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早餐,吃还是不吃?

Breakfast. Take it. Or leave it.

Lately I feel like I’ve become a target for people
最近我发现自己成了某些人的攻击对象
who like to tell me that I’m doing my nutrition wrong.
那些人总喜欢说我营养摄入不当
Evidently some of you don’t agree with my plea,
显然你们有些人不同意我的请求
don’t judge when it comes to what others eat.
不要随意评判别人吃什么
One of the things that horrifies people who know me closely
了解我的人都对一件事感到震惊
is that I don’t eat breakfast.
那就是我不吃早餐
I’m just not hungry in the morning.
我早上就是不饿
A cup of coffee and that’s all I need until lunch.
在午餐前 我只需要一杯咖啡就够了
And I’ve been that way for decades.
而且几十年来我一直都是这样的
That means I’m subjected to periodic lectures
于是 每隔一段时间就会有人对我说教
on how breakfast is the most important meal of the day.
他们总是告诉我 早餐是一天中最重要的一餐
Yeah, that’s a myth.
对 这是个有争议的话题
It’s also the topic of this week’s Healthcare Triage.
这也是本周《全民医保》的主题
Let’s start with weight gain.
我们从体重增加开始
There’re any number of people out there
总是有很多人
who will be happy to tell you that if you skip breakfast,
他们热衷于告诉你 如果你不吃早餐
not only will you not lose weight, you might gain weight.
你不仅不能减肥 还可能增加体重
Undeterred by the logic that forcing yourself
把这种强迫你吃一顿可能增加体重的没必要的饭的逻辑
to eat a meal you don’t want might lead to weight gain.
丢一边去吧
They come up with some interesting hypotheses.
他们提出了一些有趣的假设
They say that if you skip breakfast,
他们说如果你不吃早餐
you just eat more latter.
你后面会吃的更多
They say that if you skip the breakfast,
他们还说 如果你不吃早餐
you screw up your metabolism and store more fat somehow.
你的新陈代谢会紊乱 会以某种方式储存更多的脂肪
They say if you eat calories in the morning,
他们说如果你早上摄入卡路里
you have more time to burn them off.
你就有更多时间来消耗它们
They’re backed up with a lot of observational data.
他们得到了大量检测数据的支持
For instance, a 2010 systematic review
例如 2010年一篇发表在
published in Critical Reviews In Food Science And Nutrition
《食品科学与营养评论》上的系统性评测
found that children and adolescents in Europe
发现不吃早餐的欧洲儿童和青少年
who skipped breakfast had a higer BMI.
他们的BMI(体重指数)更高
This is the kind of study that leads to headlines
这类研究的主要观点是
that say that eating breakfast makes you thinner.
吃早餐会让你更瘦
But as we’ve covered over, and over, and over, and over,
但是正如我们在医疗诊断中
and over again on Healthcare Triage,
一遍又一遍讨论过的那样
correlation does not equal causation.
有相关性并不等于有因果关系
The University of York Center for Reviews and Dissemination
约克大学审查和传播中心
summarized that study, and this is what they said.
总结了这项研究 他们是这么说的
“The author’s decision to statistically combine the results of the studies
“作者将研究结果进行统计合并的决定
in a meta-analysis may not have been appropriate.
在系统分析中可能并不恰当
Results from cohort and cross-sectional studies are vulnerable
纵向研究和横向研究的结果容易受到
to a large number of biases and confounding factors,
大量偏差和干扰因素的影响
and pooling them may provide an overestimation of effect.
而汇集这些偏差和干扰因素可能会高估研究结果
The authors correctly acknowledged the limitations of the review
作者正确地认识到该评论的局限性
in terms of risk of publication bias,
是存在发表偏倚风险
inclusion of observational studies
风险包括观察性研究数据
and non-standard definitions of breakfast
以及综述中涉及到的吃早餐和
and breakfast skipping used in the review.
不吃早餐的非标准定义
The results should be interpreted with a substantial degree of caution
对这些实验结果的解释应该相当谨慎
because of poor reporting of the review process
因为关于审查过程的报告不齐全
and a lack of information on the quality of the included studies.”
而且缺乏对相关研究的质量进行评估的资料”
So, how can so many sources be wrong?
那么 哪儿来的这么多错误信息源呢
As Julia Baloo’s pointed out on a recent Vox article,
正如Julia Baloo最近发表在Vox的一篇文章指出
many of the reviews’ observational data are funded,
许多研究结果的检测数据
wait for it, by the breakfast industry!
其实呢 是由早餐行业赞助的
A 2003 review entitled,
2003年 有一篇文章题为
the effect of breakfast type on total daily ernergy
早餐类型对每日总能量摄入
intake and body mass index had the following to say in its conclusions:
和体重指数的影响 文中总结了以下几点
“This analysis provides evidence
“这项分析证明了
that skipping breakfast is not an effective way to manage weight.
不吃早餐并不能有效控制体重
Eating cereal, ready-to-eat or cooked cereal,
早餐吃麦片 如即食或煮熟的麦片
or quick breads for breakfast
或者速食面包
is associated with significantly lower body mass index
会显著降低体重指数
compared to skipping breakfast or eating meats and/or eggs for breakfast.”
这是相比于不吃早餐或早餐吃肉和/或鸡蛋的结果”
You know who funded that study?
你知道是谁赞助了这项研究吗
The Kellogg company!
凯洛格公司(谷类早餐制造商)
Shocking!
震惊吧
A 2014 study entitled,
2014年 一项题为
skipping breakfast leads to weight loss
不吃早餐能减肥 但也会导致
but also elevated cholesterol
胆固醇升高的研究
compared with consuming daily breakfast of oat porridge
对比了每天早餐吃燕麦粥
or frosted cornflakes in overweight individuals.
或磨砂玉米片的肥胖人群
A randomized controlled trial
这项随机对照试验
had the following to say:
得出了以下结论:
“In conclusion, although skipping breakfast led to weight loss,
“总之 虽然不吃早餐可以减肥
it also resulted in increased total cholesterol concentrations
但与吃燕麦粥或磨砂玉米片相比
compared with eating either oat porridge
不吃早餐更容易导致
or frosted cornflakes for breakfast.”
胆固醇浓度增加”
You know who funded that study?
你知道是谁赞助了这项研究吗
The Quaker Oat Center of Excellence!
桂格燕麦公司
I’m serious!
我是说真的
None of this is to say I’m demonizing breakfast.
这并不是说我在妖魔化早餐
First of all, it’s delicious.
首先 早餐很美味
Going out to a late morning breakfast with my family on a Sunday morning
周日早上和家人一起出去吃早餐
is pretty much my favorite meal of the week.
是我一周中最爱的一餐
Given the choice between breakfast food or a lunch food at a brunch,
如果让我在早午餐中选择吃早餐食物还是午餐食物
I choose the eggs every time.
我每次都会选择鸡蛋
But that’s because I like it, not because I need it.
但那是因为我喜欢它 不是因为我需要它
I’m not hungry at 7:00 in the morning.
我早上七点就是不饿
I don’t want to eat then.
我不想吃早餐
If you offer me breakfast at 11:00, I’m all in.
如果你在11点给我提供早餐 我肯定吃
But that’s pretty much lunch.
但那差不多就是午餐了
If you’re hungry at 7:00am, then you should eat.
如果你早上七点会饿 那你应该吃点东西
Enjoy your breakfast, just don’t force it on others.
享受你的早餐就好 但是不要强迫别人
My wife Amy needs it.
我妻子艾米需要早餐
So do my kids Noah and Sydney.
我的孩子诺亚和西德尼也是
But my son Jacob doesn’t.
但我儿子雅各布不需要
He’s like me. He just wants to go to school.
他像我 他早上起来只想去学校
And we let him.
我们也同意了
I can’t see the benefit of force-feeding him a meal
我看不出强迫他吃早餐有什么好处
he doesn’t feel like he needs,
他觉得自己不需要
especially since his school feeds him lunch at like 10:30.
而且他在学校十点半左右就吃午饭了
This is when breakfast proponents will start throwing research around
这时 早餐拥护者就会开始四处散布研究结果
that shows the kids who eat breakfast do better in school
表明吃早餐的孩子在学校表现更好
and are more able to pay attention.
而且注意力更集中
But it’s important to remember that a lot of those studies
但重要的是要记住 那些研究有很多
involve kids who are economically disadvantage.
都涉及到经济上处于劣势的孩子
They likely wanted breakfast and weren’t getting it.
他们可能想吃早餐 但却吃不起
No one denies that hungry kids should eat.
没人会否认饥饿的孩子应该吃东西
I’m certainly not.
我当然也不否认
I have no doubt that kids who are hungry
我毫不怀疑饥饿的孩子可能
will less likely to pay attention and will not do as well.
不太集中注意力 表现也没有那么好
Hungry kids should be fed.
饥饿的孩子应该吃东西
But this is different from forcing kids to eat if they don’t want to.
但这与强迫孩子吃东西是不一样的
Don’t believe me?
不相信吗
To the research.
看研究结果
From Nutrition Research Review 2009,
2009年的《营养研究评论》
“a systematic review of the effect of breakfast
有一篇系统性评论是关于早餐
on the cognitive performance of children and adolescents.”
对儿童和青少年认知能力影响的
And I’m quoting here.
我在这里引用一下
“The evidence indicates that breakfast consumption
“有证据表明 吃早餐
is more beneficial than skipping breakfast,
比不吃早餐更有益
But this effect is more apparent in children
但这种影响在营养不良的
whose nutritional status is comprimised.
儿童中更为明显
There is a lack of research comparing breakfast type,
目前还缺乏对早餐类型进行比较的研究
precluding recommendations for the size and composition
这就阻碍了对影响儿童认知功能的
of an optimal breakfast for children’s cognitive function.
最佳早餐的分量和组成成分的推荐
Few studies examined adolescents.
很少有研究去调查青少年
Studies of school breakfast programmes suggest
对学校开展早餐计划的研究表明
that such interventions can have positive effects on academic performance,
这种计划可以对学习成绩产生积极影响
but this may be in part explained by the increased school attendance that programmes encourage.”
但一定程度上 可能是由于该计划激励了入学率上升”
In other words, what I said.
换言之 正如我所说的
Here’s the thing.
事情就是这样
If you’re hungry in the morning, eat.
如果你早上会饿 那就吃吧
If you feel like you need to eat breakfast
如果你觉得你需要吃早餐
in order to do well or be functional, eat.
来保持身体健康 那就吃吧
If you believe breakfast makes
如果你相信早餐
your eating over the course of the day more healthy, eat.
能让你一天的饮食更健康 那就吃吧
But for those of us who don’t want to,
但对于那些不想这么做的人
leave us alone.
别管我们
Healthcare Triage is supported in part by viewers like you do PATREON.COM,
《全民医保》一部分是由你们这样的观众通过众筹网站支持的
a service that allows you to support the show through a monthly donation.
这是一个可以通过每月捐款来支持节目的服务网站
Your support makes this show bigger and better.
你们的支持会让这个节目更大更好
We’d espesially like to thank our research associate, Joe Sevits,
我们要特别感谢我们研究助理乔•赛维斯
give a special shout-out to Jonathon Dunn,
特别感谢乔纳森•邓恩
and thank our surgeon admiral, Sam.
还要感谢我们的军医上将萨姆
Thanks Joe and John, thanks Sam.
谢谢乔和约翰 谢谢萨姆
More information can be found at
更多信息请访问
PATREON.COM/HEALTHCARETRIAGE
众筹网站或全民医保网站

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视频概述

吃早餐一定好吗,不吃早餐一定不好吗?看了这个视频你会有答案的!

听录译者

教瑜伽的Diana

翻译译者

claire

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Syleh_6Aopw

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