>> BILL GATES: Congratulations, class of 2014! (Cheers).
我和梅琳达很高兴能来这里 受邀 在斯坦福毕业典礼上 演讲让人激动
Melinda and I are excited to be here. It would be a thrill for anyone to be invited to speak
at a Stanford commencement, but it’s especially gratifying for us. Stanford is rapidly becoming
the favorite university for members of our family, and it’s long been a favorite university
for Microsoft and our foundation. Our formula has been to get the smartest,
最有创造力的人着手最为重要的问题 结果证明 一大部分
most creative people working on the most important problems. It turns out that a disproportionate
number of those people are at Stanford. (Cheers).
现在 我们在这里进行着30多个基础研究项目 当我们想要
Right now, we have more than 30 foundation research projects underway here. When we want
to learn more about the immune system to help cure the worst diseases, we work with Stanford.
When we want to understand the changing landscape of higher education in the United States,
so that more low-income students get college degrees, we work with Stanford.
天才汇聚于此 在这里 有着灵活的思维 对于改变的开放态度以及对新鲜事物的渴求
This is where genius lives. There’s a flexibility of mind here, an openness to change, an eagerness
在这里 人们 发现新事物 乐享其中
for what’s new. This is where people come to discover the future, and have fun doing it.
>> MELINDA GATES: Now, some people call you all nerds and
we hear that you claim that label with pride. (Cheers and Applause).
比尔盖茨：嗯 我们也是 (欢呼和掌声)
>> BILL GATES: Well, so do we. (Cheers and Applause).
>> BILL GATES: My normal glasses really aren’t all that different.
(Laughter). There are so many remarkable things going
on here at this campus, but if Melinda and I had to put into one word what we love most
about Stanford, it’s the optimism. There’s an infectious feeling here that innovation
创新能解决一切问题 这种信念驱使着我 在1975年
can solve almost every problem. That’s the belief that drove me in 1975 to
leave a college in the suburbs of Boston and go on an endless leave of absence.
(Laughter). I believed that the magic of computers and
software would empower people everywhere and make the world much, much better.
从那时算起 已有40年之久 我和梅琳达结婚也有20年 了
It’s been 40 years since then, and 20 years since Melinda and I were married. We are both
这些年间 我们都比过去更为乐观 但是在这些人生之旅中 我们的乐观也实现了进化
more optimistic now than ever. But on our journey, our optimism evolved.
We would like to tell you what we learned and talk to you today about how your optimism
and ours can do more for more people. When Paul Allen and I started Microsoft, we
我们的目标是把计算机和软件的力量普及到 大众 这便是我们当时的说法
wanted to bring the power of computers and software to the people, and that was the kind
of rhetoric we used. One of the pioneering books in the field had a raised fist on the
他们称之为《计算机解放》 那个时候 只有大企业才能买计算机
cover, and it was called “Computer Lib.” At that time, only big businesses could buy computers.
We wanted to offer the same power to regular people and democratize computing.
在上个世纪90年代 我们目睹了个人电脑对人们的巨大效用 但是这种成功同时造成了
By the 1990s, we saw how profoundly personal computers could empower people, but that success created
新的困局 如果富人的孩子拥有计算机而穷人的孩子却不能 这种科技会
a new dilemma. If rich kids got computers and poor kids didn’t, then technology would
加剧不平等 而这与我们的核心理念相抵触 科技应当惠及万众
make inequality worse. That ran counter to our core belief. Technology should benefit
everyone. So we worked to close the digital divide.
I made it a priority at Microsoft, and Melinda and I made it an early priority at our Foundation.
Donating personal computers to public libraries to make sure that everyone had access.
The digital divide was a focus of mine in 1997, when I took my first trip to South Africa.
I went there on business so I spent most of my time in meetings in downtown Johannesburg.
I stayed in the home of one of the richest families in South Africa. It had only been
three years since the election of Nelson Mandela marked the end of apartheid.
When I sat down for dinner with my hosts, they used a bell to call the butler. After
在晚饭后 男女相互分开而男人们开始抽雪茄 当时我想 幸好
dinner, the women and men separated and the men smoked cigars. I thought, good thing I
read Jane Austen, or I wouldn’t have known what was going on.
(Laughter). But the next day I went to Soweto, the poor
township southwest of Johannesburg, that had been the center of the anti-apartheid movement.
It was a short distance from the city into the township, but the entry was sudden, jarring
and harsh. I passed into a world completely unlike the
one I came from. My visit to Soweto became an early lesson in how naive I was. Microsoft
was donating computers and software to a community center there. The kind of thing we did in
the United States. But it became clear to me, very quickly, that this was not the United
States. I had seen statistics on poverty, but I had never really seen poverty.
那里的人们住在用铁皮搭成的简陋棚户里 没有电 没有自来水 也没有厕所
The people there lived in corrugated tin shacks with no electricity, no water, no toilets.
人们几乎不穿鞋 赤脚行走 或者可以说根本没有街道
Most people didn’t wear shoes. They walked barefoot along the streets, except there were
no streets, just ruts in the mud. The community center had no consistent source
of power. So they rigged up an extension cord that ran 200 feet from the center to the diesel
generator outside. Looking at this setup, I knew the minute the reporters left, the
generator would get moved to a more urgent task. And the people who used the community
center would go back to worrying about challenges that couldn’t be solved by a personal computer.
When I gave my prepared remarks to the press, I said Soweto is a milestone. There are major
decisions ahead about whether technology will leave the developing world behind. This
这也便是要缩小差距 但当我说出这些词时 我发现他们并不是
is to close the gap. But as I read those words, I knew they weren’t
如此相关 我没有说的是 顺便说一下 我们并没有注意到一个事实
super relevant. What I didn’t say was, by the way, we’re not focused on the fact that
half a million people on this continent are dying every year from malaria. But we are
还是万分确信我们会为他们带来计算机 在我去索韦托之前 我认为自己很理解
sure as hell going to bring you computers. Before I went to Soweto, I thought I understood
the world’s problems but I was blind to many of the most important ones. I was so taken
aback by what I saw that I had to ask myself, did I still believe that innovation could
solve the world’s toughest problems? I promised myself that before I came back to Africa,
I would find out more about what keeps people poor.
Over the years, Melinda and I did learn more about the pressing needs of the poor. On a
later trip to South Africa, I paid a visit to a hospital for patients with MDR-TB, multi-drug
resistant tuberculosis, a disease with a cure rate of under 50%. I remember that hospital
那个充满绝望的地方 在一个巨大的开放性病房里 住着很多很多病人 他们穿着睡衣
as a place of despair. It was a giant open ward, with a sea of patients shuffling around
带着口罩 慢慢挪动着 有一层楼是专为孩童开设的 其中包括还在卧床的婴儿们
in pajamas, wearing masks. There was one floor just for children, including some babies lying
in bed. They had a little school for kids who were
well enough to learn, but many of the children couldn’t make it, and the hospital didn’t
seem to know whether it was worth it to keep the school open.
I talked to a patient there in her early 30s. She had been a worker at a TB hospital when
因为咳嗽而病倒 她去看医生 医生告诉她患上了耐药性结核病
she came down with a cough. She went to a doctor and he told her said she had drug-resistant
TB. She was later diagnosed with AIDS. She wasn’t going to live much longer,
but there were plenty of MDR patients waiting to take her bed when she vacated it. This
这是一个 候场病人的地狱 但是目睹了这个地狱并没有减少我的乐观心态
was hell with a waiting list. But seeing this hell didn’t reduce my optimism. It channeled
相反 它指导着乐观的前行 在我们离开时
it. I got into the car as I left and I told the
我 跟与我们同行的医生说 我虽然知道耐多药结核病是一种顽疾 但我们必须为这些人做一些实事
doctor we were working with I know MDR-TB is hard to cure, but we must do something
实际上 在今年 我们进入了新结核药物研发的第三阶段
for these people. And, in fact, this year, we are entering phase three with the new TB
对于那些病人而言 他们不再 为18个月50%的治愈率而花费2000美元
drug regime for patients who respond, instead of a 50% cure rate after 18 months for $2,000,
we get an 80% cure rate after six months for under $100.
(Applause). Optimism is often dismissed as false hope.
But there is also false hopelessness. That’s the attitude that says we can’t defeat poverty
但我们却能够做到 梅林达 盖茨：在比尔去过结核病医院后 他曾给我致电
and disease. We absolutely can. >> MELINDA GATES: Bill called me that day
after he visited the TB hospital and normally if one of us is on an international trip,
we will go through our agenda for the day and who we met and where we have been. But
但是这番电话有些特别 比尔说 梅琳达 我 去了
this call was different. Bill said to me, Melinda, I have been somewhere that I have
一个我之前从未去过的地方 然后他哽咽地说不出话了 他最后只是说
never been before. And then he choked up and he couldn’t go on. And he finally just said,
等我回来了再详细告诉你 我知道他经历了什么 因为
I will tell you more when I get home. And I knew what he was going through because
当你看到濒临绝望的人们 它会让你十分悲痛 但是如果你想做得更多
when you see people with so little hope, it breaks your heart. But if you want to do the
most, you have to go see the worst, and I’ve had days like that too.
大概十年前 我和一群朋友去印度旅游 在我临走的那一天
About ten years ago, I traveled with a group of friends to India. And on last day I was
there, I had a meeting with a group of prostitutes and I expected to talk to them about the risk
of AIDS that they were facing, but what they wanted to talk to me about was stigma.
Many of these women had been abandoned by their husbands. That’s why they even went
into prostitution. They wanted to be able to feed their children. They were so low in
the eyes of society that they could be raped and robbed and beaten by anyone, even the
police, and nobody cared. Talking to them about their lives was so moving
to me, but what I remember most was how much they wanted to be touched. They wanted to
触摸我 也希望让我能去触碰她们 也许是通过这种身体上的触碰证明了她们存在的价值
touch me and to be touched by them. It was if physical contact somehow proved their worth.
所以当我离开之前 我们肩并肩 手牵手 一起照了相
And so before I left, we linked arms hand in hand and did a photo together.
后来那天 我去了印度的一个弥留者的家中 我走进
Later that same day, I spent some time in India in a home for the dying. I walked into
大厅 看见一排排的床 除了远在角落的一张床，每张床都有人在照顾
a large hall and I saw rows and rows of cot and every cot was attended to except for one,
that was far off in the corner. And so I decided to go over there. The patient who was in this
room was a woman in her 30s. And I remember her eyes. She had these huge, brown, sorrowful
eyes. She was emaciated and on the verge of death. Her intestines were not holding anything
and so the workers had they put a pan under her bed, and cut a hole in the bottom of the
bed and everything in her was just pouring out into that pan.
我看得出她得了艾滋病 不仅可以从她的外表 而且也可以从她独自在这个角落中看出来
And I could tell that she had AIDS. Both in the way she looked and the fact that she was
off in this corner alone. The stigma of AIDS is vicious, especially for women. And the
punishment is abandonment. When I arrived at her cot, I suddenly felt
彻底的无力和无助感 我无能为力实施帮助 我知道
completely and totally helpless. I had absolutely nothing I could offer this woman. I knew I
我不能救活她 但是我不想让她独自一人 所以我跪下来然后伸出手
couldn’t save her. But I didn’t want her to be alone. So I knelt down with her and I put
my hand out and she reached for my hand and grabbed it and she wouldn’t let it go. I didn’t
speak her language and I couldn’t think of what I should say to her. And finally I just
一切都会好起来的 一切都会好起来的 这不是你的错
said to her, it’s going to be okay. It’s going to be okay. It’s not your
fault. And after I had been with her for sometime,
她的手指向了屋顶 很显然她很想上屋顶 而我发现
she started pointing to the roof top. She clearly wanted to go up and I realized the
sun was going down and what she wanted to do was go up on the roof top and see the sunset.
So the workers in this home for the dying were very busy and I said to them,
you know, can we take her up on the roof top? No. No. We have to pass out medicines.
所以我就等着他们分派药物 然后我又问了另外的工作人员 他们说不行
So I waited that for that to happen and I asked another worker and they said, No no
我们太忙了 我们不能抬她上去 所以最后我就把她抱在了怀中
no, we are too busy. We can’t get her up there. And so finally I just scooped this woman up
in my arms. She was nothing more than skin over bones and I took her up on the roof top,
我找到了一把塑料椅 微风吹拂着 我把她放在椅子上
and I found one of those plastic chairs that blows over in a light breeze. I put her there,
sat her down, put a blanket over her legs
然后她就坐在那里望向西边 看着日落 工作人员知道她在屋顶上 我确保
and she sat there facing to the west, watching the sunset. The workers knew — I made sure
they knew that she was up there so that they would bring her down later that evening after
the sun went down and then I had to leave. But she never left me.
I felt completely and totally inadequate in the face of this woman’s death. But sometimes,
it’s the people that you can’t help that inspire you the most. I knew that those sex workers
I had met in the morning could be the woman that I carried upstairs later that evening.
Unless Also we found a way to defy the stigma that hung over their lives.
Over the past ten years, our Foundation has helped sex workers build support groups so
那样她们可以互相协助 要求安全的的性行为 让客户
they could empower one another to speak up and demand safe sex and that their clients
use condoms. Their brave efforts have helped to keep HIV
prevalence low among sex workers and a lot of studies show that’s the big reason why
the AIDS epidemic has not exploded in India. When these sex workers gathered together to
help stop AIDS transmission, something unexpected and wonderful happened. The community they
formed became a platform for everything. Police and others who raped and robbed them couldn’t
get away with it anymore. The women set up systems to encourage savings for one another
and with those savings, they were able to leave sex work.
这就是那些在社会上被视作底层中的最下等人做的事情 乐观 对我而言
This was all done by people that society considered the lowest of the low. Optimism, for me, is
not a passive expectation that things are going to get better. For me, it’s a conviction
and a belief that we can make things better. So no matter how much suffering we see, no
不管事态如何糟糕 如果我们没有失去希望 不转头而去 那么我们便能
matter how bad it is, we can help people if we don’t lose hope help and if we don’t look
>> BILL GATES: Melinda and I have described some devastating scenes, but we want to make
强调乐观的力量 即使是在绝境之中 乐观
the strongest case we can for the power of optimism. Even in dire situations, optimism
fuels innovation and leads to new approaches that eliminate suffering.
But if you never really see the people that are suffering, your optimism can’t help them.
You will never change their world. And that brings me to what I see is a paradox.
现代社会拥有无与伦比的创新精神 而斯坦福大学正处在 核心
The modern world is an incredible source of innovation and Stanford stands at the center
斯坦福孕育了许许多多的新公司 有思想的学校 硕果累累的教授 富有灵感的
of that, creating new companies, new schools of thought, prize-winning professors, inspired
艺术文化 创新的软件 药品 还有优秀的毕业生
art and literature, miracle drugs, and amazing graduates.
Whether you are a scientist with a new discovery, or working in the trenches to understand the
needs of the most marginalized, you are advancing amazing breakthroughs in what human beings
can do for each other. At the same time, if you ask people across
the United States is the future going to be better than the past, most say no. My kids
will be worse off than I am. They think innovation won’t make the world better for them or their
children. So who is right? The people who say innovation will create new possibilities
and make the world better? Or the people who see a trend toward inequality and a decline
in opportunity and don’t think innovation will change that?
在我看来 悲观者是错误的 但是他们并不疯狂 如果创新
The pessimists are wrong, in my view. But they are not crazy. If innovation is purely
仅凭市场驱动 我们都不关注不公正现象 那么我们的重大发明
market driven, and we don’t focus on the big inequities, then we could have amazing advances
and in inventions that leave the world even more divided. We won’t improve cure
公立学校 我们不会治愈疟疾 更不会终止贫穷 我们不会研发
public schools, we won’t cure malaria, we won’t end poverty. We won’t develop the
innovations poor farmers need to grow food in a changing climate.
If our optimism doesn’t address the problems that affect so many of our fellow human beings,
那么这种乐观主义还需要融入更多的移情元素 如果我们能在乐观中融入同情 我们就能解决贫困
then our optimism needs more empathy. If empathy channels our optimism, we will see the poverty
疾病以及教育匮乏的问题 我们会以创新作答 并震惊
and the disease and the poor schools. We will answer with our innovations and we will surprise
那些悲观主义者 在下一代中 你们 这些斯坦福毕业生
the pessimists. Over the next generation, you, Stanford graduates,
将开启一波创新的新潮 你们 决定解决哪些问题呢？如果
will lead a new wave of innovation. Which problems will you decide to solve? If your
你的世界很宽 那么就能创造出我们理想的未来 如果你的世界很狭隘
world is wide, you can create the future we all want. If your world is narrow, you may
就会造出悲观者恐惧的未来 正如我在索维托所学到的 如果
create the future the pessimists fear. I started learning in Soweto, that if
我们要让自己的乐观影响所有人 并赋予他们力量 我们
we are going to make our optimism matter to everyone, and empower people everyone, we
have to see the lives of those most in need. If we have optimism, without empathy,
then it doesn’t matter how much we master the secrets of science. We are not really
我们只是在玩智力游戏罢了 我想 你们中的大多数人
solving problems. We are just working on puzzles. I think most of you have a broader world view
比当时的我视野更宽广 你们会比曾经的我做得更出色 如果你们全身心地投身于此
than I had at your age. You can do better at this than I did. If you put your hearts
and minds to it, you can surprise the pessimists. We are eager to see it.
(Applause). >> MELINDA GATES: So let your heart break.
这会改变你们处理乐观的方式 在去南亚的旅行中 我遇见了一位
It will change what you do with your optimism. On a trip to south Asia, I met a desperately
贫困潦倒的印度妇女 育有两子 她后来乞求我让我把这两个孩子带走
poor Indian woman. \u00a0She had two children and she begged me to take them home with me.
当我祈求她原谅时 她说 那好吧 请至少带走一个也可以吧
And when I begged her for her forgiveness she said, well then, please, just take one
of them. On another trip to south Los Angeles, I met
with a group of the students from a tough neighborhood. A young girl said to me, do
you ever feel like we are the kids’ whose parents shirked their responsibilities and
we are just the leftovers? These women broke my heart. And they still
让我心碎 当我对自己承认 我也可能会是她们中的一员
do. And the empathy intensifies if I admit to myself, that could be me.
When I talk with the mothers I meet during my travels, there’s no difference between
what we want for our children. The only difference is our ability to provide it to our children.
So what \u00a0accounts for that difference? Bill and I talk about this with our own kids
在餐桌上共同讨论 比尔工作非常努力 他冒过风险 为成功做出不少牺牲
around the dinner table. Bill worked incredibly hard and he took risks and he made sacrifices
for success. But there’s another essential ingredient of success, and that is luck. Absolute
and total luck. When were you born? Who are your parents?
Where did you grow up? None of us earn these things. These things were given to us. So
所以当我们剥去运气和优待 并思考没有它们 我们会将如何时
when we strip away all of our luck and our privilege and we consider where we would be
我们就更容易看到那些贫困者 并说 这可能就是我
without them, it becomes someone much easier to see someone who is poor and say, that could
这就是同情心 同情心抹平障碍 为乐观敞开新的大门
be me. And that’s empathy. Empathy tears down barriers and it opens up whole new frontiers
for optimism. So here is our appeal to you all. As you leave
斯坦福校园之后 带着你的天分 乐观以及同情心 改变这个世界
Stanford, take all your genius and your optimism and your empathy, and go change the world
in ways that will make millions of people optimistic.
你无须急功近利 你还要开创事业 付清债款 找寻另一半
You don’t have to rush. You have careers to launch and debts to pay and spouses to meet
并喜结良缘 现在就这些便足够了 但是在你们的生命之中 可能
and marry. That’s plenty enough for right now. But in the course of your lives, perhaps
without any plan on your part, you will see suffering that’s going to break your heart.
当这些痛苦发生时 不要掩面离开 在这一刻 改变因此而孕育
And when it happens, don’t turn away from it. That’s the moment that change is born.
Congratulations and good luck to the class of 2014!
(Cheers and Applause).