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营养学101系列/第3集:血糖

BLOOD SUGAR: THE BASICS | Nutrition 101 Ep. 3

Hey guys, welcome back to my channel,
大家好 欢迎回到我的频道
and welcome back to the Nutrition 101 series.
来收看《营养学101》系列视频
So if you have already been following along,
如果你一直有观看我们的节目
I’m glad to have you back.
欢迎回来
But if you are new, you should definitely
但如果你是第1次观看
go check out the first episodes in the series.
一定要看下本系列视频的前几期
Because it is just very helpful
因为都是非常有用的
and just good basic knowledge that I think everyone should have.
每个人都该具备的基本健康知识
Because everybody eats.
我们都需要食物
So everyone should kind of have like,
所以每个人都应该有
you know, a baseline knowledge of nutrition.
最基本的营养学知识
At least I think so.
至少我这么认为
So today’s video I’m gonna be talking all about blood sugar.
所以今天的视频 我要介绍的主题是血糖
And I think this is such an important topic
我认为这是一个很重要的话题
And I am really excited to make this video and that I just have it be out there,
非常高兴录这期视频 并呈现给大家
because I think most people don’t necessarily understand
因为 我觉得大多数人不一定知道
how blood sugar works and how to, you know, control their blood sugar
血糖的作用原理和控制血糖的方法
even if they are just healthy individuals
即便是对健康人来说
and it’s very very very important.
这也是非常重要的
And it’s no one’s fault that we don’t understand blood sugar,
不能怪我们对血糖了解不够
no one has ever taught it, so there is no way for you to know,
因为没有人教这些 我们缺少学习渠道
unless you seek out the information yourself,
除非你自己查资料
or unless you have this video.
或者看我这期视频
So, blood sugar, and mainly, you know, the control of blood sugar
血糖 主要是合理控制血糖水平
is so important for overall health which I’ll get into.
不光对我们总体健康非常重要 后面会讲
But also it’s important for just like day-to-day feeling
也对我们的日常感觉很重要
satisfied after meals or snacks
如吃正餐或点心后的满足感
and just being able to go, you know, about your day,
和能让你在一天里
feeling like you are in control of your appetite,
感觉能控制好自己的胃口
and just being, uh, happy and satisfied
而得到的快乐和满足感
So let’s just jump right into it.
我们开始进入正题吧
So when we eat any kind of food that contains carbohydrates,
当我们吃各种含有碳水化合物的食物时
if you’ve seen in the first episode in the series,
如果看过本系列视频的第一集
you know all of the foods that contain carbohydrates.
你会知道哪些食物含有碳水化合物
But when we consume them,
但在我们吃这类食物时
our bodies will digest it down into the most simplest form of carbs
身体会将其消化成碳水化合物的最基本形式
which is sugar or glucose.
即糖或葡萄糖
So that glucose will then be, you know, able to be shift off into our blood stream,
然后葡萄糖将会被转移到我们的血液中
and once that glucose or sugar is in our blood stream,
葡萄糖或糖一旦进入血液
it’s going to be taken up by our cells to be used for energy.
就会被身体细胞吸收 以产生能量
The presence of insulin is actually
而胰岛素的作用其实是
how we’re able to transfer or move that sugar in our blood
使我们血液中的糖通过细胞膜
through our cell membranes into our cells.
转移或输送到身体细胞中
And I’ll talk a little bit more about that in a minute.
稍后会讲更多这方面内容
So the reason we want to take sugar
我们需要将糖从血液
from our blood and move it into our cells is
转移到细胞中的原因是
because we use sugar for energy, that’s how we make ATP,
糖能为我们提供能量 是生成ATP的原料
which is the basic form of energy in our body.
ATP是我们身体的基本能量形式
So we want that sugar to come into our cells
因此 需要让糖进入我们的细胞
where it will then go through glycolysis and the Krebs cycle, and Beta-oxidation
经过糖酵解 三羧酸循环 β氧化等过程
to make ATP or energy.
产生ATP或能量
So sugar is our prefered fuel source
因此糖是我们身体更偏好的能量来源
Because it is, uh,compared to protein and fat,
因为相比于蛋白质和脂肪
is the easiest of the three to make energy,
它是三者中最容易产生能量的
It just has to go through that little, uh, three parts cycle that I just mentioned,
只需要经过我刚才提到的三个循环过程
and that’s how we get energy.
就可以获得能量
We can also create glucose from protein and fat
我们也可以用蛋白质和脂肪制造葡萄糖
and then therefore go and make energy out of it
再从中获得能量
But of course that adds a lot of extra steps,
但当然就增加了不少步骤
so we just get the glucose straight from carbohydrates,
所以我们直接从碳水化合物中获得葡萄糖
and we don’t have to form it from protein or fat,
就不必靠蛋白质 脂肪或其他营养元素
the other macronutrients.
来合成葡萄糖
It’s just obviously a lot faster, a lot easier,
这显然更快 更简单
and that is going to be the body’s preferred method to make energy,
于是就成了我们身体偏爱的能量获得方式
because it’s just the most convenient.
因为这样最简便
So basically we eat carbs,
基本上我们会吃碳水化合物
whether it’s fruit or grains or something sugary,
不管是水果 谷物或其他甜食
We eat them, we digest them down into sugar,
我们吃进食物后 将其消化成糖
that sugar then goes into our blood stream,
然后糖会进入血液中
So obviously, when that sugar is entering our blood stream,
显然 当糖进入血液之后
our blood sugar, the amount of sugar that’s in our blood, is going to rise.
我们的血糖(血液中的含糖量)会升高
So what is most ideal when it comes to our blood sugar rising is
当血糖升高时 最理想的情况是
we want just a nice steady increase.
我们希望它能平稳上升
Because as it’s coming up nice and slow,
因为 当血糖缓慢稳定地上升时
our body can respond and match it with an equal amount of insulin.
我们身体会释放出适量的胰岛素来应对
Because insulin is how we are going to take that sugar in the blood,
因为 胰岛素是我们将血糖
and move it into our cells which is basically the final destination.
转移到最终目的地(细胞中)的媒介
So as our blood sugar is rising slowly,
所以 随着血糖的缓慢上升
we’ve got some insulin that is also being secreted
我们身体也会分泌出相应量的胰岛素
to kind of match that, uh, rise in blood sugar,
来应对血糖的上升
and then as the insulin is shifting the sugar from our blood to our cells,
随着胰岛素将糖从血液转移到细胞中
It’s just going to slowly come down
血糖会缓慢下降
So we want this kind of nice, slow, happy, steady wave.
所以我们要的是令人愉悦的平缓稳定波动
But unfortunately what happens a lot of the time is
但很不幸 在很多时候
we end up getting this huge surge of blood sugar really really quickly,
我们的血糖会快速地急剧上升
and what happens is when this comes up so hard and so fast,
造成的后果是 由于血糖升高过猛过快
our body kind of goes into panic mode and it’s like,
我们的身体陷入恐慌状态
wow, we’ve got a lot of sugar happening, we need a lot of insulin go.
“哇!这么多糖 胰岛素不够了 赶快生产”
So we got this huge rise in blood sugar
因此随着血糖的飞速上升
and we end up getting this equally
结果身体释放出的胰岛素
but also kind of disproportionate surge of insulin,
也同样不成比例地激增
we’re just, like, just throwing insulin out there
身体倾泻般释放出胰岛素
Hoping we can get this blood sugar down ASAP,
希望把血糖尽快降下来
and we almost end up having too much insulin,
结果是胰岛素几乎超量了
so instead of, you know, okay, our blood sugar is really high,
我们的血糖从特别的高
and now it’s coming down because of insulin
因胰岛素而开始下降
we got this huge spiking blood sugar, huge spiking insulin,
像这样血糖飞速上升 使胰岛素激增
and then because there is so much insulin
又因为胰岛素过多
that the blood sugar is just going to plummet.
而使血糖骤然下降
Does that make sense?
这样合理吗?
So the reason we don’t want this crazy rise is because
我们不想要这种急速增长状态的原因是
we’re automatically going to have a crazy drop immediately, well, soon after that
之后很快我们又会自动进入急速下降状态
And when we have this crazy drop,
而且在这种骤降状态之后
our blood sugar actually tends to dip a little lower than it’s comfortable for the body.
血糖很容易降到令人身体不适的程度
And when this happens, guess what?
这又会引发什么呢?
your body is going to send you signals, saying:
你的身体会发出信号
Hey! we need to eat carbs,
“嘿!我们要吃碳水化合物
we need to bring in the sugar, it’s too low.
再来点儿糖吧 血糖太低了”
You could like literally so have some food sitting in your stomach yet to be digested,
这时候很可能你胃里还有食物没被消化
and your body is still going to be barking at you to bring in some carbs.
但身体还是会叫嚣 需要更多碳水化合物
When your blood sugar is in that kind of dip zone when it’s feeling pretty low,
当你的血糖浓度下降 感到身体缺糖时
you are going to be feeling unsatisfied,
你会感到无法满足
your are, maybe, even going to be feeling lethargic,
甚至会有点无精打采
you are gonna be craving stuff, you are just not gonna be like very satisfied,
还是很想吃东西 很难感到满足
you know, appetite controls the plays.
而食欲又会影响行为
So obviously to avoid all of that,
显然 为了避免这些状况
we want to make sure that we have a nice steady blood sugar,
我们要确保血糖平和稳定
and not crazy spikes and crazy dips.
不能疯狂地骤升和骤降
So, back up, how do we avoid the crazy spikes and the crazy dips,
话说回来 怎样避免血糖的剧烈波动呢
of course I am going to tell you.
当然我马上会讲
So, there are a few ways you can go about controlling your blood sugar
合理控制血糖的方法有几种
And the first one is to make sure you’re eating other things
第一种 确保你在吃碳水化合物时
along with carbohydrates.
搭配一些其他食物
So for example, if you’re eating something that has carbohydrates,
比如 你在吃含有碳水化合物的食物时
you want to be mindful of the fact that
要注意同时摄取一些
you’re also eating something that has protein, or fat, or fiber,
含有蛋白质 脂肪或纤维素的食物
or all three would be amazing along with that.
或者三种食物都有 效果会很好
Because protein, fat, and fiber will actually act as a buffer.
因为蛋白质 脂肪和纤维素可以作为缓冲
So when you’re digeting those carbohydrates,
这样 你在消化这些碳水化合物时
if all you have to digest is carbohydrates,
如果要消化的只有碳水化合物
they can be broken down very quickly and very efficiently.
它们会被十分快速而高效地分解掉
But if you also protein, fat, and fiber thrown into the mix
但如果你混入了蛋白质 脂肪和纤维素
it just makes it a little more difficult for those enzymes to get to those carbohydrates
这样就增加一些酶接触碳水化合物的难度
Because it’s not just a pool of carbohydrates they’re working with,
因为要分解的不只是一些碳水化合物
they got a whole mix bag that they’re gonna work with.
而是含各种营养成分的混合体
One of the best way you just kind of visualize this is
最好的一个理解办法是设想
just think of chugging a glass of plain water
喝一杯什么也不加的白水
Versus trying to chug a glass of ice water that is chug full of ice.
相比于喝一杯充满冰块的冰水
With the plain water,
喝白水的时候
you’re gonna be able to just like slug that down in seconds flat.
你只需几秒钟就能喝完
But with the ice water, the ice is just gonna kind of get in your way,
但是喝冰水的时候 冰块就成为阻碍
and you’re not gonna be able to drink it nearly as quickly.
使你无法以几乎同样的速度喝完
So this is kind of what protein, fat, and fiber do.
这就是蛋白质 脂肪和纤维素的作用
They just slow down the process of digestion.
它们减慢了消化进程
So we’re slowing down the pace at which we are breaking down carbs and the sugar.
减慢了身体分解碳水化合物和糖的速度
We’re automatically going to slow down the rate
我们就自然降低了
for which that sugar transports from our, you know,
糖转移到血液的速度
intestines or stomach whatever, into our blood stream.
不管糖是来自小肠还是胃部
Just another quick example,
再举一个例子
if you were just to eat a plain piece of white bread that is just straight for fine carbs
如果你吃一片只含精碳水化合物的白面包
with barely anything in there except for carbohydrates
除了碳水化合物 它几乎什么都没有
versus like, you know, a slice of whole wheat toast
相比于一片富含纤维素
that’s got lots of fiber in it, a little bit protein,
和少量蛋白质的全麦吐司
and then also think about if put some
可以考虑再加上一些
peanut butter on top which also has a lot of fat and protein
饱含脂肪和蛋白质的花生酱
you are going to break down the carbs and that slice of whole wheat peanut butter toast
这样分解碳水化合物 花生酱和全麦吐司
way slower than you are going to break down the carbs and that piece of plain white bread,
就比只分解碳水化合物和白面包要慢的多
and therefore you are going to get a big spike
因此 没有全麦吐司的话
in blood sugar without whole wheat toast,
你的血糖会骤升骤降
versus you are getting a more steady increase in blood sugar
相比之下 如果你吃的是全麦花生酱面包
and then therefore a steady drop in blood sugar
你的血糖会平稳上升
with the whole wheat peanut butter bread.
然后再缓慢下降
OK, so now we talked about exactly what blood sugar control is,
好了 我们刚介绍了什么是血糖控制
what that looks like how it all works
以及其原理和方法
but you may be wondering, OK, like,
不过你可能会想
what are the downsides to having poor blood sugar control
血糖控制不好有什么不利之处呢?
so, in the short term, kind of what I mentioned before,
短期内 如我前面所讲
if you are always on that crazy blood sugar roller coaster
如果你的血糖总像过山车一样剧烈升降
versus something that’s more steady,
而不是平缓波动
you are always going to feel kind of tired,
你就会经常感到疲劳
you’re gonna be having stronger cravings,
对食物有强烈的渴望
your appetite control is not going to be very good.
无法合理控制食欲
You are just gonna be like generally unsatisfied when it comes to, you know, your appetite and eating
吃饭时总感觉胃口没有充分得到满足
which, does no fun,
这可不是好事
everyone wants to feel good, and energized, and full, and satisfied
人人都想感觉舒适 精力充沛 腹满而心安
no one wants to feel, like, crabby, and cranky, and hungry all the time, right?
没人愿意总是烦躁易怒 吃不饱饭 对吧?
But also, the more long-term consequence of poor blood sugar control
而且 血糖控制不好的更长期后果
is creating insulin resistant.
是会产生胰岛素抵抗
So like I said earlier, every time we have a rise in blood sugar,
如前面所讲 每次血糖上升
we have a rise in insulin to match it, so that it can come back down.
胰岛素的量也相应地上升以降低血糖
But if you’re always having this crazy spikes in blood sugar,
但是 如果你经常出现血糖急剧升高
we’re automatically going to have crazy spikes in insulin,
胰岛素也随之急剧升高的状况
and we’re always going to be putting our body in that like damage control
身体就会经常处于一种损害控制状态
just shoot out a ton of insulin cause your blood sugar is so high mode,
因血糖过高而释放出大量的胰岛素
which is not good, because if we’re always in that damage control,
这很不好 因为如果总处于损害控制状态
and lots lots of insulin being pumped out mode,
身体不断地释放出大量胰岛素
Our cells are gonna start to get really resistant to insulin.
身体细胞会开始对胰岛素产生抵抗
They’re just gonna get used to a high level of insulin,
会习惯于高胰岛素水平
and they’re just going to need more and more insulin
于是就需要越来越多的胰岛素
in order to get the job done.
才能够完成
the job done being getting sugar from our blood into our cells,
把糖从血液转移到身体细胞的工作
so the more resistant we become to insulin,
所以 我们对胰岛素的抵抗越强
the higher our blood sugar is going to be,
我们的血糖就会越高
because we’re just not going to be very good at getting that sugar from our blood into our cells,
因为我们把糖从血液转入细胞的能力不够了
our efficiency is gonna go way down,
效率会大幅下降
and we’re just gonna keep needing more and more and more insulin,
我们只会需要越来越多的胰岛素
and everything I’m explaining right now that is type Ⅱ diabetes.
我刚介绍这些就是2型糖尿病的症状
Type Ⅱ diabetes is taking at least the US by storm,
2型糖尿病至少正在对美国造成巨大冲击
the rates of type Ⅱ diabetes are literally through the roof,
其患病率可以说是在急剧暴涨
and they just keep growing, it’s insane.
而且其疯狂势头一直不减
Because we don’t control our blood sugar very well,
就是因为大部分人没能合理控制血糖
and if we have poor blood sugar control all the time,
而如果血糖控制状况一直都很糟糕
it’s just going to lead to insulin resistance,
会产生胰岛素抵抗
and like I said we’re just gonna need more and more and more insulin
像前面所说 就会需要越来越多的胰岛素
that our pancreases are finally just going to give out,
最后胰腺将会不堪重负
and we’re not even gonna be able to produce insulin,
甚至无法继续生成胰岛素
so that’s when you have an insulin dependant type Ⅱ diabitic,
你就患上了胰岛素依赖型2型糖尿病
who actually needs the shots of insulin,
需要通过注射胰岛素
in order to, you know, keep the blood sugar under control.
来把血糖控制在正常范围内
And just throw this out there,
另外要讲一点
because I know there’s sometimes some confusion between the two.
因为有些人会把1型和2型糖尿病搞混
type I diabetes is totally different,
1型糖尿病完全不同
has nothing to do with how good your diet is,
它跟你的饮食习惯好坏完全没有关系
basically, there is an autoimmune issue
而基本是一种自身免疫缺陷
that you actually kill the cells in your pancreases that make insulin,
免疫系统错误攻击胰腺中生成胰岛素的细胞
so you just end up having a total absence of insulin,
结果完全无法生成胰岛素
and therefore need to be, on insulin and control your blood sugar that way.
因此 只能依靠注射胰岛素来控制血糖
So the cause of type I has nothing to do with diet.
所以1型糖尿病的病因跟饮食没有关系
So if you’re always eating process foods that have a lot of added sugar,
如果你经常吃添加了大量糖的加工食品
and even if it’s not a sugary food.
即便是标称的非糖食品
If you start paying attention to food labels and ingredient list,
如果你开始留心看食品标签和成分表
you’ll see that sugar is sneaky and it is in everything of people.
你会发现糖悄无声息地存在于各类食品中
Things that don’t even taste sugary is still lurking in the background
有些尝起来一点不甜的东西糖也潜藏其中
and raising our blood sugar anyway,
仍然会提高我们的血糖
even if we’re not tasting something sweet.
即便我们感觉没吃出甜的东西
So you really need to be careful of that, also like sweet beverages
所以一定要小心 对甜饮料也是这样
if you’re always sipping on sweet beverages.
如果你经常喝甜饮料的话
that is straight sugar,
它就是纯糖饮品
there is no protein, no fibre and no fat in there,
没有蛋白质 纤维素和脂肪
so nothing is slowing down that spike in blood sugar,
没有能减缓血糖上升的任何成分
and also if you’re always eating refined carbohydrates
同样 如果你总是吃精碳水化合物
so that’s anything pretty much that’s made from white flour,
那就是白面粉所含的几乎全部成分
again, white flour doesn’t have much protein, fat, fiber and all.
白面粉含很少蛋白质 脂肪 纤维素等成分
I talked about carbohydrates in the first video,
第一条视频里讲过碳水化合物
you can understand what that is if you watch that first one.
你去看一下 就可以对其有大概了解
But again, refined carbohydrates,
再说一下精碳水化合物
they’re just gonna be raising our blood sugar really quickly.
它只会让我们的血糖飞速上升
So if your diet is really made up of a lot of these foods,
所以 如果你的饮食结构含大量此类食品
you’re probably having some crazy blood sugar spikes and dips,
很可能你的血糖会出现剧烈波动
so you just wanna be really careful,
所以你一定要小心了
the more protein, fat, fiber,
要多吃蛋白质 脂肪和纤维素
first in vegetables, especially fruit, they,
首先是蔬菜 尤其是水果
fruit is obviously a lot of carbs, it’s mainly carbs,
水果显然富含碳水化合物
but there’s also a lot of fibers
但也含有不少纤维素
so it’s packaged with fibers, so it’s not going to be as, uh,
它被纤维素包裹着
crazy on your blood sugar as far as spiking it,
所以它对血糖的提升不会过于剧烈
as something like, or fine carbohydrates, or something that is just like refined sugar.
不会像精碳水化合物或精制糖一样
So that is all I have for this video,
以上就是今天视频的内容
I hope you guys have found it helpful.
希望对大家有帮助
I know that that was a lot of information.
这期视频信息量较大
But understanding how blood sugar works just at a baseline
但是 基本理解血糖的作用原理
is so important to just being a happy, satisfied, healthy person
对我们的快乐 满足和健康是非常重要的
in the short term, and the long term.
短期或长远看都是这样
So really hope that video was or this video was helpful to you guys.
非常希望今天和以往的视频能帮到大家
If you want to share with friends and family,
如果想分享给朋友和家人
and you think they might benefit from this video,
并觉得他们可能会从中受益
go ahead, share it, knowledge is power.
欢迎去分享 知识就是力量
And of course, if you want to subscribe to my channel
当然 如果你想订阅我的频道
so you never miss any of my upcoming videos in general,
不想错过我即将发布的视频
but especially Nutrition 101,
尤其是营养学101系列
I still have a lot of these videos that I want to make.
我还会制作很多这样的视频
So definitely stick around for those,
所以一定要坚持收看哦
but thank you guys so much for watching this video today.
非常感谢收看今天的视频
You can follow me on Instagram and Snapchat
如果你想在Instagram和Snapchat上观看
if you wanna hang out on there.
可以关注我的频道
And that is all I have,
今天内容就这么多
so thank you guys again so much for watching this video today.
再次感谢收看今天的视频
And can’t wait to see you guys in the next one. Bye.
期待在下个视频见到你们 再见

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视频概述

本期是《营养学101》系列视频第3集,介绍了血糖的作用原理,及合理控制血糖的方法和重要性。并涉及2型糖尿病的形成原因,及其与1型糖尿病的区别。

听录译者

Spencer

翻译译者

melan

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogyM-7bJg2A

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