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大脑101

Brain 101 | National Geographic

– [Narrator] The brain is the most complex organ in the human body.
大脑是人体中最复杂的器官
As part of the nervous system,
做为神经系统的一部分
the brain coordinates all of the body’s function.
大脑起到了协调身体各个部位的功能
In adult humans, the brain is a three-pound
在成年人中 大脑是一个
gelatinous mass of fat and protein.
三英镑的脂肪和蛋白质胶状块
It’s comprised of four main regions:
它由四个主要区域构成:
the cerebrum, the cerebellum, the brainstem,and the diencephalon,
大脑皮层 小脑 脑干 间脑
and each one controls specific tasks.
而且每一部分都有特殊的任务
The largest section is the cerebrum,
其中最大的部分是大脑皮层
and it makes up over 3/4 of the brain’s volume.
它占整个大脑体积的四分之三还多
It consists of neurons and nerve fibers
它由可以传递
that transmit information from the neurons
来自整个大脑和身体信息的
throughout the brain and body.
神经和神经纤维组成
The cerebrum controls higher functions
大脑皮层有着更高级的功能
such as learning, reasoning, and speech,
例如学习 思考和演讲
plus senses like sight and hearing.
还能感知光和声音
Under the cerebrum is the second largest part of the brain: the cerebellum.
大脑皮层下面是排在第二的大脑组织:小脑
Much like the cerebrum,
类似于大脑皮层
the cerebellum has nerve cells and nerve fibers.
小脑有神经细胞和神经纤维
It carries signals to the other parts of the brain and to the spinal cord.
它把信号传递到大脑的其它部分和突起
The cerebellum is responsible for coordinating muscle movements,
小脑负责协调肌肉运动
particularly those that help maintain the body’s balance and posture.
尤其是那些 保持身体平衡和姿势的运动
The third region, the brainstem,
第三部分是脑干
lies in front of the cerebellum
位于小脑前
and anchors the brain to the spinal cord.
连接大脑和脊椎
The brainstem is a collection of structures
脑干是组织的集合
that include the pons, a mass of nerve fibers that carry sensory information;
包括桥脑 大量携带感觉信息的神经纤维
the midbrain, a region of fibers and structures
中脑 一部分纤维和能帮助
that help control movement, along with auditory and visual processing;
控制动作和听视觉产生的结构
and the medulla oblongata,
延髓则是产生
which creates motor and sensory pathways
运动神经和感觉神经的途径
between the midbrain, the pons, and the spinal cord.
位于中脑 桥脑 脊髓之间
Altogether, the parts of the brainstem
总而言之 脑干的各个部分
control vital bodily functions, such as cardiac activity,
控制着重要的身体功能 例如心脏的活动
respiration, digesting, and sleep.
呼吸 消化 和睡眠
The fourth region is located above the brainstem
第四个区域位于脑干上面
and makes up the core of the brain: the diencephalon.
构成大脑的核心:间脑
About the size of a apricot,
间脑和杏子般大小
the diencephalon is a grouping of several structures.
由几种结构组成一组
The thalamus, which processes and transmits information
下丘脑 能处理和传递来自
from all senses except smell,
除嗅觉外的各感觉的信息
and the hypothalamus and pituitary gland,
下丘脑和垂体
which work together to produce and regulate neurochemicals.
共同控制神经递质的产生和调节
These structures help govern sensations,
这些结构有助于控制感觉
weight regulation, energy, and instinctual behaviors,
体重 能量 和本能的行为
such as eating, drinking, and having sex.
例如吃 喝及发生性行为
The brain’s four main components,
大脑的四个主要部分
the diencephalon, brainstem, cerebellum, and cerebrum,
间脑 脑干 小脑 和大脑皮层
work in-sync to ensure bodily functions are fully operational.
同步工作来保证身体功能的全面运作
The brain has even evolved mechanisms to protect itself.
大脑甚至进化出了保护自己的机制
One such mechanism is the blood-brain barrier,
其中一个机制例如血脑屏障
a semipermeable cellular wall
是半透性的细胞壁
that only allows specific chemicals
仅仅允许来自身体血液的特殊的
to enter from the body’s bloodstream into the brain.
化学物质进入大脑
Despite this protection,
尽管有这层保护
tumors and other complications
肿瘤和其它有害物质
can lead to life-threatening problems
也还能引起危害生命的问题
and diseases in the brain, such as dementia.
和脑部疾病 例如痴呆
Thankfully, scientists have found ways
幸亏科学家已经找到了
to improve brain health.
改善脑部健康的方法
Staying physically active and eating a balanced diet
保持身体活动和平衡膳食
may preserve cognitive function
将保持认知功能
and even reduce the risk of developing Alzheimer’s.
甚至能降低老年痴呆症的发病率
So, while the brain only makes up a small percentage of the body,
尽管大脑仅仅占身体的很小一部分
it plays a crucial role in the body’s functions
却在身体功能和健康中
and overall well-being.
发挥着关键作用

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视频概述

大脑的结构及功能

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-34b17

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pRFXSjkpKWA

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