Power Station is one of the largest power stations of its type in the world,
也是响应速度最快的发电站之一
and it’s also one of thefastest-acting power stations.
因此除了可以利用
So as well as being able to take advantage
电力市场的高峰期和低谷期
of the peaks and troughs in the electricity market,
它建造的初衷
it was essentially built,
是快速响应电力系统用电的变化
primarily,with the intent to provide very fast response onto the system
让国家电网在平衡用电需求时精确到秒
in order to help the National Grid balance supply and demand instantaneously on a second-by-second basis.
电站可以在10到30秒之间
so it has the capacity to be able to go from zero up to its full capacity,
实现从零到最大负荷2000千兆瓦的运行
maybe 2,000 megawatts within ten to thirty seconds.
当人们提及抽水蓄能时
When people talk about pumped storage,
倾向于将它和电视节目联系起来
they tend to associate it a lot with TV pickups,
国家电网通过分析这种风险
and National Grid, in analysing that risk,
研究电视节目时间表并提早计划
study the TV schedules and plan ahead and put Dinorwig on standby,
以提供观看这些电视节目需要的电量
if you like to ,to be able to meet those pickups.
回顾80年代和90年代
Going back to the 80s and the 90s,
那时没有多少选择
everyone would be sittingaround
每个人都会坐下来看同一档电视节目
the same TV channels with a limited choice, then.
家里需要用电的只有电水壶和电冰箱
All the ingredients you need for a sort of collective putting-on the kettle and opening of the fridge,
电视节目对电量需求影响显著
The pickups could be pretty significant.
但从90年代以后
But since then,
人们涌进油管 网飞和许多的频道上
people are streaming on YouTube, on Netflix, all the different plethora of channels that we have
大家不再同时观看同一档电视节目
so that has changed that that sort of coincidenceof viewing on one channel.
目前这个时代
The current environment that we’re in,
电力系统上有大量的可再生技术
We have a significant amount of renewable technology on the system,
这些可再生技术每天都有一定程度的不可预测性
which provides a level of unpredictability day to day.
实际上 能量贮存的重要性在于我们可以使用它
And actually, the importance of storage now is that we can use it
帮助我们更有效的利用现有的可再生能源
to help develop the amount of renewables we have
当无法使用风能和太阳能发电时
and allow us to fill in those gaps
我们仍然可以有能源可用
when the winds not blowing and the sun is not shining
因此 能量贮存是现代电力系统的一个重要组成部分
So having storage is such an important component of the modern grid system.
非常感谢苏伊士环能团队的所有成员对于节目的帮助
-thank you very much to all the team at Engie who made this visit possible
视频下方详情查看更多关于他们和电山的介绍
Pull down the description for more about them, and more about Electric Mountain.
电池就是势能的仓库!
A battery is just… a store!…of potential energy.

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视频概述

英国最大的可再生能源发电站是一座位于两个湖泊之间的发电站。它在用电高峰期满负荷工作,低峰期利用电再将水泵回上面的水库存储起来,等下一个高峰期再利用。现代社会,用电的场合越来越复杂,变得很难预测,因此,平衡这种不可预测性是很重要的。

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收集自网络

翻译译者

大少

审核员

审核员_BY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Jx_bJgIFhI

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