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《神奈川冲浪里》经久不衰的魅力在哪里 – 译学馆
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《神奈川冲浪里》经久不衰的魅力在哪里

Better Know the Great Wave | The Art Assignment | PBS Digital Studios

本视频由SKillshare和patron支持
This episode is supported by Skillshare and our patrons,
尤其感谢Indianapolis Homes
especially Indianapolis Homes
你肯定见过这个图片 一片巨浪
You’ve seen this imagebefore, a giant wave,
独特而卷曲的浪爪拱起 随时会猛扑过来
its distinctive curly clawsarched and ready to pounce.
发生自然灾害时 人们会联想到它
It’s invoked whennatural disaster strikes,
但它也在啤酒 牛仔裤 长袖衫的售卖中出现
but also when it’s time to sellbeer, jeans, and sweatshirts.
它激发了德彪西管弦乐作品《大海》的灵感
It inspired Claude Debussy’sorchestral work”La Mer”, as well as
也影响了数目不容小觑的文身图案
a not insignificantnumber of tattoos.
这个图案无处不在
It’s an omnipresentimage and one
广泛用在各类物品上
used towards a variety of ends.
天哪 哪怕表情符号也不放过
Good grief, it’s even an emoji.
是什么使这幅图一直如此令人着迷?
What is it about this imagethat continues to enthrall us?
最好了解一下巨浪图
Let’s better knowThe Great Wave.
首先 它的全名并不是“巨浪”
First off, the titleis not The Great Wave.
画的也不是海浪
And its subjectisn’t really a wave.
它是《富岳三十六景》系列木版画之一
It’s one of a series of woodblock prints called 36 Views of Mount Fuji,
由日本版画家葛饰北斋
made by the Japanese printmaker
于1830到1833年间绘制
Katsushika Hokusaibetween 1830 and 1833.
富士山长期为神道教 佛教等信徒奉为圣物
Long considered sacred by followers of Shintoism and Buddhism, among others,
从不同的角度受到描绘
Mount Fuji is depicted froma variety of perspectives.
这幅存疑的画作便是其中之一
And the artwork in questionis just one of them.
此画的真名译过来是《神奈川冲浪里》
Its actual title translates toUnder the Wave Off Kanawaga,
因为巨浪下可以看到
because under itwhere Mount Fuji is
富士山在远方半隐半现
nestled far in the distance.
惊涛骇浪下
Also under the wave arefishermen,
渔民去江户城送鱼后 正试着返航
just trying to get home afterdelivering fish to the city of Edo,
为逃离海浪活下去而奋力划桨
rowing for their lives to escape the wave.
不过 画面的主旋律仍然是巨浪
But the great wave, of course,dominates the composition
画作也以巨浪为题
and has become anaccepted title.
北斋生于1760年近现代的东京
Born near modernday Tokyo in 1760,
是一位杰出的浮世绘画家
Hokusai was a prominentukiyo-e artist,
浮世绘是诞生于江户时期的木版画
the name for the mass producedwoodblock prints of the Edo period,
以其在形式上的创新
notable for their distillation of forms,
对线条和纯色的强调
emphasis on line and purecolor,
对享乐尘世生活的描绘而闻名
and depictions of hedonistic city life.
浮世绘意即虚浮世界的图景
Ukiyo-e means floating world,
指的是昙花一现的时代风尚
referring to the ephemerality of the fads and fashions of the time.
它并非古板清高的艺术
This was not stuffyhigh art,
反而以一碗汤面的亲民价格
but images available to a growing middle class
走进了日益壮大的中产阶级的生活
for about the cost of a bowl of noodle soup.
北斋极其迷恋水的流动
Hokusai was fascinatedby the movement of water,
一直探究着各种场景下的水流
exploring the subjectson many occasions
他的绘画生涯不只有惊涛骇浪
throughout his career,and not just rough seas,
也有一些更平静的时刻
but a few calmer moments too.
《神奈川冲浪里》面世的19世纪30年代
In the 1830s, when TheGreat Wave was created,
由于德川幕府的孤立主义势力掌权
Japan was largely shutoff to the wider world,
日本很大程度上与更广阔的世界相隔绝
due to the isolationist policiesof the Tokugawa shogunate then in power.
我们可以看出北斋借鉴了日本琳派的
We can see Hokusai borrowingfrom Japanese Rinpa School
尾形光琳等艺术家
artists like Ogata Korin,
尤其是海浪投下触手般的投影这一点
especially in the tentacle-likeprojections from his waves.
西方现实主义艺术也蔓延至日本木版画
But Western realism wascreeping into Japanese art
不过 这主要归功于
Nevertheless, largely due toEuropean engravings
走私欧洲版画的荷兰商人
smuggled in by Dutch traders.
《神奈川冲浪里》清晰显示出西方影响
The Great Wave betrays aclear Western influence–
画作采用了线性透视 低地平线的手法
the use of linear perspective,a low horizon line,
还出现了普鲁士蓝
and the appearance of Prussian blue,
普鲁士蓝是来自普鲁士的合成颜料
a synthetic pigment then very new to Japan,
在那时的日本相当新奇
hailing from, that’sright, Prussia.
成百上千《富岳》复制品在日本境内发行
Thousands of copies of the Mount Fuji prints were released within Japan,
大多数在以国内游客
mostly bought as souvenirs
和富士山朝圣者为主力的新兴市场
by an emerging marketof domestic tourists
作为纪念品售卖
and those makingpilgrimages to the mountain.
但到了19世纪50年代 北斋逝世后
But in the 1850s,after Hokusai’s death,
贸易迎来开放
trade began to open up,
他的画作于1867年巴黎世博会上展出
and his work was shown at the 1867 International Exposition in Paris.
日本文化迅速在欧洲盛行
Japanese culture quicklybecame all the rage in Europe.
莫奈 埃德加·德加 卡萨特等一众艺术家
And ukiyo-e prints wereadmired and collected by many,
纷纷倾心于浮世绘印制品并收藏
including Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Mary Cassatt, and a number of artists
并深受其描绘城市生活 色彩鲜活特点的影响
who were heavily influenced by their depictions of city life,vivid colors,
由此打开了一片扁平化的天地
and what for them was a flattening of space.
1896年 一场海啸袭击日本北部
In 1896, a tsunamihit northern Japan,
其破坏的相关消息传遍世界
and news of its destructionspread worldwide.
据推测 这个大事件与日本主义和风热
It’s been hypothesized that this event, coupled with the Japonisme craze,
共同助推《神奈川冲浪里》赢得国际声誉
helped propel The Great Wave to international renown.
虽然画上描绘的并不是海啸
Although the print doesnot depict a tsunami,
2009年 研究表明
in 2009, researchersidentified it
画上是高达32到39英尺的“疯狗浪”
as a 32 to 39 foottall rogue wave
或者叫“决堤者”
or what they calla plungging breaker.
这种浪也是致命的
It would certainly stillbe deadly, however.
这也是画面鲜明的的戏剧张力之所在:
And that’s where we get to the real and obvious drama of the picture.
自然之伟大与人之渺小
Nature is large,and we are small.
不同文化背景 不同时代的艺术品中
This juxtaposition can be seenin the art of many cultures
都出现过这种对照
at many different times.
但恐怕没有比这里处理得更明显
But we have perhaps never seenit played out more clearly
更卓越的了
and more distinctly than here.
当时日本的传统风景画
Traditional Japaneselandscapes of the time
把观者远远地置于画面上的事情之外
put the viewer at aremove from the action.
但这里 我们都正对着这场悬而未决的灾难
But here, we are right upagainst this pending disaster.
北斋创造出远与近 人为与自然的对比
Hokusai’s contrast of near andfar, and man made and natural,
增加了紧张的氛围 使我们身临其境
heighten the tension andplace us inside the narrative.
1903年德彪西创作的《大海》
When Debussy composed”La Mer” in 1903,
描绘了自己儿时在一艘渔船上
he drew on his ownchildhood experience
从可怕的风暴中幸存的情形
of surviving a terrifyingstorm on a fishing boat,
也描绘了JMW·特纳和 北斋画中的情景
as well as paintings by JMWTurner and Hokusai’s print,
后者还用作曲子的封面
which he selected forthe score’s cover.
这张图之后用作赛珍珠1948年小说的插图
The image later illustrateda 1948 Pearl Buck novel
小说讲述了一个来自日本渔村的年轻男孩
that tells the story of a young boy from a Japanese fishing village
在海啸中失去家庭的故事
who loses his family to a tidal wave,
这个二战后的故事讲述了不幸 但也讲述了修复力
a post-World War II story ofgrief, but also resilience.
2011年日本东海岸发生
It’s an image mobilizedwhen disaster strikes,
毁灭性的地震和海啸后
as it was after the devastating2011
这幅图也是灾难来袭的动员令
earthquake and tsunami off the eastern coast of Japan.
科学家观察到的证据
Scientists andempirical evidence
告诉我们全球均温正在上升
tell us that global averagetemperatures are rising,
极端天气越来越频繁且剧烈
with extreme weather events becoming more frequent and more intense.
既然大海总是令人类敬畏的敌手
While the sea has always been a formidable opponent for human kind
而《神奈川冲浪里》正是展示这种关系的图景
and The Great Wave a useful illustration for that relationship,
人与海的这种关联甚至愈发强烈
its relevance is likely to becomeeven stronger.
不过 当然了
But, of course,
这幅图也能以不同的 更抽象的方式诠释
the image can be interpreted in many different and less specific ways,
它象征着众多的力量差异
symbolizing a greatmany imbalance of power.
我们不知道这些渔夫
We don’t know if our fishermen
最终能否生还
are going to make it out of there alive.
这是个悬念
It’s a cliffhanger.
哪怕抛开渔船和富士山
Even if you don’t registerthe boats or Mount Fuji
单独来看作为表情符号的海浪
and see the wave alone inits detached, emoji state,
它也揪住了我们的心 并以充满力量的形式
it still holds us in andtells us quite forcefully
告诉我们有大事在发生 或者 即将发生
that big things are happeningor are about to happen.
不像抓拍冲浪者横穿巨浪的图像
Unlike the GoPro views of surfers tunneling through barrel waves,
《神奈川冲浪里》并没有表达人类对自然的掌控
The Great Wave’s story is not one of mastery over nature.
这幅画直接以巨浪命名
It’s notably calledThe Great Wave
而不是以走出骇浪的渔民英雄命名
and not the heroic fishermenwho survived the rogue wave.
别的画家喜欢强调海浪的力量
Other artists have capitalizedon the power
或把海浪夸张为画面主体
the atricality of waves as subject matter,
但少有这样的画让我们惊叹于画家的天才
but rarely in such a way that we marvel at the talents of the artist,
而不是惊叹于海浪本身的壮丽
instead of the spectacularbeauty of the wave itself.
而且 这幅画一直在重制
What’s more, this image was meant to be reproduced,
而不是在博物馆里与世隔绝
not sequestered in one museum,
只给少数幸运儿欣赏
where only a few have theprivilege of witnessing it.
当然网上有很多
While there are certainly numerous crimes
恶搞这幅图的例子
against this image perpetrated across the internet,
原件木版画鲜活生动 画质清晰
the crisp, graphic qualityof the original woodblock
对临摹与再创作来说 是很友好的素材
prints make it friendlier fodder for duplication and interpretation.
所幸 我们大多数人面对的大海
When most of usexperience the ocean,
不是经常在新闻里看到的那样
this is thankfully nothow we usually see it.
那是一种不太可能发生的景观
It’s an incrediblyimprobable view.
那是最动感 最不稳 最不可预知的
It’s a film stillor screen capture
环境里定格的一帧 或者说一张截图
in the most dynamic, unstable, and unpredictable of environments.
然而 这幅图成了我们最爱的大海的象征
But it has nevertheless become our favorite stand-in for the ocean,
成了一种窥见这片覆盖地球表面
a way to isolate some fraction of the vastness
70%的广大海洋一角的方式
that covers 70% of planet Earth.
它地位卓然
It’s an icon.
它是终极之浪 比所有的海浪更近于海浪
It’s the ultimate, mostwavelike of all waves.
以直白 简洁而巧妙的方式
But it’s also an entirestory told simply
叙述了一个完整的故事
and succinctly and masterfully.
不论是什么组成了生命中的惊涛骇浪
Whatever your greatwave is made of,
你毋庸置疑身处其下 一直如此
you are undoubtedly underit and always will be,
直到死去
until you’re not.

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译制信息
视频概述

无论是什么组成了生命中的惊涛骇浪,你毋庸置疑身处其下,一直努力逃离毁灭的命运,直到死去。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

,,Ծ^Ծ,,

审核员

审核员_ZB

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d1ufFlXIWjA

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