ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

波伊提乌的《哲学的慰藉》 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

波伊提乌的《哲学的慰藉》

Boethius’s Consolation of Philosophy

哲学
波伊提乌和《哲学的慰藉》
For some 400 years across the European Middle Ages,
在中世纪欧洲的四百年里
one philosophy book was prized above any other.
一本哲学书籍独领风骚
Present in every educated person’s library,
受教育者人手一本
it was titled in Latin De Consolatione Philosophiae or,
这本书的拉丁文名字是De Consolatione Philosophiae
as we know it in English today,
众所周知的是它的英文名
The Consolation of Philosophy.
即The Consolation of Philosophy
Editions appeared in all the large European languages,
这本书的版本几乎涵盖所有欧洲主流语言
Chaucer translated it into English,
乔叟把它翻译成英语
as did Sir Thomas More and Elizabeth I –
托马斯·莫尔爵士和伊丽莎白一世也翻译过这本书
and Dante made it a centerpiece of the intellectual scaffolding of his Divine Comedy.
它还深深影响了但丁《神曲》的创作
The book was the work of
这部书的作者是
the Italian statesman, scholar and academic Boethius,
意大利政治家 学者 大学教师波伊提乌
who penned it in a few months in
公元523年 他数月里笔耕不辍
appalling circumstances in a prison in Pavia in 523 A.D.
在帕维亚的简陋监狱里写成此书
Boethius was born into a highly successful and wealthy family
波伊提乌出生在西罗马帝国覆灭后的数年间
in the years after the collapse of the Roman Empire in the West.
其家庭地位显赫 非常富裕
From an early age, he took an interest in the Classics,
早年 他对古典文学产生兴趣
and translated much of Plato and Aristotle’s work
并将柏拉图和亚里士多德的许多作品
from Latin into Greek;
从拉丁语译成希腊语
it is thanks in great measure to his efforts
多亏了波伊提乌
that Classical philosophy made its way into the Middle Ages
使古典哲学进入中世纪
and from there into the modern world.
并流传至今
For many years, Boethius’s life was seemingly blessed.
多年来波伊提乌好像活在上帝的庇佑中
He lived in a sumptuous villa in Rome
他住在罗马一幢豪华的别墅里
and was married to a kind and beautiful woman called Rusticiana,
娶了一个名叫鲁斯蒂西亚娜的女子 她善良美丽
with whom he had two handsome, clever and affectionate sons.
他们育有两个英俊 聪明 多情的儿子
Under a sense of obligation to his society,
由于对社会的责任感
Boethius eventually entered politics
波伊提乌最终进入政坛
and occupied a number of elevated administrative positions under the ruler of Italy,
在意大利东哥特国王西奥多里克统治下
Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths.
在行政高位他身兼数职
Bertrand Russell wrote of him:
伯特兰·罗素这样评价他:
He would have been remarkable in any age,
他在任何时代都会脱颖而出
in the age in which he lived, he is utterly amazing.
在他那个时代 他简直闪闪发光
But suddenly, in the spring of 523 A.D,
但是在公元523年的春天
Boethius’s fortune ran out.
波伊提乌的幸运骤然告终
There was a knock at the door and a gang of Theodoric’s guards accused him (quite falsely)
一帮西奥多里克的卫兵不分青红皂白敲开了他的门
of having plotted against the increasingly paranoid and vengeful king.
指控他密谋反对愈加偏执和复仇心切的国王
With scarcely time to say goodbye to his family,
波伊提乌甚至来不及和家人道别
Boethius was carted off to prison.
就被押解到监狱
Entirely innocent but also aware of the risk he was in,
他认识到完全清白的自己在劫难逃
Boethius fell into despair.
波伊提乌陷入了绝望
In a tiny cell, he contemplated his rapid fall from grace,
在一间狭小的牢房里 他见证了自己从高贵迅速跌至落魄
his love for his family and the unfairness of his destiny.
他对家庭的爱与命运的不公交织在一起
What would eventually lift his spirits
波伊提乌决定通过哲学摆脱悲伤
– and at the same time, gift humanity one of its greatest works of prison literature of any time or place
他的决定同时催生了人类最伟大的监狱作品之一
– was his decision to think his way philosophically out of his sorrows.
也最终使他振作起来
As The Consolation of Philosophy opens,
在《哲学的慰藉》开篇
Boethius describes his listless sadness and terror at his state:
波伊提乌诉说了无尽的悲伤和恐惧:
‘White hairs are scattered untimely on my head,
“我满头白发
and the skin hangs loosely from my worn-out limbs’.
皮肤松弛地挂在脆弱的骨架上”
But in this downcast state,
但正当波伊提乌沮丧时
Boethius receives an unexpected visit:
他邂逅了一位不期而来的客人
‘While I was pondering thus in silence,
“当我在静寂中沉思
and using my pen to set down so tearful a complaint,
准备将催人泪下的抱怨诉诸笔端之时
there appeared standing over my head a woman’s form,
我头顶上出现了一个女人的身影
whose countenance was full of majesty, whose eyes shone as with fire
她的表情非常庄严 眼睛闪烁着光辉
and whose power of insight surpassed that of all men…’
她能洞察一切”
His visitor is a metaphorical figure
他的来访者是一个隐喻性的人物
whom Boethius terms Lady Philosophy.
波伊提乌称之为哲学女神
Lady Philosophy is carrying a pile of classical books in one hand
哲学女神一手拿着一叠古典书籍
and a sceptre in the other
一手拿着权杖
– and she has come to visit Boethius in his cell in order to remind him of
她来牢房中拜访波伊提乌是为了提醒他
some of the fundamental truths of his favourite subject,
他最喜欢的哲学中的一些基本原理
largely as defined by the Stoic school of Greece and Rome.
主要是由希腊和罗马的斯多葛学派定义的
That she should have dropped in on him was, in a sense, no surprise:
从某种意义上说 哲学女神与他的邂逅并非偶然:
in the classical world, philosophy was not an abstract academic discipline,
在古典世界里 哲学并非一门抽象的学术学科
it was a set of tools specifically designed to help one live and die well,
这是一套专门帮助人更好地生存和死亡的工具
and with acute relevance at the darkest moments.
并且在最黑暗的时刻 它越会发挥效用
Lady Philosophy begins by gently chiding Boethius for ‘flaring up against’ his fate.
哲学女神首先温和斥责波伊提乌“怨憎”命运
She reminds him, as Stoic philosophers had constantly stressed,
她提醒他 正如斯多葛派哲学家一直强调的那样
that human beings are not in control of most of what happens to them.
人生不如意事常八九
Our destiny is in large measure in the hands of a devilishly powerful seductive goddess
人的命运在很大程度上掌握在一个魔鬼般强大诱人的女神手中
whom the Romans knew as Fortuna, the Goddess of Fortune.
罗马人称之为命运女神福尔图娜
This figure was a central deity in the Roman pantheon
她是罗马万神殿的主神
and was represented across the Roman world on coins and statues.
罗马的硬币和雕像上都有命运女神的身影
She was typically depicted holding a cornucopia in one hand,
她的经典造型是一只手拿丰饶角
overflowing with fruit and luxuries,
里面盛满水果和珍宝
and on the other, leaning on a tiller,
另一只手扶在方向舵上
a marker of her capacity to direct people’s fates.
这是她主宰人们时运的能力标志
Depending on her mood,
幸运女神的行为全凭心情
Fortune might either shower us with gifts or,
可能带给我们礼物
with a blithe smile, steer us towards catastrophe.
也可能带着愉快的微笑引导我们走向灾难
To be a philosopher means to
作为一个哲学家意味着
understand all that Fortune controls,
要明白 命运控制一切
to resist her blandishments,
不要听信命运女神的花言巧语
to know never to put complete faith in the things that are,
永远不要完全相信现实
ultimately, always in the hands of an immoral and reckless force –
因为命运最终总掌握在一股邪恶鲁莽的力量手中——
and to prepare for the day when we may have to surrender her gifts at a stroke.
而且你还要准备着命运女神会一下子拿走赐予你的东西
These gifts comprise most of what we would today think of as the fundamental ingredients of happiness:
命运女神的礼物构成了如今认为的幸福基本要素:
love, family, children, prosperity, reputation and career.
爱情 家庭 孩子 财富 名誉 事业
But, for a Stoic philosopher,
但是 斯多葛派认为
none of them should be things that the wise should ever really trust –
这些都不是智者应该信奉的东西
for all of them can be lost in horrific circumstances at any moment.
因为它们都会因可怖的意外 在瞬息间烟消云散
Lady Philosophy sits with Boethius in his cell
哲学女神在牢房里和波伊提乌作伴
and reminds him of his appalling exposure to Fortune’s deceptive charm:
让他想起自己曾可怕地暴露在命运迷人的欺骗之下
‘I know the many disguises of that monster, Fortune,
“我知道命运这个恶魔的诸多伪装
and the extent to which she seduces with friendship the very people she is striving to cheat,
我知道她如何用友谊诱惑想欺骗的人
until she overwhelms them with unbearable grief at the suddenness of her desertion.’
直到她突然将你抛弃 让你悲痛欲绝”
But Lady Philosophy also reminds Boethius that
但是哲学女神还提醒波伊提乌
the wise have to resist putting their faith in the gifts of Fortune.
聪明人一定不能信任命运的恩赐
She introduces a famous image of a Wheel of Fortune,
她介绍了著名的命运之轮
which spins between success and favour –
它会带来成功 失败
and appalling punishment and pain.
还会带来骇人的惩罚和痛苦
Fortune spins the wheel with abandon and merciless cruelty,
命运纵情无情地旋转着车轮
enjoying the screams of those who, only hours before, were confident of their future.
享受着那些几小时前还对未来充满信心的人的尖叫声
‘If you are trying to stop her wheel from turning,
“若你试图让命运之轮停下来
you of all men are the most obtuse,’
那你就是蠢笨至极”
Lady Philosophy tells Boethius,
哲学女神对波伊提乌说
‘You are seeking to regain what really did not belong to you.’
“你想找回的是本不属于你的东西”
Fortune herself pipes up at this point and says with chilling candour:
此时命运女神突然直言不讳地说出让人胆寒的话
‘Inconstancy is my very essence;
“反复无常是我的本质
it is the game I never cease to play
这个游戏我从未玩厌过
as I turn my wheel in its ever changing circle…
我转动我的车轮 使其处于不断变化中
yes, rise up on my wheel if you like,
要是你愿意 你可以在命运之轮上站起来
but don’t count it an injury when by the same token you begin to fall,
但是当你跌倒时 不要把它看作是一种伤害
as the rules of the game will require.
因为游戏的规则如此
Isn’t this what tragedy commemorates with its tears and tumult?’
这不就是悲剧要用眼泪和喧嚣来纪念的原因吗?
Lady Philosophy now gets to the heart of her message.
哲学女神的话触及了问题的核心
Boethius must, like any good philosophically inclined person,
波伊提乌必须像有哲学倾向的善人一样
stop trusting in anything that Fortune can take away at once:
不再相信任何命运可以马上拿走的东西:
‘You know there is no constancy in human affairs,
“你知道人世间没什么东西会永恒
when a single swift hour can often bring a man to nothing.’
一个人可能转瞬间一无所有”
‘If you are in possession of yourself
“若你能拥有自己
you will possess something you would never wish to lose
你就有了永远不想失去的东西
and something Fortune could never take away….
一些永远不能被命运带走的东西
Happiness cannot consist in things governed by chance.’
幸福不存在于由偶然性支配的事物中”
Boethius must retreat to what the Stoic philosophers called his ‘inner citadel,’
波伊提乌必须回到斯多葛派哲学家所说的“内心堡垒”
a minimal self immune from the cruelty of Fortune.
即在残酷命运中进行最低限度的自我免疫
Lady Philosophy stresses that
哲学女神强调
a different sort of happiness can be found by focusing on
把注意力集中在命运永远无法拿走的东西上
all that Fortune can never make one lose,
可以获得一种别样的幸福
specifically one’s powers of reasoning,
具体来说就是一个人的理智
which give one access to the beauty, mystery and complexity of the universe.
理智的人能触及宇宙的美丽 神秘和复杂
True philosophers rise above their immediate circumstances,
真正的哲学家超越眼前之境
become indifferent to their own fate
对自己的命运淡然处之
and identify with the vast forces of history and nature.
认同历史和自然的宏大力量
It’s a measure of the relevance of Boethius’s message
波伊提乌的反省具有普世价值
that we today so firmly identify happiness with two areas that lie entirely in the hands of
以至于我们今天仍坚定地把幸福与浪漫爱情 成功事业联系起来
Fortune: romantic love and career success.
而浪漫爱情与成功事业完全掌握在命运手中
And, unsurprisingly, we are continually let down here too,
不出所料 我们在事业和爱情上也经常失望
the Wheel of Fortune spinning us randomly
命运之轮随机将我们抛掷
from promise to disgrace,
从前途无量到耻辱收场
from hope to ruin.
从希望满怀到最终幻灭
Boethius’s provocative message to his own times and to our own is
波伊提乌历史性地提出了颇具挑衅性的观点
that the best way to find peace of mind may be
即找到内心平静的最好方式可能是
to perceive the ingredients we associate with happiness
明白事实上真正让我们幸福的
as in truth direct conduits to a fundamental instability, and thereby to inner torment and anxiety.
不是那些摇摇欲坠 让我们的内心产生折磨和焦虑的东西
Boethius’s wisdom was to be the last eloquent outcry of the guiding ideas of Classical philosophy
波伊提乌的智慧是古典哲学指导思想的最后振臂高呼
and in particular, its Stoic branch.
尤其是它是斯多葛派的分支
Thereafter, Christianity subsumed its insights,
后来基督教还借鉴了波伊提乌的思想
which were then further obscured by the scientific optimism of the modern period.
但现代科学乐观主义渐渐冲淡了波伊提乌哲学的影响
Our own troubled times deserve to witness the rediscovery of the Stoic message.
这个动荡不安的时代需要重新发掘斯多葛学派的思想
We become philosophers not by writing books or attending university courses,
哲学家的养成并非靠写书 在大学授课
but by appreciating how little of our lives is in our hands,
而是因为感激自己能把握的少之又少的生活——
the ubiquity and fickleness of Fortune
命运它无处不在 变化无常
and our need to look beyond public opinion, family, love and status –
而我们需要超越公众舆论 家庭 爱 身份去看待一切
in order to build up serenity through the exercise of one’s distinctive and fate -independent mental powers.
这样才能通过别样的 无关命运的精神力量来建立宁静
Boethius was killed, as he feared, a few months after being imprisoned.
怕什么来什么 波伊提乌在监禁几个月后被杀害
His grave lies in the Church of San Pietro in Ciel d’Oro in Pavia,
他的坟墓位于帕维亚Ciel d’Oro的圣彼得罗教堂
half an hour from Milan.
距离米兰半小时车程
In his honour, we should leave space for Lady Philosophy occasionally to come and visit us –
为了纪念他 我们应该抽空让哲学女神偶尔来拜访我们——
and, when we are facing the worst turns of Fortune’s wheel,
而且 当我们面临命运之轮的最坏转折时
let her strengthen our resolve to depend a little less on
让她坚定我们的决心
what was in fact never really ours to rely upon.
少依赖一点实际上并不属于我们的东西
If you liked this film,
如果你喜欢这个视频
you might be interested in our range of books on topics such as Relationships, Sex, Self-Knowledge and Confidence.
你可能会对我们的一系列关于关系 性 自知和自信等主题的书感兴趣
Click the link on your screen.
请点击屏幕上的链接

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

幸福在于人的内心,为什么却要向外寻求幸福呢?还有什么东西比你自己更加珍贵的呢?因此,你如果拥有自己,也就拥有了你永远都不想失去的东西,即使是命运也不能把它夺走。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ABC

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pMUP48stXDc

相关推荐