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我们为何如此痴迷于这些社交软件? – 译学馆
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我们为何如此痴迷于这些社交软件?

Big Think's 2017 Top Ten: #10. Tristan Harris on Addiction, Hacking, and Corporations

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有件事我们不常讨论
One thing we don’t talk about is that … em
这件事有点难说
It’s sort of hard to talk about this.
我们的思维有些这样的后门
Our minds have these kinds of backdoors.
就是有一种 如果你是个人
There’s just, there’s a kind of, if you’re human
早上醒来 睁开双眼
and you wake up and you open your eyes,
你经历中特定的一些方面是可以被操控的
there is a certain set of dimensions to your experience that can be manipulated.
年轻的时候我是个魔术师
When I was a kid, I was a magician.
而魔术师需要了解那些限制
And you learn all about these limits.
你知道 短期记忆 也就这么长
You know that short-term memory is about this long
并且有不同的反应阶段
and there’s different reaction times,
如果你用特定的方式询问别人特定的问题
and if you ask people certain questions in certain ways,
答案是受你控制的
you can control the answer.
这仅仅是作为人的特质
And this is just the structure of being human.
作为人 每时每刻你都是可以被说服的
To be human means that you are persuadable in every single moment.
我的意思是 以魔术为例
I mean think about magic, as an example,
魔术可以利用花招说服所有人 是吗?
it’s that magic works on everybody, sleight is hand. Right?
你说什么语言不重要
It doesn’t matter what language you speak.
你智商多高不重要
It doesn’t matter how intelligent you are.
它跟一个人的知识量无关
It’s not about what someone knows.
它只关乎 你的思维是如何运作的
It’s about how your mind actually works.
知道了这些 就证明了这一整套说服技巧的存在
So knowing this, it turns out that there’s this whole playbook of persuasive techniques
这些技巧是我在斯坦福说服技术实验室所学到的
that actually I learned when I was at the Stanford Persuasive Technology Lab,
也是在硅谷的技术工业的大部分人所学到
and that most people in Silicon Valley in the tech industry learned,
这些技巧也是获取关注的方法
as ways of getting your attention.
举个例子 面对社会认可 我们所有人毫无抵抗力
So one example is, we are all vulnerable to social approval.
非常在乎别人对自己的看法
You really care what other people think of us.
比如说 当你在脸书上上传一张新照片
So for example, you know when you upload a new photo,
作为你自己的新头像
a new profile photo of yourself on Facebook,
这种时候 我们就会急切地想知道
that’s a moment where our mind is very vulnerable to knowing
别人觉得我的新头像怎么样
“what other people think of my new profile photo?”
所以当别人对我们的新头像点赞时
And so when we get new likes on our profile photo,
获悉这点 脸书就会发信息告诉我们
Facebook knowing this could actually message me
说 有人对你的新头像点赞
and say,”Oh, you have new likes on your profile photo.”
脸书知道我们无法抗拒这些时刻
And it knows that we’ll be vulnerable to that moment
因为每当我们在照片上被关注或者
because we all really care about
上传新照片时 我们会变得非常在意
when we’re tagged in a photo or when we have a new profile photo.
可问题在于科技公司控制着整个局面
And the thing is that they control the dial, the technology companies control the dial.
你的头像什么时候 多长时间出现在别人的信息推送中
For when and how long your profile photo shows up on other people’s newsfeeds,
如果他们延长推送时间
so they can orchestrate it so that other people more often
就会有更多的人
ending up liking your profile photo
给你的头像点赞
over a delayed period of time for example.
而这样 你就会更加频繁地返回
So that you end up having to more frequently come back
查看是谁给你点赞 是吗?
and see what the new likes are. Right?
他们这么做并没有任何恶意
And the problem is that they don’t do this because they’re evil,
仅仅是因为他们极度地想获取我们的关注
they do it because, again, they’re in this race for our attention.
我们也应该想想 他们精心设计
And we should also ask is that necessarily such a bad thing
让别人给我们的照片点赞 这一定是件坏事吗?
if they’re orchestrating it so that other people like my photo.
起码这让我们开心
I mean that might feel good to me.
所以针对我们思维中的弱点
But, so we have to have a new conversation about
我们需要展开一轮新的讨论
as these technology companies use these techniques,
当这些科技公司利用这些科技时
these vulnerabilities in our minds,
什么时候对我们来说是有益的?
when is that actually aligned and good for us?
什么时候是道德的?什么时候是诚实的?
When is that ethical? When is that honest?
什么时候是公平的?
When is that fair?
什么时候又是不诚实 不公平的?
And when is that dishonest and unfair?
因为它们实际上在以一种负面方式操控我们的思维
Because they’re actually manipulating our minds in a way
这种方式使得我们不能合理地利用上网时间
that doesn’t add up to our spending our time well on the screen.
所以 我们思维中的另一个弱点
Well, so anther vulnerability in our mind
是一种叫做多变的时间表奖励的东西
is something called a variable schedule reward,
就像拉斯维加斯的老虎机
and that’s like a slot machine in Las Vegas.
事实证明 在美国 老虎机的盈利
It turns out that slot machines make more money in the United States
比棒球 电影和主题公园的总盈利都要多
than baseball, movies and theme parks combined.
人们开始沉迷于老虎机
People become addicted to slot machines.
我认为 这个沉迷速度比一间赌场里
Ah, I think it’s two to three times faster than
其它所有的赌博形式快两三倍
any other kind gambling in a casino.
太疯狂了 为什么会这样?
So, it’s insane. And why is that?
因为它简单 你只需要拉动杠杆
Because it’s very simple, you just pull a lever
有时你就能抽到奖 有时候抽不到
and sometimes you get a reward, you know, and sometimes you don’t.
它越随机 越变幻无常 就越能让人沉迷
And the more random it is and the more variable it is, ah, the more addictive it becomes.
问题是 我们的手机也被同化成了老虎机
And the thing is that turns our phone into a slot machine,
因为每次我们查看手机
because every time we check our phone
就像在玩老虎机 看我有什么新发现 是吗?
we’re playing the slot machine to see what did I get. Right?
每次我们查收电子邮件
Every time that we check our email,
也像在玩老虎机 看我有什么新邮件
we’re playing the slot machine to see what did I get.
有没有受邀到大想法参与访问
Did I get invited to an interview at Big Think
或者有没有新邮件 是吗?
or did I just get another news letter. Right?
或者 如果你登陆一个例如Tinder的交友网站
Or if you’re on a dating site like Tinder and when you’re swiping,
每当你刷新网页 查看有没有新的配对 就像在玩老虎机
each swipe is your playing the slot machine to see did I get a match.
我玩老虎机就是为了看有没有搭配
I’m playing the slot machine to see did I get a match.
问题就在于
And the problem is that this dynamic,
这些变量的时间表奖励
these variable schedule rewards
或者说这个老虎机机制
or this slot machine mechanic
如此强大以至于
is so powerful that
它最擅长让人沉迷其中 让你固步自封
it’s the best thing at addicting people and putting you in the zone.
脸书新闻推送的一个原设计师曾告诉我
One of the original designers of the Facebook newsfeed told me
追溯到2006年 让新闻推送运作的
that the thing that made the newsfeed work,
最最开始 这个东西只是硬件创新的一部分
very very very beginning back in 2006, was in part a hardware innovation.
我当时看着她问 这是什么意思?
And I looked at her and I said,”What do youmean?”
她说 其实就是鼠标上的滚轮
And she said it was actually the scroll wheel on the mouse,
因为有了鼠标上的滚轮
because with the scroll wheel on a mouse,
你的手永远都不必离开起始位置
your hand never had to leave its resting position,
只需滚动手指就能看到下面的内容
you just scroll to see the next thing.
在那之前 你必须要点击向下的按钮或者
Because before that you had to click on the down button or drag,
拖拽移动鼠标 向下拖拽箭头 这样来滚动页面
move your mouse and drag the arrow down and scroll the page that way.
现在你无需如此 你只需将两根手指放在触控板上 做这个动作
When you don’t, when you can take your two fingers on the tracking pad and do this.
或者只需滑动滚动轴
or you can just scroll on a scroll wheel.
这意味着你的手可以永远保持在初始位置
It just means you hand never has to leave its resting position,
它更像一个老虎机 你可以持续不断地刷新 去玩
and it’s more like a slot machine, you can just keep swiping and playing.
在拉斯维加斯就有这样的按钮
just like in Vegas where there’s this button right there.
其实 他们做了些改变
They actually changed it, in fact.
以前老虎机上是一个杠杆 现在只是一个按钮
It used to a lever and now it’s just a button in Vegas,
因为据发现 这样更容易让人们反复查看
because it’s found it’s easier just to get people
他们是否配对成功
to see if they get a match this way.
我们的手机上 有多少这样的科技
So, how much on our phones, when we use our technology…
Ins就像一个老虎机
Instagram is like a slot machine,
我要看看下一个反馈会是什么?
What’s gonna come next on the feeds?
Snapchat也是个老虎机
Snapchat is a slot machine.
每次你看到红色的提醒通知
Each time you see the red notifications,
却不知道点进去会看到什么信息
ah, you don’t know what’s behind it,
每当你点开查看时 你就是在玩老虎机 是吗?
You’re playing the slot machine when you click on it to see what did I get, right?
所以 这种技术充斥着各种产品
And so it’s sprinkled all through out these products
因为它是不可抗拒的 能获取人们关注的一种方式
because it’s a very compelling way of getting people’s attention.

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你知道自己每天都在玩“老虎机”吗?你想知道你是怎样被巧妙设计去玩“老虎机”的吗?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zKmV4CeZL9Y

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