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为全球问题订定先后次序 – 译学馆
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为全球问题订定先后次序

Bjorn Lomborg: Global priorities bigger than climate change

What I’d like to talk
我今天想和大家
about is really the biggest problems in the world.
谈的都是地球上最严重的问题
I’m not going to talk about”The Skeptical Environmentalist” —
我不会谈到《持怀疑论的环保分子》这本书
probably that’s also a good choice.
虽然那未尝不是一个好选择
(Laughter)
(笑声)
But I am going talk about: what are the big problems in the world?
我要说的 是地球上最严重的问题是什么?
And I must say, before I go on,
在我继续之前
I should ask every one of you
我想请在座每一位朋友
to try and get out pen and paper
拿出纸和笔
because I’m actually going to ask you
因为我将会请大家和我一起试试
to help me to look at how we do that.
看我们是怎样找出答案的
So get out your pen and paper.
所以请你拿出纸和笔
Bottom line is, there is a lot
我们的底线
of problems out there in the world.
是我们这个世界有很多问题
I’m just going to list some of them.
让我列举其中一些:
There are 800 million people starving.
全球有八亿人处于饥饿之中;
There’s a billion people without clean drinking water.
有十亿人没有清洁食水;
Two billion people without sanitation.
二十亿人没有基本卫生设施;
There are several million people dying of HIV and AIDS.
几百万人死于爱滋病毒及爱滋病;
The lists go on and on.
这个清单可以一直数下去
There’s two billions of people who will be severely affected by climate change —
二十亿人会受到气候改变的严重影响 — 等等
so on.
等等
There are many, many problems out there.
这个世界有很多很多的问题
In an ideal world, we would solve them all,
在一个完美的世界 我们会解决所有的问题
but we don’t.
可是实际上我们不会
We don’t actually solve all problems.
在现实世界 我们不会解决所有的问题
And if we do not,
既然我们不会解决
the question I think we need to ask ourselves
所有的问题 那我们便要问问自己
— and that’s why it’s on the economy session —
–这就是为什么这场演讲被安排在经济时段–
is to say,
那么
if we don’t do all things,
既然我们不会应付全部问题
we really have to start asking ourselves,
我们就应该开始问自己
which ones should we solve first?
我们应该先解决那些问题?
And that’s the question I’d like to ask you.
这就是今天我要问大家的问题
If we had say,
设想如果我们
50 billion dollars over the next four years to spend
有五百亿元 可以在未来四年
to do good in this world, where should we spend it?
用来为世界做点事 我们应该把钱花在哪儿?
We identified 10 of the biggest challenges in the world,
我们找出地球面临的十项最大挑战
and I will just briefly read them: climate change,
让我很快的念出来
communicable diseases, conflicts, education, financial instability, governance
气候变化 传染病 冲突 教育 金融波动 政府管治
and corruption, malnutrition and hunger, population migration,
贪污 营养不良及饥荒 人口迁移
sanitation and water, and subsidies and trade barriers.
卫生及水源 经济资助及贸易壁壘
We believe that these in many ways encompass the biggest problems in the world.
我们相信在很大程度上 它们涵盖了世界最严重的问题很明显
The obvious question would be to ask,
我们要问的问题是
what do you think are the biggest things?
哪些才是这些问题当中最重要的?
Where should we start on solving these problems?
我们该从哪个问题着手解决呢?
But that’s a wrong problem to ask.
不过 这个问题其实问得不对
That was actually the problem that was asked in Davos in January.
今年一月在瑞士达沃斯 有人就确实提出过这个问题当然
But of course, there’s a problem
把注意力集中在问题上
in asking people to focus on problems.
本身就是一个问题
Because we can’t solve problems.
因为总有我们解决不了的问题
Surely the biggest problem we have in the world is that we all die.
我们都知道这个世界面对的最大问题就是我们都会死
But we don’t have a technology to solve that, right?
还没有一种科技可以解决这个问题
So the point is not to prioritize problems,
对不对?所以最重要的 不是为问题订出先后次序
but the point is to prioritize solutions to problems.
而是为解决方法订出先后次序
And that would be — of course that gets a little more complicated.
那就是说 — 当然真正的情况没有那么简单
To climate change that would be like Kyoto.
气候变化的解决方法可能是京都协议
To communicable diseases, it might be health clinics or mosquito nets.
传染病的解决方法可能是医疗诊所和蚊帐
To conflicts, it would be U.N.’s peacekeeping forces, and so on.
冲突的解决方法可能是联合国维持和平部队等等
The point that I would like
我想大家一起
to ask you to try to do,
尝试做的是
is just in 30 seconds —
请你在三十秒之内–
and I know this is in a sense
我知道这几乎是
an impossible task —
不可能的
write down what you think is probably some of the top priorities.
–写出你认为 应该最优先着手的项目还有
And also — and that’s,
— 这就是为什么
of course, where economics gets evil —
经济考虑教人那么为难
to put down what are the things we should not do, first.
–请你也写出哪些项目无须即时处理
What should be at the bottom of the list? Please,
请你也写出哪些项目无须即时处理
just take 30 seconds, perhaps talk to your neighbor,
应该放到清单的最后
and just figure out what should be the top
请你试试 在三十秒之内 你可以和旁边的人商量
priorities and the bottom priorities of the solutions that
想想哪些解决方法应该最优先进行
we have to the world’s biggest issues.
用来解决世界上最严重的问题
The amazing part of this process —
这个过程最美妙的地方是–
and of course, I mean,
当然我很想
I would love to — I only have 18 minutes,
多给大家时间 – 但我只有十八分钟
I’ve already given you quite a substantial amount of my time, right?
我已经给了大家相当多的时间
I’d love to go into,
对不对?我想引导大家经历
and get you to think about this process,
这个过程 思想这个过程
and that’s actually what we did.
因为那是我们实际上经过的过程
And I also strongly encourage you, and I’m
我很想大家认真地想想
sure we’ll also have these discussions afterwards, to
当然以后我们还要加以讨论
think about, how do we actually prioritize?
我们的缓急先后次序 实际上是怎样订出来的呢?
Of course, you have to ask yourself,
当然 你要问问自己
why on Earth was such a list never done before?
为什么这个次序从来没有人订出来?
And one reason is that prioritization is incredibly uncomfortable.
原因之一是这个次序会使人感到极度不快
Nobody wants to do this.
没有人想这样做很明显
Of course, every organization would love to be
每个组织都想成为清单
on the top of such a list.
上的优先项目
But every organization would also hate to be not
都不想排在
on the top of the list.
清单的后面
And since there are many more not-number-one spots on the list
正因为清单上的非首要项目
than there is number ones, it makes perfect sense
远远比首要项目多
not to want to do such a list.
理所当然地没有人想订定这张清单
We’ve had the U.N. for almost 60 years,
联合国成立了差不多六十年
yet we’ve never actually made a fundamental list
但我们从没有确实地订出一张基本的选单
of all the big things that we can
列出我们可以为世界做的所有重要事情
do in the world, and said,
哪些我们应该
which of them should we do first?
优先处理?
So it doesn’t mean that we are not prioritizing —
这不是说我们没有决定先后次序
any decision is a prioritization,
–任何决定都包含了先后次序
so of course we are still prioritizing,
所以我们仍然是决定了
if only implicitly — and that’s unlikely to be as good
只是没有说出来 – 但这却很可能
as if we actually did the prioritization,
没有真正订出先后次序
and went in and talked about it.
认认真真的说出来那么好
So what I’m proposing is really to say that we have,
所以我现在要建议的
for a very long time,
是我们长久以来
had a situation when we’ve had a menu of choices.
已经有一张清单供我们选择
There are many, many things we can
我们可以为地球做很多很多事情
do out there, but we’ve not
but we’ve not had
had the prices, nor the sizes.
theprices nor the
We have not had an idea.
sizes. 没有作出决定的依据
Imagine going into a restaurant and getting this big menu card,
设想我们走进一所餐厅 拿着一张大大的菜单
but you have no idea what the price is.
却不知道价格
You know, you have a pizza;
你想要一客薄饼
you’ve no idea what the price is.
却不知道售价
It could be at one dollar; it could be 1,000 dollars.
那可能是一块钱 也可能是一千块
It could be a family-size pizza;
可能是一个家庭的分量
it could be a very individual-size pizza, right?
也可能只够一个人吃
We’d like to know these things.
我们需要知道这些事情
And that is what the Copenhagen Consensus is really trying to do —
这就是“哥本哈根共识”想做的 就是为全球性
to try to put prices on these issues.
问题订出价格
And so basically, this has been the Copenhagen Consensus’ process.
简单来说 以下就是达至“哥本哈根共识”的过程
We got 30 of the world’s best economists, three in each area.
我们找来三十位世界最出色的经济学家 每一个范畴三位
So we have three of world’s top economists write about climate change.
这就是说 三位世界最佳经济学家 为我们就气候变化提供建议:
What can we do? What will be the cost
我们可以做什么?所需费用又是多少?
and what will be the benefit of that?
能带来什么效益?
Likewise in communicable diseases.
同样 在传染病的范畴上
Three of the world’s top experts saying, what can we do?
我们有世界顶尖的三位专家 告诉我们可以做什么
What would be the price?
所需费用如何?
What should we do about it,
我们应该怎让做?
and what will be the outcome?
又有什么果效?
And so on.
如此类推
Then we had some of the world’s
我们又请来世界最出色的经济学家
top economists, eight of the world’s
八位世界最佳经济学家
top economists, including three Nobel Laureates,
包括三位诺贝尔奖得主
meet in Copenhagen in May 2004.
在2004年5月云集哥本哈根
We called them the”dream team.”
我们叫他们做梦幻队
The Cambridge University prefects decided to call them
剑桥大学的级长称他们为
the Real Madrid of economics.
经济学的皇家马德里队
That works very well in Europe,
–这名称在欧洲很合适
but it doesn’t really work over here.
但在这里似乎就不很行得通
And what they basically did was come out with a prioritized list.
他们做的基本上就是订出一张列明缓急次序的选单
And then you ask, why economists?
你可能要问 为什么是经济学家?
And of course, I’m very happy you asked that question — (Laughter) —
而我当然很高兴你提出这个问题 –(笑声)–
because that’s a very good question.
因为那是一个十分好的问题重点是
The point is, of course,
如果
if you want to know about malaria,
你想认识疟疾
you ask a malaria expert.
你会找个疟疾专家;
If you want to know about climate, you ask a climatologist.
如果你想认识气候 你会找个气候学家
But if you want to know which
可是如果你想知道二者之间
of the two you should deal with first,
何者应该优先处理
you can’t ask either of them,
你不能问他们任何一方
because that’s not what they do.
因为那不是他们的工作
That is what economists do.
那是经济学家的工作
They prioritize.
他们订定优先次序
They make that in some ways disgusting task of saying,
经济学家做的 就是那在某些方面被认为是厌恶性的工作
which one should we do first,
他们决定哪些项目应优先处理
and which one should we do afterwards?
那些该稍后进行
So this is the list,
这就是我想
and this is the one I’d like to share with you.
和大家分享的清单
Of course, you can also see it on the website,
你当然也可以在我们的网站看到这份清单
and we’ll also talk about it more,
而等一会我们也会
I’m sure, as the day goes on.
再详细说说
They basically came up with a list where they said there were bad projects — basically,
基本上他们完成了一份选单 上面包括一些不良项目 – 简单来说
projects
如果你投资一坏钱到这些项目
where if you invest a dollar, you get less than a dollar back.
你的回报会比一坏钱少;
Then there’s fair projects, good projects and very good projects.
也有表现一般的项目 良好项目和优秀项目
And of course, it’s the very good projects we should start doing.
我们应该首先开展的 当然是那些优秀项目
I’m going to go from backwards so
我会从清单的末尾开始
that we end up with the best projects.
把优秀项目留到最后
These were the bad projects.
这些是不良项目
As you might see the bottom of the list was climate change.
可以见到排在清单最末的是气候变化
This offends a lot of people,
这冒犯了很多人
and that’s probably one of the things
那可能就是为什么有些人说
where people will say I shouldn’t come back, either.
我不应该再来
And I’d like to talk about that, because that’s really curious.
这个我需要解释一下 因为这看来很奇怪
Why is it it came up?
为什么会是这样呢?
And I’ll actually also try to get back to this
这个我往后还要再谈一下
because it’s probably one of the things that we’ll
因为这可能是我们的清单跟你的清单
disagree with on the list that you wrote down.
其中一个不同的地方
The reason why they came up with saying that Kyoto —
为什么我们的专家认为执行京都协议
or doing something more than Kyoto —
或者做得比京都协议更多
is a bad deal is simply because it’s very inefficient.
并不是一个好主意? 原因很简单 因为这样做缺乏果效
It’s not saying that global warming is not happening.
这不是说全球暖化没有发生
It’s not saying that it’s not a big problem.
也不是说问题并不严重乃是说
But it’s saying that what we can do about it is very little,
我们可以为这个问题做的 并不多
at a very high cost.
而且所费不菲
What they basically show us, the average of all macroeconomic models,
这些专家告诉我们 根据所有宏观经济模型平均计算
is that Kyoto, if everyone agreed,
如果各国都执行京都协议
would cost about 150 billion dollars a year.
每年要花费大概一千五百亿美元
That’s a substantial amount of money.
这笔庞大的数目
That’s two to three times the global development aid
大概是我们每年援助第三世界发展所费
that we give the Third World every year.
两至三倍
Yet it would do very little good.
可是回报却很少
All models show it will postpone warming for about six years in 2100.
所有模型都显示 这只可以把暖化问题推迟大约六年至二一零零年
So the guy in Bangladesh who gets a flood
也就是说 本来於二一零零年在孟加拉发生的水灾
in 2100 can wait until 2106.
可以延至二一零六年
Which is a little good, but not very much good.
这是有一点好处 却不是很大的成效
So the idea here really is to say, well,
这个例子的意思是
we’ve spent a lot of money doing a little good.
我们用了很多钱 却只带来一点利益
And just to give you a sense of reference,
让我给你一些参考资料
the U.N. actually estimate that for half that amount,
根据联合国的估计 我们只需一半的价钱
for about 75 billion dollars a year, we could
即每年大概七百五十亿美元
solve all major basic problems in the world.
便可以解决世界上所有重大基本问题
We could give clean drinking water, sanitation, basic healthcare
我们可以为地球上每一个人 提供清洁食水
and education to every single human being on the planet.
卫生设施基本医疗和教育
So we have to ask ourselves,
所以我们要问自己
do we want to spend twice the amount
是否要付出双倍代价
on doing very little good?
来换取些少好处
Or half the amount on doing an amazing amount of good?
还是只用一半的价钱 就取得意想不到那么多的成效?
And that is really why it becomes a bad project.
这就是为什么气候变化是一个不良项目
It’s not to say that if we
这不是说 如果我们拥有
had all the money in the world,
世界上所有的钱
we wouldn’t want to do it.
我们不会进行这个项目
But it’s to say, when we don’t,
这乃是说 当我们并不拥有所有的钱
it’s just simply not our first priority.
就不应优先处理这个问题
The fair projects —
那些果效一般的项目
notice I’m not going to comment on all these —
–我且不在此逐项评论
but communicable diseases, scale of basic health services —
–好像传染病 基本卫生服务 –
just made it,
尚可以进行
simply because, yes, scale of basic health services is a great thing.
原因很简单 基本卫生服务的规模庞大
It would do a lot of good,
可以带来很大益处
but it’s also very, very costly. Again,
不过也非常昂贵
what it tells us is suddenly we start thinking
如上所言 这一下子告诉我们
about both sides of the equation.
要开始考虑问题的两面
If you look at the good projects,
接着下来我们可以看看果效良好的项目
a lot of sanitation and water projects came in. Again,
包括许多卫生和食水项目
sanitation and water is incredibly important,
卫生和食水项目极为重要
but it also costs a lot of infrastructure.
但需要很多基本设施
So I’d like to show you the top four priorities
最后让我们一起看看为首的四项优先项目
which should be at least the first ones
它们应该是我们谈及如何处理世界性问题
that we deal with

when we talk about how we should deal with the problems in the world.
最优先要处理的
The fourth best problem is malaria — dealing with malaria.
第四个要优先处理的问题是疟疾 – 即消除疟疾的威胁
The incidence of malaria is about a couple of [million] people get infected every year.
每年有几百万人感染疟疾
It might even cost up towards a percentage point of GDP
对受影响国家来说 每年所需的费用
every year for affected nations.
可能多至国民生产总值百分之一
If we invested about 13 billion dollars
如果我们投放大概一百三十亿美元
over the next four years,
在未来四年用来控制疟疾
we could bring that incidence down to half.
就可以把感染的人数减半
We could avoid about 500,000 people dying,
防止大概五十万人死掉
but perhaps more importantly, we could avoid about a [million] people
更重要的 是每年我们可以防止大概十亿人
getting infected every year.
感染到这个病
We would significantly increase their ability
我们可以显著地提高
to deal with many of the other problems
他们应付其他很多
that they have to deal with —
问题的能力当然
of course, in the long run, also to deal with global warming.
长远来说 这也会提高他们应付全球暖化的能力
This third best one was free trade. Basically,
第三项要优先处理的问题是自由贸易基本上
the model showed that if we could get free trade,
我们的经济模型告诉我们 如果我们有自由贸易
and especially cut subsidies in the U.S. and Europe,
尤其如果我们在美国和欧洲取消贸易补贴
we could basically enliven the global economy
我们可以从根本活化环球经济
to an astounding number of about 2,400 billion dollars a year,
达至令人惊讶的二万四千亿美元一年
half of which would accrue to the Third World. Again,
而其中一半会来自第三世界
the point is to say that we could actually pull
那就是说 我们可以极速地在两至三年间
two to three hundred million people out of poverty,
把两至三亿人
very radically fast, in about two to five years.
带离贫困
That would be the third best thing we could do.
那是第三件我们最应做的事
The second best thing would be to focus on malnutrition.
第二件我们最应做的事 是改善营养不良
Not just malnutrition in general, but there’s a very cheap way
我们不是指一般的营养不良 而是指改善营养不良
of dealing with malnutrition, namely, the lack of micronutrients. Basically,
一个非常便宜的方法 就是解决微量营养缺乏的问题
about half of the world’s population is lacking in iron,
基本上全球有一半人口缺乏铁
zinc, iodine and vitamin A.
锌 碘和维生素A
If we invest about 12 billion dollars,
要是我们投资一百二十亿美元
we could make a severe inroad into that problem.
就可以为这个问题带来重大的帮助
That would be the second best investment that we could do.
那会是我们能做的第二最佳投资
And the very best project would be to focus on HIV/AIDS. Basically,
至于我们成效最佳的项目 就是打击爱滋基本上
if we invest 27 billion dollars
要是我们在未来八年
over the next eight years,
投资两百七十亿美元
we could avoid 28 new million cases of HIV/AIDS. Again,
便可以防止两千八百万个爱滋新症同样地
what this does and what it focuses on is saying
我们必须考虑解决问题的方法和效益
there are two very different ways that we can deal with HIV/AIDS.
对付爱滋我们有两种截然不同的方法
One is treatment; the other one is prevention.
一是治疗
And again, in an ideal world, we would do both.
一是预防如上所言 在一个理想的世界 我们两者都要做
But in a world where we don’t do either,
但如果我们不能两者兼顾
or don’t do it very well,
或者不能两者都做得很好
we have to at least ask ourselves where should we invest first.
就要先问自己 我们应该首先投资在哪里?
And treatment is much, much more expensive than prevention.
因为治疗比预防昂贵得多
So basically, what this focuses on is saying,
所以基本上 如果我们投资在
we can do a lot more
预防爱滋上
by investing in prevention.
所得的成效就会大很多基本上
Basically for the amount of money that we spend,
我们用一笔钱预防爱滋
we can do X amount of good in treatment,
相比把同样的数目用来治疗爱滋
and 10 times as much good in prevention.
可以取得十倍的成效所以
So again, what we focus on is prevention rather than treatment,
我们首要注重预防
at first rate.
而不是治疗
What this really does is that it makes us think about our priorities.
这告诉我们 考虑缓急先后至为重要
I’d like to have you look
请你看看
at your priority list and say,
你的清单
did you get it right?
问问自己 优先次序订得对不对?
Or did you get close to what we came up with here? Well,
和我们订定的是否相似?
of course, one of the things is climate change again.
当然 我们要面对的其中一个问题是气候变化
I find a lot of people find it very,
我知道很多人都不
very unlikely that we should do that.
认同我们的看法
We should also do climate change,
他们以为 单凭这个问题的规模
if for no other reason, simply because it’s such a big problem.
我们就应该处理气候变化
But of course, we don’t do all problems.
但想深一层 我们不会解决所有的问题
There are many problems out there in the world.
这个世界有很多问题
And what I want to make sure of is,
我们必须针对性
if we actually focus on problems,
地对待它们
that we focus on the right ones.
把焦点放在正确的问题上
The ones where we can do a lot
就是那些可以取得重大果效
of good rather than a little good.
而非只带来微薄回报的问题
And I think, actually — Thomas Schelling,
¼我们梦幻队的成员
one of the participants in the dream team,
Thomas Schelling
he put it very, very well.
说得非常好:
One of things that people forget, is that in 100 years,
他说 人们往往忘记一百年后
when we’re talking about most
当我们讨论大部分
of the climate change impacts will be,
气候变化影响的时候
people will be much, much richer.
人们要比现在富有得多
Even the most pessimistic impact scenarios of the U.N.
即使是联合国最悲观的预测
estimate that the average person in the developing world in 2100
在二一零零年 发展中国家的人
will be about as rich as we are today.
最低限度也和我们现在一样富有
Much more likely,
更可能的是
they will be two to four times richer than we are.
他们要比我们现在富有两倍至四倍当然
And of course, we’ll be even richer than that.
到时我们也会比现在更富有
But the point is to say,
我的意思是
when we talk about saving people,
当我们说要在二一零零年
or helping people in Bangladesh in 2100,
救助或者帮助孟加拉时
we’re not talking about a poor Bangladeshi.
我们面对的不是一个穷困的孟加拉人
We’re actually talking about a fairly rich Dutch guy.
而是一个挺富庶的荷兰人
And so the real point, of course, is to say,
归根到底 最重要的是我们是否想花一大笔钱
do we want to spend a lot
为一个一百年以后相当
of money helping a little,
富有的荷兰人
100 years from now, a fairly rich Dutch guy?
带来一点儿的帮助
Or do we want to help real poor people,
还是以低廉的代价
right now, in Bangladesh,
帮助那些现时身在孟加拉
who really need the help,
真正需要
and whom we can help very, very cheaply?
帮助的穷人?
Or as Schelling put it, imagine if you were a rich —
又或者如Schelling所说 设想到了二一零零年
as you will be —
你是一个有钱的中国人
a rich Chinese, a rich Bolivian, a rich Congolese, in 2100,
玻利维亚人 或者是刚果人
thinking back on 2005,
当你回想二零零五年
and saying,” How odd that they cared so much
你会说 “为什么他们那么着紧
about helping me a little bit through climate change,
要在应付气候变化上帮我一点儿
and cared so fairly little about helping my grandfather
却并不在意帮助
and my great grandfather,
我那亟需援手
whom they could have helped so much more,
的祖父和曾祖父
and who needed the help so much more?”
虽然他们可以做的是那么多?
So I think that really does tell us why it is
我让为这正正说明了
we need to get our priorities straight.
为什么正确地订明先后次序是那么重要
Even if it doesn’t accord to the typical way we see this problem.
虽然这跟我们一般看这个问题的方法不同当然
Of course, that’s mainly because climate change has good pictures.
主要原因是气候变化有很多动人的影像
We have, you know,”The Day After Tomorrow” — it looks great, right?
我们有“明日之后”那样的电影 — 那些影像真棒
It’s a good film in the sense that
对不对?那是一出好电影
I certainly want to see it, right, but don’t expect Emmerich
十分有吸引力 不过 不要期待Emmerich
to cast Brad Pitt in his next movie
会找Brad Pitt在他的下一部戏
digging latrines in Tanzania or something. (Laughter)
到坦尼亚挖厕所或是什么的
It just doesn’t make for as much of a movie.
(笑声)因为那没有什么看头
So in many ways, I think of
所以从很多方面看来
the Copenhagen Consensus and the whole discussion of
“哥本哈根共识” 和整个有关先后次序的讨论
priorities as a defense for boring problems.
是对沉闷问题的一场辩护
To make sure that we realize it’s not about making us feel good.
叫我们认识到解决世界问题 不是要做令自己感觉良好的事
It’s not about making things that have the most media attention,
不是要做最能吸引传媒的事
but it’s about making places where we can actually do the most good.
而是做最能带来成效的事
The other objections, I think, that are important to say,
我也必须提及另一种反对的声音认为我
is that I’m somehow — or we are somehow —
— 或者我们 —
positing a false choice.
提出的抉择并无需要
Of course, we should do all things,
在一个完美的世界 我们当然应该解决所有问题
in an ideal world — I would certainly agree.
我绝对同意
I think we should do all things, but we don’t.
我们应该做所有的事情 但事实上却不能
In 1970, the developed world decided we were going to spend
在七十年代 发达国家估计我们需要花在发展中国家的钱
twice as much as we did, right now,
是我们现在实质花费
than in 1970, on the developing world.
在这些国家的两倍
Since then our aid has halved.
自七十年代以来 我们援助这些国家的金额减了一半
So it doesn’t look like we’re actually on the path
由此看来 我们现在走的方向
of suddenly solving all big problems. Likewise,
不会一下子解决所有重大问题同样
people are also saying, but what about the Iraq war?
有些人会问 那美伊战争又如何?
You know, we spend 100 billion dollars —
我们为这战争已经花掉了一千亿美元
why don’t we spend that on doing good in the world?
为什么不用这笔钱为世界做点好事?
I’m all for that.
®这个我完全赞成
If any one of you guys can talk Bush
如果你们有人可以说服布殊那样做
into doing that, that’s fine.
那就最好不过不过
But the point, of course, is still to say, if you get another 100 billion dollars,
我的论点还是一样: 如果我们有额外一千亿美元
we still want to spend that in the best possible way,
我们仍想把这笔钱花在最佳用途上
don’t we?
对不对?
So the real issue here is to get
所以最重要的问题 是我们要回去
ourselves back and think about what are the right priorities.
细细思想 正确订定缓急次序
I should just mention briefly,
还有一点我要提一提
is this really the right list that we got out?
就是我们这张清单定得是否正确?
You know, when you ask the world’s best economists,
当我们要找世界上最出色的经济专家
you inevitably end up asking old, white American men.
无何避免地找来的都是上了年纪的美国白人
And they’re not necessarily, you know,
然而他们却不一定能提供
great ways of looking at the entire world.
看整个世界的最好方法
So we actually invited 80 young people from all
所以我们又从世界各地请来八十个年青人
over the world to come and solve the same problem.
请他们解决同样的问题
The only two requirements were
他们只需符合两个条件:
that they were studying at the university,
是大学生
and they spoke English.
和懂英语
The majority of them were, first, from developing countries.
他们大部分来自发展中国家
They had all the same material but they could go vastly
我们为他们提供同样的资料 但由得他们自由讨论 不受限制
outside the scope of discussion, and they certainly did,
而他们也不时偏离原定的范围
to come up with their own lists.
以定出他们自己的清单
And the surprising thing was that the list was very similar —
令人惊奇的是 他们订出来的清单都很相似
with malnutrition and diseases at the top
为首的总是营养不良和疾病
and climate change at the bottom.
而气候变化总是在清单的最后
We’ve done this many other times.
这些讨论我们进行了很多次
There’s been many other seminars and university students, and different things.
还有很多大学生之间的其他研讨会等等
They all come out with very much the same list.
他们完成的清单都差不多
And that gives me great hope, really,
这个发现叫我充满希望
in saying that I do believe
我深信这是订定
that there is a path ahead
缓急先后
to get us to start thinking about priorities,
次序的方法
and saying, what is the important thing in the world?
什么是世界上最重要的事情?
Of course, in an ideal world,
我重申 在一个完美的世界
again we’d love to do everything.
我们会解决所有问题
But if we don’t do it,
但既然在现实世界我们
then we can start thinking about where should we start?
不会那样做 便要开始想想 该从哪儿着手?
I see the Copenhagen Consensus as a process.
我觉得“哥本哈根共识”是一个过程
We did it in 2004, and we
我们在二零零四年举办过一次
hope to assemble many more people, getting
我们希望可以在二零零八和二零一二
much better information for 2008, 2012.
聚集更多人 取得更好的资讯
Map out the right path for the world —
以期为世界订出正确的道路
but also to start thinking about political triage.
我们也要开始在政策上把问题分类
To start thinking about saying,”Let’s do
要告诉人们:让我们不要做那些
not the things where we can
代价高昂而果
do very little at a very high cost,
效不彰的事情
not the things that we don’t know how to do,
也不要做那些我们不懂得怎样做的事情;
but let’s do the great
让我们现在就
things where we can do an enormous
做那些我们能做
amount of good, at very low cost, right now.”
作价便宜 而又带来庞大效益的事情到最后
At the end of the day, you can disagree with
你可以不同意
the discussion of how we actually prioritize these, but we
我们订定缓急先后的方法 不过我们一定
have to be honest and frank about saying,
要老老实实地想
if there’s some things we do,
如果我们能做某些事情
there are other things we don’t do.
就一定有其他的事情我们不会做;
If we worry too much about some things,
如果我们为一些事情过分操心
we end by not worrying about other things.
就会忽略了其他的事
So I hope this will help us make better priorities,
我希望这对我们订定缓急先后有点帮助
and think about how we better work for the world.
教我们可以为这个世界做得更好
Thank you.
谢谢

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