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英国皇室简史

Brief History of the Royal Family

1066,
1066年
the start of the royal family on these fair isles.
英国皇室起始之年 在这些美丽的岛屿上
Well, there were kings and mini countries before that
之前也有过一些小王小国
and Druids before that, and Pangaea before that,
再早是德鲁依教徒 更早是盘古大陆
but we have to start somewhere and a millennia ago is plenty far.
但我们总得选个起点 而一千年前就够远了
If that leaves out Æthelred the Unready, so it goes.
这样讲不到埃塞尔雷德二世 但就这样吧
William the Conqueror, conquered in the’Norman Conquest’,
征服者威廉在“诺曼征服”中征服了英格兰
‘Norman’ here being code for French.
“诺曼”在这里暗指法国
Because it’s the olden days, people had lots of kids,
因为在古代 人们往往有很多子嗣
but to keep things simple, this familytree is going to leave out many of them on each branch
简明起见 这张族谱会略去各支中的许多后人
because not every child matters.
因为他们无足轻重
So William had three kids we care about:
威廉有三个孩子值得关注:
William II, Henry I and Adela.
威廉二世 亨利一世和女儿阿德拉
If you’ve seen the video about royal succession,
如果你看过皇室继承的那期视频
click here if you haven’t,
没看可以点击此处
you’ll know that formal rules for passing on the crown will get established,
你就会知道之后的王位继承有正式规则
but for now, it’s a free-for-all,
但目前 人人都有机会
home team advantage to the eldest son,
家族长子是有主场优势
but never forget bigger-army diplomacy.
可是永远别忘了强者为王
Upon William the Conquerors death, William II became king.
征服者威廉一世逝世后 威廉二世继位
William II didn’t marry,
威廉二世终生未娶
and on a bros day out with Henry died in a ‘Hunting Accident’
在和弟弟亨利外出时 死于“狩猎意外”
that gave Henry I the crown.
亨利一世因此继位
Henry I had at least 26 children
亨利一世至少有26名子嗣
of which only two were 100 % legit.
其中只有两位拥有百分之百的合法继承权
He declared his daughter would rule next after his son died in a ship wreck,
在儿子死于沉船事故后 他宣布由女儿继位
and swore his knights to honor Empress Matilda by crossing their hearts
并要求贵族誓死效忠玛蒂尔达女王
hoping to die, sticking a needle in their eye.
如有违背 不得好死
But when Henry I died while Matilda was in France,
但亨利一世去世时 玛蒂尔达远在法国
many ignored this
许多贵族无视诺言
while her cousin Stephen raced to Westminster
而她的表兄斯蒂芬迅速赶到西敏寺
using faster army diplomacy get coronated first.
兵贵神速 抢先加冕为王
Empress Matilda did eventually return and start a decade-long civil war
玛蒂尔达女王最终回国开启了长达十年的内战
that was pretty much a stalemate,
战争基本陷入僵局
because turtling in the 1100s was an effective RTS tactic.
因为在12世纪 静观其变是个有效的战术
While she did rule part of the island,
尽管她确实统治了部分领土
as Matilda never had an official coronation,
但由于从未正式加冕
her monarchical status is disputed.
玛蒂尔达的君主地位受到质疑
Now, as Stephen’s children were either dead, disinterested, or a nun,
鉴于斯蒂芬的孩子要么已逝 或无心王位 或已成修女
his crown went to his nephew, Henry II,
王位便传给了其外甥亨利二世
who had four sons:
他有四个儿子
Henry the Young, Richard the Lionheart, King John and Geoff.
幼王亨利 狮心王理查 约翰王和杰夫
Guess who died before his turn?
猜猜谁在即位前就死了?
Henry II saw the history thus far of
亨利二世至此已见识了
conquering, assassination, maybe, usurpation, attritional war
王权史上的征服 暗杀(不确定) 篡位和耗战
and decided waiting until after the death of the current king
他断定 等现任国王死后再选出下任国王
before sorting out the next king didn’t work.
这一举措并不可靠
So Henry II changed the system
于是他改变了制度
and crowned Henry the Young co-king with him,
封幼王亨利为王储 与他共同摄政
invoking the rule of two:
援引“二人法则”的说法:
one is none, two is one.
不多不少 两个刚好
If it’s important, you need a backup.
重要的东西就需要备份
It was a good plan for stability,
这个措施有利于国家稳定
helped by the young King’s popularity,
还能提高幼王的声誉
but unfortunately– the apprentice rebelled against the master,
不幸的是 师徒反目的故事又上演了
rallying his brothers — which resulted in another civil war of disputed monarchs
亨利集结其兄弟 发动了另一场王位争夺内战
during which Henry the Young died of dysentery,
期间 幼王亨利死于痢疾
Henry the Elder died of fever, and Richard I took the crown.
老亨利也死于热病 随后理查一世继位
After Richard came John and four eldest son successions in a row:
理查之后是约翰 他作为亨利二世的第四子登上王位
John to Henry III (insert Magna Carta here)
约翰传位给亨利三世(期间签署《大宪章》)
to Edward I (Longshanks) to Edward II — to Edward III.
接着是长腿王爱德华一世 再到爱德华二世 爱德华三世
Actually Ed II was overthrown by Isabelle of France
实际上 爱德华二世是被法国的伊莎贝拉
A.K.A the She-Wolf of France A.K.A. his wife.
也就是绰号“法兰西母狼”的妻子所推翻
After deposing her husband, she acted as regent for their son.
在罢黜丈夫之后 她成了儿子的摄政王
Every one of these arrows glosses over a bit of complexity.
说到底皇室成员的情况都不简单
Edward III had five sons:
爱德华三世有五个儿子:
Edward the Black Prince, Lionel, John, Edmund, and Thomas,
黑太子爱德华 莱昂内尔 约翰 埃德蒙和托马斯
none of which would wear the crown.
但他们都没能继承王位
When Edward III died,
爱德华三世死后
his throne would have gone to The Black Prince,
王位本应由黑太子继承
but he was dead at the time
但此时黑太子已过世
so the crown went to his boringly named son Richard, now the second.
于是黑太子之子理查继承王位 即理查二世
There’s a bunch of drama lamma stuff around Richard the second
后世有许多围绕理查二世的戏剧创作
which your English teacher might force you to read about,
英语老师可能会强迫你去阅读
but spoiler alert, history’s ending is always the same:
剧透一下:历史总是惊人的相似
bigger-army diplomacy.
强者为王
This time from Henry IV who gets the crown
这一次是亨利四世夺得了王位
and Richard II gets starvation in captivity.
而理查二世在囚禁中活活饿死
Another Henry before we get to the War of the Roses:
玫瑰战争爆发之前还有一个亨利五世
A war that strikes terror and boredom in the minds of students of history the nation over
玫瑰战争让选修历史的同学既痛苦又厌烦
who have to deal with this family tree
因为你必须理清这里面的复杂关系
‘simplified’ to explain why everyone was angry.
这张“简化”的族谱能说明大家为何气愤
But the shortest version ever is
简单来说玫瑰战争就是
Edward III’s great, great grandsons duked it out,
爱德华三世玄孙之间的一场内斗
even though one of them was dead for part of the fight.
甚至有人因此死在了战场上
But we can’t get into that now.
这里就不展开了
So Henry VI to Edward IV to Henry VI to Edward IV. The end.
这期间亨利六世和爱德华四世交替称王
Edward IV, on his deathbed left his crown to his son.
爱德华四世临终前将王位传给他儿子
But being twelve he needed protection,
可他年仅12岁 需要保护
so Richard, his best-ist uncle in the world,
于是他的“好”叔叔理查
promised to take super-good care of him.
承诺会好好照顾他
Edward V then promptly disappeared
可是爱德华五世很快离奇失踪
under suspicious circumstances that left Richard to become Richard the third.
这场“意外”使理查成功上位 即理查三世
But he didn’t stay king for long because Edward III’s
不过好景不长 因为爱德华三世的
great, great, great, great grandson Henry VII — took the crown,
来孙(五世孙)亨利七世夺取了王位
put a ring on Elizabeth of York to lock down that royal legitimacy
通过和约克的伊丽莎白联姻巩固了王室正统
and then sired Henry VIII, splitter of churches and ladies.
继任者是其儿子亨利八世(休妻者和脱离罗马教会者)
Henry VIII thought it was high time to formalize the rule of inheritance,
亨利八世认为制定王位继承法势在必行
so he wrote them out in his will,
于是根据其意愿制定了法律
basically saying oldest boys first,
大体就是长子优先
girls only if there aren’t any boys.
只有王室没有男性 女性才可继位
And Parliament approved the rules,
议会通过了这一方案
which should have made everything neat and tidy,
看起来似乎一切都安排妥当
but we’re about to enter the really messy time.
可事与愿违 皇室即将进入混乱时期
Because Henry’s son lived just long enough to screw it up.
因为他儿子在其短暂的统治期间就把事情搞砸了
Inheriting the throne at 9,
爱德华六世九岁继位
there was, of course, a scheming protectorate running things,
因此当然有个狡诈的摄政者把持朝政
yet he still declared at 15
可他还是在15岁时
that his father’s rules were dumb and his sisters were dumb,
宣布其父的继承法无效 姐姐们无权继位
and that his first cousin once removed, Lady Jane Grey,
而他曾无权继位的远房表姐简·格雷
should be the next monarch instead.
将成为下一任君主
Then he died and Lady Jane Grey became queen at sweet sixteen,
不久爱德华去世 16岁的简·格雷成了女王
sort of — in a disputed status way for nine days,
某种程度上 她只做了九天饱受争议的女王
until beheaded by Mary,
就被玛丽斩首
the first really, truly officially nobody doubts it Queen.
玛丽一世成了首位毋庸置疑的女王
Mary didn’t have any kids,
玛丽没有子嗣
and passed the crown to Elizabeth I
王位传给了伊丽莎白一世
who became the second queen in a row, too also not have children.
她继任为第二位女王 也没有子嗣
but no problem because Lady Jane Grey was next in …
但不要紧 简·格雷是下一位……
Oh,right.
噢 对了(她已经死了)
Now, this is in pointed which we acknowledge, Scotland Exists.
现在 我们不得不承认苏格兰的存在了
They’d been doing their own royal thing
苏格兰有自己的皇室体系
which for our purposes joins the English branch
而英格兰一直试图让他们加入
where Edward III’s great granddaughter married into it in the 1400s,
爱德华三世的曾孙女于15世纪嫁入苏格兰皇室
and then goes: James, James, James, James, James,
其后代依次是詹姆斯一 二 三 四 五世
Mary Queen of Scotts, James,
苏格兰玛丽女王和詹姆斯六世
bringing us back to the 1600s.
把我们带回到17世纪
Henry the VIII’s sister importantly also married into this line of the family
更重要的是亨利八世的姐姐嫁给了 苏格兰国王詹姆斯四世
giving it English legitimacy points in the eyes of the English Parliament,
让英格兰议会看到其继承英格兰王位的合法性
which asked to borrow Scotland’s James, making him king of two countries
议会提议让苏格兰的詹姆斯成为两国共同的国王
with two numbers in his name depending on where you’re counting from.
因为他体内流淌着两国皇室的血液
James had a son, Charles I,
詹姆斯一世有一个儿子 查理一世
and you might think this unification of the monarchs means
你可能以为 随着两国王室联合
the very messy time is over.
混乱时期已经结束
But no. Because Cromwell.
并非如此 因为有克伦威尔
Cromwell didn’t like kings
克伦威尔不喜欢君主
and beheaded Charles I, declaring no royals no longer,
他处决了查理一世 宣称世上再无皇室
making himself The Lord Protector
自称为“护国公”
which was in no way like a king
并强调这和国王不同
even though he was in charge
尽管他实际上大权在握
and it was a hereditary office passed to his son.
并且由他儿子世袭了这个职务
But the Cromwells didn’t last
但克伦威尔的统治并不长久
mainly because his son was a fancy country squire
主要因为他儿子是个自负的乡绅贵族
who didn’t follow rule 0: keep the army happy,
没有遵守最基本的统治规则:让军队满意
giving Charles’s son, Charles II, the ability to reestablish the monarchy.
让查理的儿子查理二世有能力去复辟王朝
Charles II had lots of children, all of which were illegitimate,
查理二世有许多子嗣 可都是私生子
leaving his brother, James II next in line.
于是其弟詹姆斯二世顺势继位
But James II was Catholic,
可詹姆斯二世是罗马天主教徒
and ever since Henry split the church,
自从亨利八世使英国脱离罗马教廷后
Catholics had terrible approval ratings.
天主教徒的支持率就很低
But conveniently, he had nice Protestant daughters,
但巧的是 詹姆斯二世的女儿们是新教徒
one married to a Dutch Prince
其中一位还嫁给了荷兰王子
who by the nature of these things was the grandson of Charles I.
从血缘来讲 他也是查理一世的外孙
Bonus English legitimacy points,
又给英国皇室继位的合法性加分
plus, who doesn’t like the Dutch?
再说 谁不喜欢荷兰人呢?
With James so unpopular and William and Mary so popular,
詹姆斯这么不得人心 威廉和玛丽却大受欢迎
the army and nobles pretty much
军队和贵族们基本上是
invited the royal couple to ‘invade’
把政权送到这对皇室夫妇手上
and James II fled.
詹姆斯二世只好逃亡
William and Mary ruled as co-monarchs,
威廉和玛丽共同执政
but without children the crown went to Queen Ann,
但由于没有子嗣 王位传给了安妮女王
who also didn’t produce any heirs, though not from lack of effort.
安妮也没有子女 尽管她为此做了不懈的努力
she was pregnant seventeen times.
她有过十七个子女(可是都不长命)
Again, finding themselves with a no-royals-no-longer situation.
英国皇室再次陷入了继承危机
Parliament decided it was really, truly seriously the time to sort out the rules of inheritance
议会认为制定严谨的王位继承法刻不容缓
to avoid pretenders from every branch of this messy tree fighting over the crown.
以避免皇室各支成员觊觎王位而引发混战
Parliament did a royal reboot to clear the cruft
议会重启了这场继承竞赛以结束混乱
defining Sophia of Hanover — the granddaughter of James dual numbers
将英王詹姆斯一世的外孙女 汉诺威的索菲亚
to be the new starting point for all claims to the crown.
定为这场王位角逐赛的新王
These rules finally stuck, thus ending the very messy time.
最终确立了继位规则 结束了这段混乱时期
George I, son of Sophia, was the first king under the new rules,
索菲娅之子乔治一世是新规则下的首位国王
then his son George II, to George III,
然后传位给乔治二世 三世
and even though he lost America
尽管乔治三世丢了美国领地
and his mind never fear, the rules are here,
不用担心 规则就是规则
so the crown continued to calmly descend the family tree,
所以王位得以继续在家族内延续
going to George IV, who didn’t have any surviving children,
之后是乔治四世 他也没留下幸存的子嗣
to William IV who had ten children — all illegitimate,
其弟威廉四世继位 他有十个孩子 但都是私生子
then passing through his dead younger brother to Queen Victoria
威廉的弟弟爱德华早逝 爱德华之女维多利亚继位
who started her reign in 1837
维多利亚女王1837年开始执政
and made it to just over the finishing line of the 20th century,
直到20世纪初才结束统治
which is a doubly impressively long time
考虑到当时的医疗技术
given the state of medical technology then.
更加佩服她的长久统治了
After the end of her age,
维多利亚时代结束后
the crown went to her son Edward VII to George V to Edward VIII
其子爱德华七世继位 之后是乔治五世 再到爱德华八世
who finally breaks up this neat and tidy
此时波澜无惊的王位继承
(and somewhat boring) line of succession by committing a scandal:
终因一场丑闻打破了其中的平静:
marrying a commoner, an American Commoner!
爱德华八世娶了一个美国平民为妻!
An American Commoner divorcee twice over!
这位美国平民女子还离过两次婚!
Ah
啊(惊叹)
Actually, the divorces were a real problem
事实上 在20世纪30年代
and weren’t compatible with the Monarch’s role as Head of State
离婚确实是个问题 与一国之君身份不符
and also the Church of England in the 1930s.
英国教会也不允许
Edward abdicated to his brother George VI,
最后爱德华让位给了其弟乔治六世
who was reluctant to take the crown, and
乔治六世勉强继位
and then had to oversee World War II
然后又忙于应付第二次世界大战
and the subsequent breakup of the British Empire
以及随之而来的帝国瓦解
which drained the reluctant King’s health, who died at 56,
最终导致他身体透支 于56岁逝世
leaving the crown to Elizabeth II, in 1952 at the age of 25.
25岁的伊丽莎白二世在1952年成为英国女王
Seven years older than Victoria, her great great grandmother was on her coronation day.
比她的高祖母维多利亚女王即位时要年长7岁
But in early September, 2015,
但截至2015年9月
Elizabeth became the longest-reigning Queen
伊丽莎白成了在位时间最长的君主
in not just British history, but world history.
不光是英国史上 也是世界史上的
From Elizabeth II
继伊丽莎白女王之后
the crown continues on to Charles, the longest heir apparent in British history,
王位将由查尔斯继承 他是英国史上在位时间最长的储君
to his son William, to his son George.
再到他的儿子威廉 威廉的儿子乔治
And that, is a brief history of the royal family.
以上就是英国皇室的简史了
Well, the section which I love,
这是我喜欢的一部分
monkey paintings were exhibited in many modern art museums
许多现代艺术博物馆都有展出猴子绘画
During the early 1960s
在20世纪60年代早期
as fat however
然而由于肥胖
the cultural scientific interest in monkey painting has diminished
对猴子绘画的文化科学兴趣已经消退
and a little note is taken of it today.
今天对此已很少关注
(the multi popular)the sixties were good for monkeys.
(多种流行)60年代对猴子来说很好
Is that when…there were…that more the 50s wasn’t it
50年代对它们来说更好 不是吗?
they were going into space and all sorts…
它们正进入太空 各种各样的……

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视频概述

简单介绍了从1066年到伊丽莎白二世,整个英国王位继承的时间轴,包括王位继承的人选、方式、规则以及相关的事件。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

天山童姥

审核员

审核员ART

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jNgP6d9HraI

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