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英国巨型飞艇R101号的传奇一生

Britain's Giant Airship: R.101

1924-1930年 R101号英国巨型飞艇
R.101 Britain’s Giant Airship 1924-1930
这个模型展示了那个年代最大的飞艇
This model shows the largest airship of its time
可能也是飞行史上最盛大 最豪华的飞行器
and perhaps the grandest,the most luxurious craft ever to fly.
这是1924至1930年间建造的英国R101号飞艇
This is the British Airship R.101 built between 1924 and 1930,
它是英国对德国齐柏林飞艇的回应
it was Britain’s answer to Germany’s Zeppelin.
为了让你了解它的巨大
To give you an idea of its size
我将它与这架波音747——
Compare it to this 747
现在世界上最大的飞机进行比较
one of the largest planes flying today
这架小型喷气飞机模型和飞艇模型按同比例缩小
this miniature jet is the same scale as the airship model,
而飞艇比飞机要长500英尺
but the airship is over 500 feet longer.
这架飞艇的工程设计让我非常着迷
Now, the engineering of this airship fascinates me so much that
所以……我写了一本书讲述它的来历
…I wrote a book telling its story.
在这个视频里
So in this video
我引用了书上的一些研究
I’ll draw on the research for that book
以及我在过去十年间收集的一些
and use some of the old magazine articles, newspaper clippings and
旧杂志资料 剪报和照片
photos that I’ve gathered over the last decades,
来揭示飞艇工程师的设计方案
to reveal the design choices of the ship’s engineers,
机组人员的日常活动
the daily life of a crew member,
还有客舱的豪华程度
and the opulence of the passenger areas.
在此之前 我们先来看这个飞艇的宏图
But at first, let’s look at the grand plan for this airship.
它将打通一条英国到印度之间的固定航线
It was to fly a regular route from England to India,
两国的航行时间为5天
connecting the countries in five days,
比从海上快了10天
ten days faster than by sea.
而它在空中的竞争者 飞机
The airship’s air rival, the plane,
从伦敦经卡拉奇到印度需要16天
linked London to Karachi then in India in sixteen days
其间还必须多次降落补充燃料
but with frequent stops to refuel.
这架飞艇是英国在一战结束约十年后
This airship was one of two built by Britain
建造的两艘飞艇之一
about a decade after the end of the war,
当时他们开始了雄心勃勃的飞艇建造计划
when they embarked on an ambitious airship building program.
除了R101以外 他们还建造了R100号
They constructed the airship R.101, but also R.100
“R”代表硬式飞艇
the “R”stands for “rigid”.
它可以搭载50名乘客
which were to carry 50 passengers
费用接近于远洋客轮头等舱
at a cost close to that of first class in an ocean liner.
一个支持者估计一张票从澳洲到英国会花费10英镑
One proponent estimated a ticket from Australia to the United Kingdom would cost ten pounds.
在20世纪20年代 英国人花费了超过200万英镑建造商业飞艇
The British spend over two million pounds in the 1920s to create commercial airships.
他们的竞争者是德国的齐柏林伯爵号飞艇
Their competitor was Germany’s Graf Zeppelin.
两者相比 齐柏林伯爵长了40英尺
It was forty feet longer,
但R101的横截面积更大
but R.101 had a larger cross section
因此可以多装载30%的氢气
and so hold 30 percent more hydrogen
搭载更多的乘客
and carried more passengers
我们将这些飞艇对比着来看
To put these ships in perspective
这里是兴登堡号 它建造于R101大约7年后
here’s the Hindenburg, built about seven years after R.101.
英国人计划将R101和它的姊妹船
The British intended R.101 and its sibling ship
作为第一舰队
to be the first of a fleet.
最终 英国人设想了一个“红色空中运输带”计划
Ultimately the British envisioned an “all-red girdle of air transport”
可到达全球一半以上的地方
that reached more than halfway round the globe
官方地图上帝国领土用醒目的红色标明
red was the striking color of Empire territories on official maps.
这张地图阐释了这个愿景
Now this map illustrates that vision.
在底部 图例上标着:
At the bottom, in the legend, it reads:
“可能的帝国飞艇路线”
“ Possible Imperial Airship Routes. ”
英国人设想用飞艇连接其庞大帝国的遥远角落
The British envisioned using airships to link the far-flung corners of their colossal Empire.
它覆盖了全球四分之一的土地和五分之一的人口
It covered a quarter of the world and encompassed a fifth of its population.
R101预示了英国空中的统治地位:
R.101 promised British dominance of the air:
它将统治天空 一如英国的无畏舰统治海洋
to rule the skies as British Dreadnoughts ruled the seas.
他们计划建造以皇家飞艇工厂为中心的塔台基础设施
They planned an infrastructure of towers centeredon the Royal Airship Works:
西至加拿大——哈利法克斯 渥太华和魁北克
— west Canada, Halifax, Ottawa and Quebec.
然后向南到开罗 卡拉奇——
And then south to Cairo, Karachi —
当时隶属印度——开普敦 蒙巴萨和澳大利亚的墨尔本
at the time in India — Cape Town, Mombasa and Melbourne in Australia.
这个愿景我们在今天看来非常宏伟
This vision might seem grand to us today
因为我们经常认为浮空器是个新奇的玩意儿
because we often think of lighter-than-air craft as a novelty
——比如热气球 盘旋在超级碗上空的小型软式飞艇
— a hot-air balloon or the blimps used to cover the Super Bowl
但它们只不过是一道影子 藏在最巨大的浮空器……
But these are mere shadows of the greatest of all lighter-than-air craft….
(硬式)飞艇之下
the airship.
不同于硬式飞艇 气球和软式飞艇都是压力飞船
Unlike an airship, balloon and blimps are both pressure vessels:
它们的外形由浮升气体的压力维持
their shape is maintained by the pressure of the lifting gas.
与此相反 在像R101这样的硬式飞艇中
In contrast, in an airship like R.101,
它的外形由金属框架组成
it ’ s shape is formed by a metal framework.
金属骨架内装有充满氢气的气球
The metal skeleton houses the hydrogen-filled balloons,
称为气囊 可以使飞艇上升
called gas bags, that lift the ship
气囊由横跨框架的布面所保护
These bags are protected by a cloth cover stretched across the framework.
布面自然不是气密的
The cloth cover is not, of course, gas-tight,
它的作用是防止风 雨水
it ’ s purpose, instead, is to keep wind, rain,
和阳光对气囊的损坏
and sun from damaging the gas bags.
这种结构能够使硬式飞艇比软式飞艇或气球
This structure enables an airship to travel faster
行进更快 承载更大的有效载荷
and heft a much larger payload than a blimp or balloon.
在塑料流行之前的20世纪30年代 要建造这样的飞行器 需要巧妙的工程设计
To construct such a craft required clever engineering in the 1930s, an era before plastics.
最好的证明是飞艇上的15个巨型气囊 它们能容纳超过500万立方英尺的氢气
This is best reflected in the ship ’ s fifteen giant gas bags that held over five million cubic feet of hydrogen
——足以举起170吨的质量
— enough to lift about 170 tons.
为了制造这些气囊
To construct these gas bags
工程师需要搜寻一种不透氢的材料——
the engineering staff searched for a material that was impermeable to hydrogen
氢气是一种非常难控制的小分子——
a small molecule that is notoriously difficult to contain
而且这种材料必须轻质 柔韧而且耐用
yet they also needed a material that was lightweight, flexible, yet durable.
他们研究了橡胶和粘胶 一种早期合成纤维
They investigated rubber, and viscose, an early synthetic fabric,
表面涂有胶乳
coated with latex,
但当将它们皱缩然后充气时 这些材料都发生了破裂和泄漏
but when crumpled then inflated, each of these materials cracked and leaked.
因此他们决定用传统材料制造飞艇的气囊
So they settled for the traditional material used to construct airship gas bags… …
牛 更具体地说 牛肠的一部分
oxen. More specifically, part of the intestine of an ox.
牛肠的外部有一层薄膜 称为盲肠
The outside of an ox ’ s intestine is lined with a fine membrane, called the cecum,
它薄而柔韧 氢气只能从里面缓慢地渗出
which is thin and flexible, and through which hydrogen seeps only slowly.
这项制作气囊的艰巨任务是由皇家飞艇工厂的女人们完成的
The grisly work of fabricating the gas bags was done by the women of the Royal Airship Works.
在一间散发着腐肉恶臭的屋子里
In a room reeking of rotting meat,
女人们先是浸泡肠子 用钝刀刮去脂块
they soaked intestines, scraped away lumps of fat with blunt knives,
将皮浸泡一整夜 然后再刮一遍
soaked the skins overnight, and then scraped again.
小块的牛肠衣并不像齐柏林飞艇一样用针线缝合起来
And then glued the pieces into larger and larger sheets —
而是粘合成一大片
no stitching, unlike for zeppelins
直到她们有足够大的肠衣去包裹成一个充气的形状 以此来制作气囊
— until they had enough to wrap about an air-filled form to construct a gas bag.
要了解她们任务的艰巨
To appreciate the magnitude of their task
思考一下制作一个气囊需要多少内脏就知道了
consider how many entrails were needed to make a bag.
牛盲肠的面积大约是30英寸x6英寸
The cecum of an ox is about thirty inches by six inches,
略超过1平方英尺
a little over a square foot,
而R101的一个气囊平展开后占30000平方英尺
yet one of R.101 ’ s gas bags when spread flat covers 30,000 square feet
——等同于一个边长约175英尺的正方形
— a square about 175 feet on a side.
在这个黄色小圆内的——这个点——是一个盲肠
So, inside that yellow circle — the tiny dash — is a single cecum.
为一个典型的气囊 她们总计粘合了约5万或6万个牛肠
So, in total they glued together for a typical gas bag some 50 or 60 thousand entrails
去制作一个体积能容纳37500立方英尺氢气
to create a double-walled gas bags that held 37,500 cubic feet of hydrogen,
却只有30磅重的双层气囊
yet weighed a mere 30 pounds.
相比不活泼的氦气 选用可燃的氢气填充气囊对飞艇似乎是个糟糕的选择
Flammable hydrogen to fill these bags seems a poor choice for an airship, compared to inert helium
——理论上氦气提升的重量是氢气的93%
— in principle helium lifts 93 % of the weight hefted by hydrogen.
你会觉得升力仅降低7%
You would think the lift would drop by only 7%,
为安全而言这是很小的成本
which would be a small cost to pay for safety.
然而 对于商用飞艇 氢气是唯一的选择:
Yet, for a commercial airship, hydrogen is the only choice:
它可以建造更轻 因而成本更低的飞艇
it allows a lighter and thus less expensive airship to be built.
这就是原因
Here’s why.
我们来对比一下R101分别使用氢气和氦气的升力
Let ’ s look at the lift of R.101 with both hydrogen and helium.
R101这样的飞艇能携带500万立方英尺用于提升的气体
A ship like R.101 carries about five million cubic feet of lifting gas,
如果装的是氢气 其总升力为略超177吨
that ’ s a gross lift of a little over 177 tons for hydrogen
如果是氦气 那么升力为氢气的93% 即约165吨
and for helium about 93 % of that lift, or about 165 tons.
但这数据对应的是纯氢气和纯氦气
But that’s for pure hydrogen and pure helium.
实际的纯度不会达到100%
In practice the purity is less than 100 %,
特别是氦气的话 这样你会损失好几吨的力
especially for helium and so you lose several tons,
这意味着氦气仅能提升氢气提升量的88%
which means helium lifts only about 88 % of the amount lifted by hydrogen.
现在 我们计算一下可用的有效载荷
Now, let’s calculate the amount of payload available.
飞艇的金属框架约重113吨
The airship’s framework weighs about 113 tons.
接下来 飞艇操作必须的机组人员 燃料等占去44吨
Next, the essential crew, fuel and so on needed to operate the airship take up another 44 tons.
那么 在用氢气还剩有13吨有效载荷的情况下——
So, in the case of hydrogen that leaves 13 tons of payload —
用于乘客 燃料 货物等的升力
lift for passengers, fuel, freight and so on,
这些使飞艇商业化的东西——
the stuff that makes an airship commercial —
用氦气的话
while for helium that
净有效载荷却是令人吃惊的-7吨
net payload is an astonishing minus 7 tons.
也就是说 飞艇不能留下有效载荷
That is, the airship could not left a payload,
事实上 在这个例子里——这是个很典型的例子
in fact, in this example — which is typical
——它甚至无法负载机组人员和燃料
— it could not even lift the crew and fuel.
此外 氦气极其昂贵
In addition, helium was tremendously expensive,
约为氢气的70倍
some seventy times the cost of hydrogen.
通常 氦气是从美国的气井中获取
Typically helium was captured at gas wells in the United States
然后运往英国的
and shipped to the United Kingdom,
而氢气是在现场由蒸汽产生的
while hydrogen was produced on-site from steam.
皇室飞艇工厂采用了莱恩法
The Royal Airship Works used the Lane Process,
蒸汽在高温下通过金属铁被还原成氢气
in which steam was reduced to hydrogen by passing it over metallic iron at a high temperature.
飞艇一旦被氢气提升
Once lifted by the hydrogen,
就以大约2000英尺的高度飞行
the airship flew at an altitude of about 2,000 feet
最高时速约为60英里
and at maximum of about sixty miles per hour.
飞艇由装在其下方厢式房间里的五个重油引擎驱动:
The ship was powered by five heavy-oil engines housed in cars underneath the airship:
两个在前面 两个靠近中部 一个靠近尾部
two in the front… two near the middle … and one near the tail.
一个工程师负责控制一个引擎
Each engine was attended by an engineer.
在尾部引擎车上的是乔·宾克斯
In the rear engine car was Joe Binks.
照片里他穿着飞行服在右边
He’s on the right here dressed in his flying suit.
一次八小时 宾克斯在等待控制车的指令的同时
For eight hours at a time Binks kept the engines in repair
使引擎保持在良好状态
as he waited for orders from the control car.
指令是通过仪表盘传输的
The orders were communicated via a dial
表盘上标有“待机” “慢速” “半油门” “全油门”
labeled standby, slow, half throttle, or full throttle
——旋转指针指示适当的操作
— a rotating pointer indicated the proper action,
指针旋转会响起铃声提醒
the pointer ’ s rotation was punctuated by a bell.
宾克斯在很严峻的条件下工作
Binks worked under harsh conditions.
从杂志上的这张插图来看 工作环境似乎很宽敞
This illustration from a popular magazine makes it seem roomy,
但实际上他无法完全站起来
but in reality he couldn ’ t stand up full height.
这张正在建造的汽车照片清楚地表明宾克斯的空间有多小:
This photo of the car being built makes clear how little room Binks had:
坐着的这个人展示了宾克斯能够行走的空间
The man sitting down shows where Binks could walk,
或者更经常的随着地板震动 他要在引擎上工作
or more often shimmy along the floor, to work on the engine.
中间这个人站在引擎将要被放置的地方
The man in the center stands where the engine will be placed.
在这张引擎已经装好的照片中
In this photo with the engine installed,
你能看到宾克斯工作的地方两边狭窄的空间
you can see the narrow space on either side where Binks worked.
想象一下 在离这台650马力的怪物几英寸的地方工作——
Imagine working within a few inches from this 650 horsepower monster —
它一开始被安装在一节火车头上——
it was originally mounted on a locomotive —
厢式房间里充满了震耳欲聋的声响
it filled the car with a sound so deafening
以至于宾克斯要用橡皮泥和棉花堵住耳朵来保护听力
that Binks filled his ears with plasticine and cotton to protect his hearing.
然而 尽管这很不可思议
Yet as amazing as this is,
他一天中最令人惊叹的时刻就是上下班时:
the most stunning moment of his day was getting to and from work:
当飞艇以每小时60多英里的速度飞速前行时
As the airship zipped along at 60 plus miles per hour,
乔·宾克斯从飞艇腹部爬出 沿着梯子爬下进入厢式房间
Joe Binks climbed from the belly of the ship, down a ladder into the car.
螺旋桨产生的推力如此强劲
The propeller spun with such force
以至于螺旋桨水可以将他与地面平行地举起
that its prop wash could lift him parallel to the ground,
把他变成一面只被他微弱的握力系住的人体旗帜
turning him into a human flag tethered only by his tenuous grip.
英国人不仅开发了这种新型飞艇
Not only did the British develop this novel airship,
还建立了必要的基础设施
they also created the necessary infrastructure.
比如 为使这架巨型飞艇着陆
For example, to land this giant ship,
英国人建造了停泊塔
the British developed a mooring tower
因为他们认为地面着陆对这样尺寸的飞艇来说太难了
because they thought ground landing too difficult for an airship of this size,
尽管德国的齐柏林飞艇总是在地面着陆
although Germany always used ground landings for its zeppelins.
降落时 飞艇拖着一根缆绳靠近停泊塔
The ship approached the tower, dragging a cable,
这条缆绳随后被钩在地面的塔索上
which was then hooked to the tower cables on the ground.
然后 在塔的底部
And then, at the tower ’ s base,
蒸汽驱动的绞盘将飞艇拉向塔
steam-powered winches pulled the ship toward the tower.
15或20分钟内R101就被塔中伸出的一条臂系住了
In fifteen or twenty minutes R.101 latched to an arm extending from the tower.
当机组人员守着飞艇的时候 塔顶内一阵忙乱
And then there was a flurry of activity inside the tower head as crew secured the ship.
停泊塔的顶端能承受30吨拉力
The mooring tower could withstand a thirty-ton pull at its top.
它的四条腿都嵌在一块大约12英尺见方的混凝土中
Each of its four legs was embedded in a piece of concrete about twelve feet square
伸入地下6英尺
that extended six feet into the ground.
这个塔提供了一种简便的方式为飞艇供应水 燃料和氢气
The tower offered an easy way to supply the airship with water, fuel, and hydrogen.
基地的大型水泵每小时能抽取5000加仑的水
Huge pumps at the base could lift 5,000 gallons of water per hour
从塔附近地下埋着的1万加仑的油箱中以每分钟2000加仑的速度抽取燃料
and pump fuel at 2,000 gallons per minute from the 10,000-gallon tank buried in the ground near the tower.
乘客通过塔上的软桥登机
At the tower passengers boarded via a flexible bridge;
他们离地170英尺 会感觉心底发寒
they had a chill-inducing view of the ground 170 feet below.
然而登机的过程可能更加刺激:
Yet their boarding could be even more thrilling:
当飞艇随风摇摆时 桥底的轮子使得它绕着塔旋转
wheels on the bottom of the bridge allowed it to revolve around the tower as the ship swung with the wind.
不同于之前的齐柏林飞艇
Unlike the Zeppelins that preceded it,
R101有一个新颖的特点:
R.101 had a novel feature:
乘客乘坐在艇身内部
The passenger rode inside the body of the ship,
而不是悬挂在飞艇上的厢式房间里
not in a car hung from the ship.
他们建了一个高雅的餐厅
They built in an elegant dining room.
餐具上装饰有皇室飞艇工厂的徽章
The cutlery and tableware were blazoned with the Royal Airship Works crest.
当乘客就餐时
As passengers dined,
乘务员会背挺直 下巴抬起 靠着墙站立
the airship ’ s steward stood against a wall with his back straight and his chin raised —
他的外表“干干净净” 一个机组人员说
his appearance was “ spick and span, ” said a crew member.
他筹备这些饭菜:
He planned and organized the meals:
他的目标是提供七道饭菜 足以与伦敦最好的酒店媲美
his goal was seven-course meals comparable to those of the best London hotels.
一个像网球场这么大 有横跨飞艇宽度的巨大明亮的休息室
A large, brightly lit lounge the size of a tennis court spanned the width of the airship.
它擦得光亮的木地板在阳光下闪闪发亮 阳光透过巨大的窗户洒向两侧船舷
Its polished wood floor gleamed in the sunlight that spilled through giant windows port and starboard.
在这一层 飞艇的设计者让乘客在飞往印度时可以整晚跳狐步舞
On this floor the airship ’ s designers planned for passengers to fox trot all night as the airship flew to India.
每个休息室的尽头都是设计者在飞艇上的杰作……
At the end of each lounge were the ships ’ masterstroke…
游步甲板
the promenade decks.
当乘客们在这里放松时
As passengers relaxed there
他们可以通过45度倾斜的大玻璃窗
they enjoyed a stunning panoramic view of the ground
欣赏到令人惊叹的地面全景
through large glass windows tilted at forty-five degrees.
除了客舱外 R101还有一个飞艇不寻常的特点:
Beyond the passengers quarters R.101 had an unusual feature for an airship…
虽然它载有超过
…:a smoking room… …
500万立方英尺的易燃氢气 但它设有一个吸烟室
even though the ship carried over five million cubic feet of flammable hydrogen.
这些精致的气囊承载了许多的希望和梦想
On these delicate gas bags rested many hopes and dreams,
但这架飞艇还不能胜任这项任务
yet the ship was not up to the task.
皇家飞艇(工厂)的技术人员
The Royal Airship ’ s technical staff concluded,
在研究了R101在英国上空试飞的数据后得出结论
after studying data from R.101 ’ s test flights over the United Kingdom,
这架飞艇没有足够飞往印度的升力:
that the ship didn ’ t have the lift to fly to India:
它太重了
it was too heavy.
部分原因是R101偏离了齐柏林飞艇使用的久经考验的原则
Partly this was because R.101 deviated from the time-tested principles used in zeppelins.
那个时代的飞艇框架是由一系列圆环组成的
An airship framework of that era was composed of a series of rings.
齐柏林飞艇工程师用薄而柔韧的圆环建造了坚固但轻质的框架
Zeppelin engineers built strong yet light frameworks from thin, flexible circular rings,
然后用拉紧的径向的线加固——
which were then stiffened by radial wires drawn taut —
线的作用就像自行车轮的辐条
the wires functioned like the spokes of a bicycle wheel.
在R101中 线被去掉 圆环被做得更厚
In R.101 the wires were eliminated, and the rings were made much thicker.
这样导致了框架更重
This resulted in a heavier framework.
这大大减少了可用于燃料的提升量
This decreased the amount of lift available for fuel so much
因此在R101从印度返回时
so that on R.101 ’ s return trip from India,
技术人员计算出飞艇将无法
the technical staff calculated that the ship would not be able
完成从卡拉奇到伊斯梅利亚的2800英里航程的第一段
to complete the first leg of the 2,800-mile journey from Karachi to Ismailia.
他们估计R101的燃料将在沙特阿拉伯的沙漠上空耗尽
R.101 ’ s fuel, they estimated, would run out over the desert in Saudi Arabia;
飞艇的引擎会熄火 和飞艇一起漂浮在
the ship would float with its engines stalled 500 miles
离埃及的停泊塔大约500英里的地方
or so from the mooring tower in Egypt.
为确保这样的失误不会发生
To ensure that such a failure would not occur,
技术人员提出了一个大胆的计划
the technical staff devised an audacious plan.
从这张照片你可以看到这个计划的结果
In this photo you can see the results of that plan.
上面这个是6月下旬时的飞艇
At the top is the airship in late June
下面这个是6周之后的:
and at the bottom six weeks later:
飞艇从735英尺加长到了777英尺
the ship has been lengthened from 735 to 777 feet.
技术人员把飞艇分成两个部分
The technical staff split the ship in two,
插入一段框架
inserted a section of framework
并增加一个气囊 以获得足够的升力来装载燃料
and added a gas bags to gain enough lift to carry fuel.
在R101被一分为二并加长后不久
A short time after R.101 was split in two and lengthened
它离开了皇家飞艇工厂前往印度
it departed the Royal Airship Works for India.
在格林威治标准时间10月4日下午6点半后几分钟 飞艇离开了停泊塔
The airship departed the mooring tower on October 4th a few minutes after 6:30 p.m. Greenwich mean time.
飞艇上共有54人:
On board were 54 people:
48名皇家飞艇工厂的机组人员和工程人员
Forty-eight crew or members of the Royal Airship Works,
其余的观察员和要人
and the rest observers and dignitaries,
包括英国航空大臣
including Britain ’ s Secretary of State for Air.
这次航行的目的是证明 R101有能力飞往印度
The purpose of this flight was to demonstrate R.101 ’ s ability to travel to India,
但是当它穿越英国 越过英吉利海峡驶入法国时
but as it travelled across England, over the Channel and into France,
遇到了狂风和倾盆大雨
the ship encountered bruising winds and pelting rain.
狂风如此猛烈 以至于飞艇的地面速度常常只有每小时30英里
Winds so fierce that often it travelled at a ground speed of only thirty miles per hour.
凌晨两点多 在巴黎北部约40英里(64公里)的地方
At a few minutes past two in the morning about 40 miles (64 kilometers) north of Paris,
R101在1200英尺的高空穿过湍流的空气
R.101 chopped through the turbulent air at an altitude of 1,200 feet,
正好在一层云层之下
just below a layer of clouds.
飞艇顶部的舱盖裂开了 飞艇往下倾斜
The cover on top of the airship split open, the ship pitched down,
机组人员用升降机将飞艇恢复到水平位置
the ship ’ s crew used the elevators to restore the ship to horizontal.
此时离地面有500英尺的高度
It was now 500 feet above the ground.
控制车发出信号 要求切断发电机的动力
The control car signaled for the engine power to be cut
R101先俯冲到地面
and R.101 dock nose first to the ground
然后滑进了一片榛树和橡树林
then slide into a grove of hazel and oak trees.
随着导航照明弹点燃氢气 蓦然爆发了火焰
It burst into flames as navigational flares ignited the hydrogen.
宏伟壮观的R101
The imposing R.101,
连接大英帝国广阔疆土的伟大机器
the great machine to connect the vast geographic sweep of the British Empire,
化成了现在地面上的一堆残骸
was now a tangle of debris on the ground.
只有尾部的舵还挺立着
Only the rudder at the stern still stood tall.
挂在上面的破布条在风中飘扬
Rags and strips of fabric hung from it and fluttered in the wind,
中间的部分在铰链上摇摆 毫无目的四处摇荡
the center section rocking on its hinges, swinging aimlessly.
在高空60英尺 飞艇尾部末梢 几乎没有任何火焰
Sixty feet in the air, at the tip of the stern, almost untouched by any flames,
飞艇上的英国皇家空军军旗在风中摆动——
the ship ’ s RAF Ensign flapped in the wind —
旗上的英国国旗图案被烧毁了一部分
the Union Jack on the flag was partly burned,
而皇家空军的圆徽完好无损
but the RAF roundel was intact.
大部分的框架上 精致的气囊和塑料布盖无影无踪
Long gone from most of the framework were the delicate gas bags and plasticized cloth cover
它们都被熊熊的烈火汽化了
— both vaporized by the raging fire.
一辆被压坏的引擎车厢的抛光金属表面在火焰中闪着光
The polished metal exterior of a crushed engine car glistened in the flames.
与地面的碰撞使车厢旋转了180度
The collision with the ground rotated the car 180 degrees,
它的螺旋桨现在指着错误的方向
its propeller now facing the wrong way.
从这些残骸中 一名烧焦的机组人员站了起来
From this debris, a charred crew member rose,
但随后又跌入了火海
but then fell back into the flames.
在里面 一个工程师 他的身体已经碳化了
Inside an engineer, his body carbonized,
手里仍握着一把扳手
still clutching a wrench in his hand.
地面上到处是日常用品:
The ground was littered with everyday articles:
行李箱 皮靴 烧焦了的刮胡器
suitcases, fur-lined boots, charred shaving brushes,
一罐香烟 和一块仍在运转的手表
a tin of cigarettes, and a tickingwatch.
补给品散落在地上:
The stores were strewn on the ground:
几块面包 还有一罐标签还在的李子
a few loaves of bread, and a still-labeled tin of plums,
果汁从罐子里漏了出来
its juice leaking from the can.
又过了一会儿 唯一的声音
After a few moments the only sound
只有雨水打在闷烧着的残骸上时
was the hiss of rain evaporating
被蒸发的嘶嘶声
as it struck the smoldering wreckage.
少数的几个幸存者之一——
One of the few survivors —
54个人中仅6人幸存——
only six of the fifty-four survived —
是尾部引擎车上的乔·宾克斯
was Joe Binks from the rear engine car.
其余的人被埋在英国皇家飞艇工厂
The rest were buried in a communal grave
附近的一个公共墓地里
near the Royal Airship Works in the United Kingdom.
每个棺材都装饰有由R101的框架的金属
Each coffin was adorned with a small label fabricated
制成的小标签
from the metal of R.101 ’ s framework.
14块板上凿有名字
Fourteen of the plates bore names,
但其余人的遗体没有从残骸中被辨认出来
but the others were never identified in the wreckage.
他们的棺材上写着:
Their coffins read:
“纪念10月5日遇难的不知名飞行员”
“ To the memory of the unknown airman who died on October 5th. ”
这个故事还有一点:
There ’ s a little bit more to the story:
在某种意义上 飞艇又飞起来了
in a sense the airship flew again.
R101的残骸被喷灯 凿子和金属锯劈成碎片
The wreckage of R.101 was hacked to pieces using blow torches, chisels and metal saws.
被压实的80吨框架被运往谢菲尔德 在那里被熔化成废料
The compacted eighty-ton framework was transported to Sheffield, where it was melted to scrap,
然后卖给齐柏林飞艇公司
and then sold to the Zeppelin Company.
他们用这些来建造齐柏林LZ 129
They used it to create the zeppelin LZ 129,
这架飞艇更被人所知为……兴登堡号
an airship better known as… the Hindenburg.
如果你想了解更多
If you’d like to learn more,
你可以读我的书:
you can read my book:
《致命飞行:英国最后一架伟大飞艇的真实故事》
Fatal Flight: The True Story of Britain’s Last Great Airship.
你可以免费收听完整的有声书
You can listen for free to the complete audiobook.
详情访问engineerguy.com/airship
Details at engineerguy.com/airship.
或者你更喜欢的话 也可以在YouTube上收听
Or, you prefer you can listen right here on YouTube;
我已经在末尾的卡片上列出了链接
I ’ ve listed the link in the end card.
我是比尔·哈马克 一个搞工程的家伙
I’m Bill Hammack, the engineer guy.

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译制信息
视频概述

一个神奇飞艇的传奇一生

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

老王家隔壁

审核员

审核员 EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ixxXhZVFXxQ

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