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黑洞

Black Holes 101 | National Geographic

(mysterious music)
[神秘音乐]
– [Woman] Black holes are among the most fascinating objects in our universe,
黑洞是宇宙中最令人着迷的物体之一
and also the most mysterious.
也是最神秘的
A black hole is a region in space
黑洞是宇宙里
where the force of gravity is so strong,
一块具有超强引力的区域
not even light, the fastest known entity
连人类已知的速度最快的光
in our universe, can escape.
也无法逃窜出去
The boundary of a black hole is called the event horizon,
黑洞的边界被称为事件视界
a point of no return,
任何物质越过它都无法返回
beyond which we truly cannot see.
我们也看不见超越边界的物质
When something crosses the event horizon,
一旦有物质越过事件视界
it collapses into the black hole’s singularity,
它就会坠入黑洞的奇点
an infinitely small, infinitely dense point
奇点是一个体积无限小而密度无限大的点
where space, time, and the laws of physics no longer apply.
时空概念和物理原理在奇点都将失效
Scientists have theorized several different types
科学家已经从理论上说明了黑洞有数种不同的类型
of black holes, with stellar and supermassive black holes
其中恒星级黑洞和超大质量黑洞
being the most common.
最为常见
Stellar black holes form when massive stars die and collapse.
恒星级黑洞在大质量恒星死亡坍缩时形成
They’re roughly 10 to 20 times the mass of our sun,
它们大约是太阳质量的10到20倍
and scattered throughout the universe.
并且广泛存在于宇宙中
There could be millions of these stellar black holes
仅在银河系中就有几百万颗这样的
in the Milky Way alone.
恒星级黑洞
Supermassive black holes are giants by comparison,
相比之下 超大质量恒星就显得相当巨大
measuring millions, even billions of times,
比太阳质量大几百万倍
more massive than our sun.
甚至几十亿倍
Scientists can only guess how they form,
科学家只能猜测它们是怎么形成的
but we do know they exist at the center
但是我们知道它们存在于
of just about every large galaxy, including our own.
包括银河系在内的几乎所有大星系的中心
Sagittarius A, the supermassive black hole
在银河系中心的人马座A
at the center of the Milky Way,
就是一颗超大质量黑洞
has a mass of roughly four million suns,
它大约是400万个太阳质量
and has a diameter about the distance
直径大约是
between the earth and our sun.
地球到太阳的距离
Because black holes are invisible,
因为黑洞是看不见的
the only way for scientists to detect
科学家们观测和研究黑洞
and study them is to observe their effect
的唯一方法就是观察它对
on nearby matter.
周围物质的影响
This includes accretion disks,
观察对象包括吸积盘
a disk of particles that form when gases and dust
一种气体和尘埃坠入黑洞时粒子形成的
fall toward a black hole, and quasars,
盘状结构 以及类星体
Jets of particles that blast out supermasive black holes
一种从黑洞向外喷射的粒子流
Black holes remained largely unknown until the 20th century.
20世纪以前 黑洞几乎不为人知
In 1916, using Einstein’s general theory of relativity,
1916年 德国物理学家卡尔史瓦西
a German physicist named Karl Schwartzschild
利用爱因斯坦相对论
calculated that any mass can become a black hole
计算得出 任何物质如果被压缩到足够小
if it were compressed tightly enough.
都可以变成黑洞
But it wasn’t until 1971 when theory became reality.
但是直到1917年理论才变为现实
Astronomers studying the constellation Cygnus
研究天鹅座的天文学家
discovered the first black hole.
发现了第一个黑洞
An untold number of black holes
无数的黑洞
are scattered throughout the universe,
广泛分布于宇宙中
constantly warping space and time,
它们不断地扭曲时空
altering entire galaxies, and endlessly inspiring
改变着整个星系 而且无限地激发着
both scientists and our collective imagination.
科学家们以及我们人类的集体想象力

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黑洞是什么?它是怎么形成的?科学家们是怎样研究黑洞的?想要了解更多,本视频将为你解答。

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