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霉菌和细菌的斗争 – 抗生素原理 – 译学馆
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霉菌和细菌的斗争 - 抗生素原理

Bread Mold Kills Bacteria

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[MUSIC PLAYING]
微生物很小,小到你都看不到
Microorganisms are small, so small you can’t even see them
除非他们集中在一起
unless they cluster together.
每一个点都是几百万个细菌
Each of these dots is really millions of bacteria.
但在微观层面,霉菌和细菌
But down on a microscopic scale, mold and bacteria
进行着邪恶的斗争
fight vicious battles.
它们的资源和领地是有限的
Their resources and territory are scarce.
而且是有风险的
And the stakes are survival.
在霉菌的军火库里,有强力的化学武器
Mold has a powerful chemical weapon in its arsenal.
我是Emily
I’m Emily.
我想向你介绍Alexander Fleming的
And I’d like to show you Alexander Fleming’s
著名的发现关于面包霉杀死细菌
famous discovery that bread mold kills bacteria.
这是些新鲜的面包
Here’s some fresh bread.
我将加一些水,因为霉菌喜欢潮湿的环境
I’ll add some water, because mold loves moisture.
现在,我需要细菌,你可以在任何地方找到它们
Now, I need bacteria, which you can find basically anywhere,
包括在你的嘴里
including in your mouth.
这个培养皿有Jell-O-like的琼脂层
This Petri dish has a Jell-O-like layer
是我唾液里的细菌的食物
of agar, food for the bacteria in my saliva.
这将需要几天,细菌形成
It’ll take a few days before the colonies of bacteria
大到肉眼能够看到的菌落
are big enough to see.
让我们设置一个地方培养霉菌和细菌
Let’s set up place to grow the mold and bacteria
以一个密闭的方式,使它不会传播或影响任何其他事情
in a contained way so it doesn’t spread or infect anything else.
这些钟罩将会帮助确定没有东西会污染
These bell jars will help make sure that nothing contaminates
这个实验
the experiment.
而且这个实验不能污染其他任何东西
And the experiment doesn’t contaminate anything else.
我回来了
I’m back.
好的,有好多细菌
Well, there’s a lot of bacteria.
每一个细胞分裂了,又分裂了,再次分裂了
Each cell divided and divided and divided
形成了一个我们能肉眼看到的群体
to make a colony that we can see now.
面包霉也长大了
So bread mold also grew.
让我们看看它是否能杀死一些细菌
Let’s see if it can kill some bacteria.
我将用厚厚一块面包霉,让它能起作用
I’ll take a chunk of bread mold and let it do its work.
传说在弗莱明最初的实验中,
Legend has it that in Fleming’s original experiment,
一些来自他午餐三明治里的霉菌
some mold from his lunch sandwich
不小心掉进他的培养皿。
accidentally dropped into his Petri dish.
让我们来近距离观察
Let’s take a closer look.
过一会我们要回来,并且看看发生了什么改变
Then we’ll come back later and see what’s changed.
在显微镜下,霉菌看起来像一些
Under a microscope mold looks something
这种黄色的模型
like this yellow model.
而且霉菌攻击细菌的细菌壁
And mold attacks bacteria cell walls,
由这些杯子表现出来
represented by these cups.
霉菌分泌的化学物质,青霉素
Mold secretes a chemical, penicillin,
可以破坏细菌的细胞壁,(霉菌以此)赢得了
which damages bacteria cell walls, stamping out
比赛
the competition.
这意味着那些周围有霉菌的细菌将会死
This means the bacteria surrounding the mold will die.
我们正在看着这些在霉菌围绕下的细菌的死亡
We’re looking for bacterial death around the mold.
在霉菌围绕下,能看到哪里的细菌已经死亡了吗?
Do see where the bacteria have died around the mold?
这被称作死亡之环
This is called the ring of death.
霉菌和细菌已经争斗了上百万年了
Mold and bacteria have been battling for millions of years.
霉菌以新的武器—抗生素—来保持着上升
Mold keeps coming up with new weapons, antibiotics.
而且细菌也以新的防御措施–耐药性–保持着上升
And bacteria keeps coming up with new shields, resistance.
Alexander Fleming在治疗伤兵之后
Alexander Fleming, after treating wounded soldiers
在一战时,成为第一个人
in World War I, was the first person
发现抗生素是多么有用,
to realize how useful antibiotics are
在用于治疗传染病上
for treating infection.
今天,我们因为他的青霉素实验而记得他
Today, we remember him for his discovery of penicillin.
我认为他的实验是很有力的
I think his experiment is really neat.
我也希望你这么认为
And I hope you do too.

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视频来源

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