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你的大脑如何让食物更加津津有味? – 译学馆
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你的大脑如何让食物更加津津有味?

Brain Hacks to Make Your Food Taste Better

科学秀由蓝围裙赞助播出
SciShow is supported by Blue Apron,
前50名登录蓝围裙的心理科学秀观众
which is offering $ 50 off two boxes of meals
可获得购买两箱减免$50的优惠
to the first 50 SciShow Psych viewers to sign up.
新鲜食材 美味食谱带回家!
Get fresh ingredients and delicious recipes delivered right to your door.
点击下方的链接
Click on the link in the description
首次购买两箱蓝围裙食材赢得$50的优惠吧
to get $ 50 off your first two Blue Apron boxes!
[前奏]
[INTRO ♪]
我们都知道 人有五感
We’re all taught that we have 5 senses:
视觉 听觉 触觉 嗅觉和味觉
sight, hearing, touch, smell, and taste.
你也知道
And you also learn
嗅觉和味觉就像一枚硬币的两面
that smell and taste are really two sides of the same coin,
这就是为什么鼻塞时 食物会尝起来平淡无味
which is why your food becomes super bland if your nose is stuffed up.
味觉不止依赖于舌头和鼻子
Your sense of taste doesn’t just rely on your tongue and nose.
一切关于吃和喝的体验
Everything about the experience of eating or drinking,
从菜肴本身到背景杂声
from the dishes to the background noise,
都会影响食物的味道
can affect the flavors of your food.
因为 实际上 你并不是用舌头尝味
Because, really, you taste things not with your tongue,
而是用大脑
but with your brain.
味道由大脑控制的想法
The idea that flavor is basically all in your head
被科学家们称为“神经美食学”
is what scientists call neurogastronomy.
舌头和鼻子都有神经受体
Your tongue and nose have receptors
它能检测有味道的化学物质
that detect flavorful chemicals
并且把信号传送到大脑
and send signals to your brain.
但最终能尝到什么味道
But what you taste ultimately
要看这些信号是如何被解析的
depends on how those signals get interpreted.
一些科学家甚至声称
Some scientists even claim that
相比其他行为 吃东西时有更多的大脑神经系统参与
more brain systems are involved in tasting than anything else you do.
例如 需要调动支配感官和记忆的部位
Like, you need the regions that control senses, memory,
甚至包括把食物送进嘴里的肌肉
and even the muscles that get food into your mouth.
最重要的是
On top of all that,
大脑在不断寻找规律
your brain is constantly trying to find patterns in the world,
帮助你更快 更好地做出决定
to help you make quicker, better decisions.
这意味着通过改变那些和味蕾无关的事物
And that means you can hack your sense of taste
能欺骗我们的味觉
by changing things that have nothing to do with your taste buds.
一方面 食物的外观很重要
For one thing, what your food looks like matters.
在你小酌一点葡萄酒前 你会先看它的颜色
Before you take a swig of wine, you see its color.
你或许了解或者记住了
And you might know or remember
红色越深越苦涩
that deeper reds tend to be more bitter,
而白色通常更甜 更有果味
while whites are usually sweeter and fruitier.
所以 在你闻或尝任何东西前
So even before you smell or taste anything,
在你的期望中已经有了酒应该有的味道
you expect your wine to taste a certain way.
科学家们发现 期望可以改变你大脑对味道的感知
And scientists have found that expectation can change the flavor your brain perceives.
如果一种白色葡萄酒用食物色素染成红色
If a white wine is dyed red with food coloring,
你可能认为它闻起来 尝起来更像是红葡萄酒 而不是夏敦埃酒
you might think it smells and tastes more like a cabernet than a chardonnay.
或者如果你品尝一种神秘绿色果汁
Or if you taste a mystery green juice,
你可能会猜是苹果汁或酸橙汁
you might guess it ’ s apple or lime,
就算它实际上是樱桃口味的
even if it’s actually cherry-flavored.
2014年的一项研究发现
In a 2014 study, researchers even found that
改变室内光线甚至都能影响葡萄酒的浓烈度
changing the lighting in a room can affect how intense a wine tastes.
例如 绿色光线使得葡萄酒尝起来更新鲜
For instance, green mood lighting made the wine taste fresher.
所以 有些公司会在他们的食品中使用人工色素就不不足为奇
So it’ s no wonder why companies use artificial colorings in their foods.
你的触觉也在其中起到一定作用
Your sense of touch plays a role in this, too.
部分原因是美食家们把你吃东西的时以及之后的
That’s partially because of what gastronomists call mouthfeel the way your mouth feels
嘴部感受称之为“口感”
while you’ re eating something and shortly after.
辨认压成泥的食物出人意料地难
It’s surprisingly difficult to identifypureed foods,
例如 在一项闭眼品尝粥状食物的实验中
For instance.In blind taste tests of mush,
像苹果这样的食物很容易就被找出
some foods like apples were easier to pick out.
但是其它食物 甚至是羊肉和卷心菜
But others—even lamb or cabbage,
这些都被认为有其独特的味道
which are thought to have more distinct tastes—
正确辨认出的概率小于5%
were correctly IDed less than 5% of the time.
你还会被感觉转移所影响
You can also be influenced by sensation transference,
你会把对其他事物的感觉
where you take the qualities of other things you feel
归因于你的食物
and ascribe them to your food.
所以关于你餐具的一切
So everything about your dishware,
从颜色到形状 从原料到质地
from its color and shape to its material and texture,
都能改变你感受到的味道
can alter the flavors you perceive.
例如 更重的东西能联想到更好的质量
Heavier things are associated with higher quality, for instance.
所以当心理学家给碗或汤匙增加额外的重量时
So when psychologists added hidden weights to serving bowls or spoons,
人们会觉得这次的酸奶味道更好
people thought yogurt tasted better.
2010年的研究发现
Researchers in a 2010 study even
他们能让不新鲜的椒盐脆饼更脆一些
found they could make stale pretzels taste crispier
只需要让参与者在吃的时候手里拿着一个新鲜的椒盐脆饼
just by having a participant hold a fresh pretzel in their hand while eating.
你的听觉甚至都能影响味道
Even what you hear can influence flavor,
这有可能是因为你的
possibly because of neuronal cross talk
听觉神经和视觉神经有交流
between your senses of hearing and taste,
或者是因为音乐能影响你的心情
or because music can affect your mood.
心理学家发现
Psychologists have found that
特定的音乐或乐器似乎与某些口味更搭
certain styles of music or instruments seem to go with certain tastes—
比如在实践中 人们常说喝果味饮料最好和钢琴搭配
like in experiments, people have said piano music fits well with fruitier drinks.
在内隐联想测验中
And in Implicit Association Tests,
用连接两个事物的速度和精度
where the speed and accuracy of connecting two things
来测量无意识的联系
is used to measure unconscious associations,
高音能让食物更甜
higher notes are somehow considered sweeter.
这些联想会转换为口味的不同
Those associations translate into real flavor differences,
例如一项研究发现在你吃太妃糖的时候
like one study found that changing background music
改变背景音乐
while you taste a toffee
能让它变得更甜或者更苦
can make it seem sweeter or more bitter.
如果你在米其林用餐
Or if you dine at The Fat Duck,
英国的一家三星级餐厅
a 3 Michelin star restaurant in the UK,
你可以点一道“海之声”
you can order “The Sound of the Sea”:
一盘牡蛎和一首用iPod播放的海浪声
an oyster dish served alongside an iPod playing crashing waves.
厨师Heston Blumenthal和当地的心理学家们
Chef Heston Blumenthal created the dish
一起研发了这道菜 并发现
after teaming up with local psychologists who found
大海的声音能让牡蛎更有味道
that ocean sounds make oysters taste saltier—
虽然他们对这种多感官效应并没有一个准确的解释
although they don’t have an exact explanation for this multi-sensory effect.
就算没有音乐 你的感受也能影响味道
Even without music, what you’re feeling can affect flavors.
比如 研究者们发现想着自己喜欢的人
Like, researchers found that simplythinking about someone you love
能让食物更甜——就算是喝蒸馏水也一样
can make foods taste sweeter—even distilled water.
这或许是因为让你开心的事情
That may be because of how things that make you
和甜食都能触发你大脑的反馈机制
happy and sweet things both trigger the brain’ s reward system.
如果你对某件事感到沮丧
And if you’ re upset about something,
比如你最喜欢的队伍输了比赛
like your favorite sports team losing a game,
你的食物尝起来会更酸
your food may taste more sour.
研究发现去甲状腺素水平的提高——
Studies have found that increased levels of noradrenaline—
一种因压力下产生的激素–
a hormone that is released when you’re stressed—
能够加强酸味
can enhance sour flavors.
但是这是真正理性的地方
But here’ s where it gets really cerebral,
因为这种味觉氛围的联系相隔了十万八千里
because this mood-taste connection is a two-way street.
是啊 不同的味道能够影响你的感受和行为
Yeah, different tastes can influence how you feel and act.
举个例子 2014年的一项研究中 研究者们发现
For example, in one 2014 study, researchers found that
那些常喝苦味茶或者果汁的人认为他们更有敌意
people who drank a bitter tea or juice rated themselves as more hostile.
无论他们是否喜欢这种饮料
Didn’ t matter if they liked the drink or not
苦味能够转换为更具侵略性的感觉
a bitter taste translated to more aggressive feelings.
在一项后续试验中
And in a follow-up experiment,
通过对参与者进行负面评价
participants actually took out those aggressive feelings
放大了他们的侵略性
on their experimenters by rating their performance more negatively.
在2018年一项相似的研究中
Similarly, in a 2018 study,
来自英国和越南的参与者们喝了酸味饮料的人
participants from the UK and Vietnam that drank a sour drink
在赚钱游戏中更愿意冒风险
took more risks in a money-making game,
那些喝了甜味或鲜味的人则更保守
while those that drank sweet or umami ones played it safe.
这些看起来有点怪异
So all this may seem a little freaky,
好在你可以
but the upside is
利用这些知识在你的饮食中获取更多
that you might be able to use this knowledge to get more from your meals.
比如在合适的盘子里装合适的
Like, maybe serving the right food in the right dishes
食物会让一切更上档次
during dinner could make things seem a little fancier.
谁知道呢
Who knows!
你也能够正确运用味觉和其他感觉的联系
You might as well put the connection between taste and your other senses to good use—
用你所吃的食物做实验也是其中的一环
and experimenting with what food you’re eating is part of that too.
感谢蓝围裙对本视频的赞助
Thanks to Blue Apron for sponsoring this video.
你想要媒体和食物
Now, you consume media and food,
你应该了解一下蓝围裙
so you’ve heard of Blue Apron,
能和他们合作我们荣幸之至
but we’re specifically excited to work with them
因为他们在教育上投入了很大精力
on SciShow because they’re all about education.
他们想让你成为一个更好的厨师
They want to make you a better cook.
所以当你登录蓝围裙
So when you sign up for Blue Apron,
并不仅仅能买到食物
not only does the food just show up at your house,
送到你家准备烹饪
all ready to cook,
这很棒 而且你还能进入他们的教学平台
which is awesome, but you also get access to their whole platform.
有大量的菜谱和课程
And it’s filled with recipes but also lessons,
其中包括怎么使用菜刀
including videos on how to hold a chef’s
怎么做一道康沃尔野鸡大餐
knife or how to prep a cornish game hen,
这些不是需要你一直记住的事
which is not something you always need to know,
但是当你需要知道
but when you need to know it,
那些视频会非常有帮助
it’s very helpful to have a video!
学习和吃 是两件我最爱做的事!
Learning and eating: two of my very favorite things!
来吧 点击下方这个链接
So click on the link in the description
看看蓝围裙将对你多有帮助
to check out Blue Apron for yourself.
起价为每份7.49美元
Prices start at $ 7.49 per serving, and
科学秀的观众中前50名登录的人
the first 50 SciShow viewers to sign up get
能获得2周内50美元的优惠券
$ 50 off their first two weeks!
[片尾曲]
[OUTRO ♪]

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视频概述

五感都能够影响味觉

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视频来源

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