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血型其实是两千万年的未解之谜

Blood types are a 20-million-year mystery

你了解你的血型吗?
– Do you know your blood type?
如果你没遇到过需要知道血型的病症
If you haven’t been in any medical situations where blood type is important,
你可能不会了解
you might not.
我也不了解 但我不能代表其他人
I certainly don’t, and Ican’t speak for everyone,
不过我大部分的朋友和家人说他们也不了解
but most of my friends and family said that they too had no idea.
我爸爸的回答是红型 他答对了一半
My dad earned half a pointfor correctly answering red,
其他比如热血型和冷血型之类的大部分回复 来自我的朋友
among other responses frommy friends, like boiling. And frozen.
事实上存在许多关于血型的谜团
But there’s actually a lotof mystery around blood.
我们知道有八种主要的血型
We know that there are eight main blood
概括了世界上大部分的人口
groups that make up most of the world’s population. A,
A B AB 和 O型
B, AB, and O.
而且每种都有阴性和阳性之分
And a negative and positive for each.
不过事实上目前科学家们还不知道
But it turns out thatscientists still don’t know why
我们为什么要进化出不同类型的血型
we evolved different blood types.
而短时间内可能仍然无法解答
And that may remain amystery for a long time.
不过现有的 科学至少可以告诉我一点点
But for now, science can at least tell me a little bit
关于我们自己的的血型的知识
about my own blood.
[奇妙的音乐声]
(mysterious music)
好奇心促使我买了这个测试套装
That curiosity led me to buy this test.
它的名字叫埃尔登卡片
It’s called the EldonCard.
它便宜而且简便
It’s cheap, simple,
它只需要几分钟就可以确定你的血型
and it takes just a few minutes to determine your blood type.
你要做的只有扎破手指
All you have to do is prick your finger,
采集四滴血液
apply four drops of blood, and mix the samples
并将血液样品与血清混合
with the different serums.
通过判断血液样本是否凝集成团
Depending on how the samplesagglutinate, or clump,
你就能知道你的血型
you can determine your blood type.
在发达国家
In developed parts of the world,
知道自己的血型并不重要
it’s not crucial to know your blood type off the top of your head.
医生在进行重要的治疗之前会进行血型测定
Doctors will typicallyrun tests before any major procedure,
如果紧急治疗时不确定的话
and if there’sany doubt in a medical emergency,
你很可能会被输入O型阴性血
you’ll most likelyreceive O negative blood.
那是种任何一位A B AB或O型的人
That’s the universal donorblood that’s safe to give
都可以接受的万能供血血型
to any A, B, AB or O recipient.
那如果你被输入了类型不对的血会怎么样?
But what would happen if you received the wrong type of blood? Well,
一些好奇的人通过艰难的办法得出了结论
some curious mindsfound that out the hard way.
几千年来 没人真正了解血液
For thousands of years, nobodyreally understood blood.
一位公元200年的希腊医生相信
A Greek doctor from 200 CEbelieved that it was created
血液来源于食物和肝脏的作用
from food and liver.
而这种学说持续了将近1500年
And this school of thoughtlived on for nearly 1500 years.
直到17世纪
It wasn’t until the early 17th century
一位叫威廉哈弗的英国医生
that a British doctor named William Harvey
发现血液实际上流通全身
discovered that blood actuallycirculated through the body.
并且这个发现开展了血液研究的新时代
And this spawned a new age ofexperimentation with blood.
1665年 一位英国医生成功地使一只狗
In 1665, an Englishphysician successfully kept
通过输入来自另一只狗的血存活下来
one dog alive by transfusingit with the blood of another dog.
不过后来的事情变得怪异起来
But then things got kind of weird.
仅在两年后
Just two years later,doctors began experimenting
医生们开始进行关于输血的实验
with xenotransfusions.
就是 把动物的血输给病人的实验
That is, transfusinghumans with animals’ blood,
比如绵羊
such as sheep.
结果是这些病人死了
And those human patients died.
直到1900年
It wasn’t until 1900 thatwe finally realized people
人们才发现动物与人类流着不同的血
and animals actually havedifferent types of blood
而且必须是谁的血才能混进谁的血里
that determine whoseblood can mix with whose.
不同的血液混在一起只会引起骚乱
And that’s where those differentletters come into play.
如果你是A型血
If you’re type A, yourimmune system will perceive
免疫系统就会把B型血当做入侵者
type B blood as an intruder,and trigger an auto-immune
触发自动免疫反应从而有可能导致肾功能衰竭
response that can cause kidney failure,
造成大面积的血液凝固 甚至休克
extensive blood clotting, and even shock.
而B血型则相反
And the reverse is true of type B blood.
免疫系统会攻击A型血
The immune system will attack type A.
AB血型却可以接收A型和B型血
AB blood, however, canaccept both A and B blood
而不会触发自动免疫反应
without triggering thatauto-immune response.
当你谈及恒河猴因子
Things start to get alittle more complicated
或血型中的的阴性和阳性成分时
when you introduce the rhesus factor,
事情就变得有点复杂
or the negative and positive part of your blood type.
阳性可以接收阴性 但是如果反过来
Positives can acceptnegatives, but the opposite
就会非常危险
is extremely dangerous.
并且在更复杂的是
And to further complicate things, scientists have discovered
科学家们发现了几十种血型
dozens of more blood types, such as the
比如达菲血型
Duffy blood group, which can determine
它能测出你对疟疾的易感性
your susceptibility to malaria.
还有Hh血型
Or the Hh blood type, which 1 in 10,000
万分之一的印第安人才拥有这种血型
people in India have.
不过绝大多数人的血型还是属于ABO血型体系
But the vast majority of humans fall into this A, B, O system.
[奇妙的音乐]
(mysterious music)
至于为什么人类要进化出这种复杂的
As for why humans evolvedthis complicated system
血型和相容性系统 我们还无从得知
of blood types and compatibility,we don’t really know.
这种原始的突变被认为发生于
The original mutationsare thought to date back
将近两千万年前
nearly 20 million years.
不过你看 不管血型背后隐藏着什么样的生物机理
But look, whatever the biologyis behind blood typing,
它都是一个真实并且很重要的事实
it’s a real, practical thing that matters.
并且在世上很多地方
And in many parts of theworld, knowing your blood type
知道自己的血型是常识
is fairly common knowledge.
在日本 血型关系着你的性格
In Japan, it’s linked to your personality.
这有点像星座
Sort of like a horoscope.
你甚至可以把你的血型添加到脸书档案里
You can even add your bloodtype to your Facebook profile.
而且在2011年 前日本重建部长
And in 2011, former Japaneseminister of reconstruction
将自己浮躁的行为作风归咎于 B型血型
Ryu Matsumoto blamed hisirritable and impetuous behavior on his blood type,
在这之前他被迫下台
type B, after he was forced to step down from his seat.
抛开性格不谈 我之所以要做埃尔登试纸测试
Personality types aside,I did this EldonCard test
是因为知道自己的血型没什么不好的
because it’s just not a bad idea to know your blood type.
如果你去农村地区旅游
If you’re traveling somewhere that’s rural,
或者是医疗不发达的地方
or doesn’t have access to advanced medicine,
你和你的伙伴知道自己的血型的话
it’s good for you and yourtraveling companions to know
就能以防万一路上出了意外
your types, just in case ofan accident along the way.
在家附近发生的重大紧急医疗事故
And in a big emergency closerto home, blood banks often
血库银行通常会向特定类型的捐赠者发出呼吁
put out calls for donorsof a specific type.
记住 如果你是O型阴性血
And remember, if you’re type O negative,
那么你的血能够发挥极大的作用
you’re an extremely useful universal donor. So,
因此了解血型能让你的内心有些许安定
knowing your type can give you a little peace of mind.
如果你在日本 血型是个打破尴尬的好话题
And hey, if you’re in Japan it’s a great way to break the ice. Although,
尽管B型血的代表人名声不太好
type Bs don’t reallyhave the best reputation.
不过我很好 我是A型血
But I’m fine, I’m A positive.
大家好 这还有些其他方法知道自己的血型
Hey everyone, just a notethat you can also find
献血 服兵役
your blood type by donatingblood, serving in the military,
或在常规验血时询问医生都可以
or just by asking your doctorduring routine blood work.
不过埃尔登试纸还是挺有趣 你可以自己动手
But the EldonCard is fun,and kind of do it yourself.
如果你还没有点赞和评论 请尽快
If you haven’t already, please like, comment,
并且订阅我们新的边缘科学油管频道
and subscribe to our new Verge Science YouTube channel,
在那我们每周都会投稿视频
where we’re puttingout a video every week.
谢谢
Thank you.

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视频概述

讲述人类对血型研究的历史和检验血型的方法以及了解血型的益处。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

舒人

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XGrxY0nlMgs

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