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柏林墙边防部队 – 译学馆
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柏林墙边防部队

Berlin wall Border troops (Grenztruppen)

位于柏林墙的边境军队 是德意志民主共和国的一支属于国民的军队
Berlin Wall border troops, German Democratic Republic, National People’s Army.
在1945年纳粹政权失败之后
After the defeat of the Nazi regime in 1945,
德国就处于
Germany was put under the control
美 英 法 苏联军的控制之下
of the Allied forces with the U.S. British,
每个同盟国都瓜分了一片属于自己的区域
French, and Soviets, each having their own zone of occupation.
随着铁幕在苏联的影响
As the iron curtain fell on Eastern European countries
降临到一些东欧国家
under the influence of the Soviet Union, Germany
德国解体了 被分解为西德和东德
ended up divided into West and East Germany.
作为德国首都的柏林城
The city of Berlin as the capital of the country,
也被分解为两片区域
was also divided into two zones.
东柏林仍然属于共产主义的德意志民主共和国一部分
East Berlin remained part of the Communist German Democratic Republic
而西柏林却成了德意志联邦共和国的一部分
and West Berlin became part of the Federal Republic of Germany.
渐渐地 随着美苏冷战的进行
Gradually as the Cold War was developing,
东西柏林之间思想上的屏障成为了一种物质的屏障
the ideological barrier became a physical one.
1961年 东德的共产主义领导者们认为
In 1961, East Germany’s communist leaders decided that
需要在西柏林边境修一道墙
a wall should be built around West Berlin to prevent
来防止一些可能存在的特工和间谍的入侵
the intrusion of possible agents and spies.
并防止东柏林的公民逃窜到西柏林
And to prevent their citizens fleeing to the west.
直到1961年 此边境处于德国边境警察
Until 1961, the control of the border was
司法权的控制之下
under the jurisdiction of the German border police.
德国边防警察 从那时起
The Grenzpolizei, but from that point on
被当作是一项军事事务
It began to be considered as a military matter.
属于正规军的边防部队
Border troops of the army:
为了保卫西德 波兰 捷克斯洛伐克
The Grenztruppen were formed to protect the inner border
以及西柏林外围的那道墙
with Western Germany, Poland, and Czechoslovakia,
民德边防军形成了
and the wall surrounding West Berlin.
自从民德边防军成了正规军
Since it was part of the army,
边防部队也和其他部队以同样的兵源组织起来
border troops were organized on the same basis as the rest of the army.
部队是从那些18到26岁的人口中招募男人的
Men were recruited from the population between ages 18 to 26,
他们的服役期长达18个月
and their service lasted for 18 months.
如果他们有志继续从军 他们的服役期可以得到延长
Those who wanted to, could prolong their engagement in order to be promoted
这样他们将有机会晋升为军士或士官
into NCO’s or noncommissioned officers.
吸引那些来自东德的年轻人去当边防军的其中一项
One of the things that attracted young men from East Germany to the border troops,
就是他们被许诺将会受到更好的教育
was that they were promised a better
并且在他们服役期结束后帮他们找一份好工作
education and help in seeking a good civilian job once their service was over.
虽然边防军职务是受欢迎的
Even though the role of border troops was a popular one,
但是边防军的选拔标准是相当严格的
recruiting criteria was very strict.
未来的战士的政治倾向必须是正确的
Future soldiers had to be politically correct,
这样他们才会把那些资本家的敌人
as they were to protect the border against
抵御于门外
the capitalist enemy literally on their doorstep.
那些曾经有过即使最小的政治污点记录
Those who had even the smallest record of political descent
或是那些有出现此特征的近亲的人
or even those whose closest relatives had showed these traits,
是不能参加边防军的
were not allowed to join the border troops.
信教也是入伍的一大不利条件
Religiousness was also a big drawback in qualification.
另一项重要选拔条件是那些未来的边防人员
Another important criteria, was that the potential Bordermen were not residents
绝不能是那些住在西德周边的居民
of areas near the border with West Germany.
政府不想让那些刚入伍的边防人员帮助逃兵
These criteria were set up
才设立这样的标准的
because the government didn’t want former Bordermen to help escapees.
那些有来自西德的近亲的人
Those who had close relatives
也是不能被考虑入伍的
in West Germany were also not considered for the job.
边防军的基本训练
The basic training of the border troops was identical to those
和其他部队是完全相同的
in the rest of the army.
此外 边防人员也被传授了一些侦查和巡逻的技巧
Bordermen were however additionally taught various inspection and patrol skills, observing,
如观察 溜狗以及安放地雷
dog handling, and even laying mines!
高强度的训练
Intense training was conducted
旨在让他们的枪法达到较高的水平
in order to take their shooting skills to a high level.
每位边队人员必须在200米的距离射击两个移动目标
Every Borderman was obliged to shoot two moving targets
并且要在六环以上
at a distance of 200 meters using only four rounds.
拥有这样的技巧是为他们执行干掉现实生活中那些逃犯的任务做准备的
Such skills prepared them for the task of taking down real-life escapee targets.
训练的主要内容
The main field of training was however political
是政治教导 军队不想要那些
indoctrination as the army didn’t want to
对他们射界之内的目标犹豫不决的射手
have any hesitant shooters in their ranks.
对边防人员政治上的塑造
More than half of the entire training process
占据了他们整个训练过程的一大半
was dedicated to the political shaping of the Bordermen.
边防军的制服和武器装备
The uniforms and equipment
也和其他军队一样
of the border troops were also the same as the rest of the army.
边防人员穿着标准的石灰色制服
Bordermen wore standard stone gray uniforms,
上面带着暗绿色衣领标志 以及肩带
with dark green collar signs, and shoulder stripes.
他们在头上戴着军帽
On their heads they wore caps
或是标准的东德式大头盔
or standard East German wide helmets,
在高度警惕的状况下他们会把这些穿上
Which were worn in situations of high alertness.
至于装备
For the equipment, border troops used weapons
边防军的武器是源于苏维埃并且在东德制造的
of Soviet origin made in East Germany.
自从1961年柏林墙的升高
From the rise of the Berlin Wall in 1961,
东德军队开始使用一些现代化武器
The East German army started to receive modern weapons to replace the old weapons
来代替那些二战时期的旧式武器
from the World War II era.
边防人员使用的标准副武器是9毫米苏维埃马卡罗夫手枪
The standard sidearm of the Bordermen was the nine-millimeter Soviet Makarov,
主武器是MPI-K型突击步枪
while the main weapon was the MPI-K
这是一款以苏联的AK-47卡拉什尼科夫步枪的仿制品
assault rifle, a copy of the Soviet AK-47 Kalashnikov.
每位士兵都要携带一支这样的枪以及两弹夹子弹
Every soldier carried one of these with two magazines of ammunition.
他们的武器还有IMG-K和IMG-D轻机枪
There were also IMG-K and IMG-D light machine guns,
这两款枪是苏联RPK和RPD的仿制品
which were copies of the Soviet RPK and RPD.
这些枪的口径都是标准的苏联口径 7.62毫米
All of these weapons were in the standard Soviet caliber,
即使后来出现了5.45毫米的新口径
7.62 millimeter, even though the new caliber of 5.45 millimeter appeared later,
边防军仍然使用原来口径的枪
border troops continued to use old ammunition.
边防军也装备着重机枪和RPG火箭筒
Border troops were also equipped with heavy machine guns and RPGs.
作为一种对武器的补充物
As an addition to this arsenal of weapons,
边防军也有一种
Border Patrols had German Shepherd dogs specialized
专门用来寻找藏在暗处的人的德国牧羊犬
in searching for people that were hiding.
在边防军观察边界线的同时
Observing the borderline, as well as the class enemy on the other side,
阶级敌人也在另一侧使用一种双筒望远镜观察对方
was achieved with the use of
这种望远镜是一种标准的边防军巡逻时使用的装备
binoculars which were a standard piece of equipment for Bordermen on patrol.
手提无线电也是一种快速通讯的工具
Portable radios were also supplied for faster communication.
在瞭望塔上站岗的士兵使用固定的 更强有力的双筒望远镜
Soldiers on duty on watchtowers had static, more powerful binoculars.
这种望远镜让边防人员能够更好地概览以及安全控制
These binoculars allowed Bordermen to have a better overview and a secure control
一整片广阔的边界区域
over a huge area of the border region.
在柏林墙区域以内的边防军的职责相当简单
The duties of border troops within the Berlin Wall zone were quite simple.
他们必须在柏林墙周围的区域巡逻
They had to patrol the area around the Berlin ring,
并且监视任何从西柏企图非法越界的行为
and to watch out for any attempt of an illegal
特别要注意那些东柏林的人
crossing from the west, and especially from the east.
在瞭望塔上的人也要执行同样的任务
They also performed the same tasks from the watchtowers.
如果有人在越界时被抓住了
If someone was caught making a violation of the border line,
边防人员允许在没有得到命令情况下击杀他们
Bordermen were allowed to shoot them down without orders.
因此 许多边防人员在德国统一后被审讯并审判了
For this reason many Bordermen were trialed and sentenced after the German unification.
尽管边防军的工资
Although the pay of border troops was a little bit better
比其他部队的更高
than the rest of the army,
与西德标准相比 这样的工资仍然很低
it was still very low compared to West German standards.
有很多士兵不满意 企图逃往西德
Many dissatisfied soldiers planned escape attempts to West Germany.
自从柏林解体 许多企图越界的人都未成功
Since the division of Berlin, many were attempted.
最著名的案例是1961年8月15日
the most famous being the crossing of soldier Conrad Schumann
一名叫康德拉舒曼的士兵越界事件
on August 15th, 1961.
康德拉那时是在边防军服役的
Conrad was serving at the border troops,
并且那一天他要在边界线旁放哨
and was on his sentry duty at the line that day.
那时 东德刚刚准备建那道墙
At the time, East Germany just began to build the wall.
他在哨位上站岗时
As he was standing at his sentry post watching his comrades
他看到他的巡逻的同志们离开边界线了
on the patrol walking away from the line.
他趁机迅速跨过了带刺的金属丝到了西柏林
He took the opportunity and ran across the barbed wire to West Berlin.
为了防止这样的事件再发生
In order to prevent such future incidents from happening,
军方制定了一份特殊的协议
the army established a special protocol. Patrols,
巡逻队 哨位
sentry posts,
以及瞭望塔上一定要有两到三名士兵把守
and watchtowers were always manned by two or three soldiers.
这样
In this way
如果一人要往西越界 旁边的人可以向他开枪
if one decided to run to the west, the other could shoot him.
他们每隔八小时轮流站岗
Guard shifts lasted for eight hours,
每位士兵每天至少站一次岗
and every soldier had at least one per day.
为了打破常归 防止可能出现的逃跑事件
In order to disrupt the pattern and prevent possible escapes,
他们会有意更改换岗周期和巡逻路线
shift hours and patrol paths were prone to changes.
即便是那些轮班的士兵的姓名也要保密
Even the names of the soldiers on shift were kept secret.
让边防人员顺从并严格遵守纪律的另一种方式
Another way to keep the Bordermen obedient and in strict discipline,
是请州警来帮忙 著名的有斯塔西安全局
was the use of State Police known as the Stasi.
在边防军中工作的斯塔西安全局的代理人
Stasi agents in the border troops
穿的制服以及用的标记和边防军相同 他们还擅长从对方收集信息
wore the same uniforms and insignia and were used to gather information from the other side.
而且 他们的主要任务是检查边防军中可能出现的逃兵
But also, to inspect the border troops for potential escapees.
每十位警官 其中一位还是混在30名士兵当中的
Every tenth officer, and one in 30 soldiers was
是与斯塔西安全局同谋的
in collusion with the Stasi.
即便边防军是不允许和西德边界守位私通的
Even though contact with West German guards was forbidden,
并且对这方面管得很严
and control was strict, Bordermen were making
边防人员仍然和西德的同行联系不断
constant contact with their Western counterparts.
他们会相互交换徽章和报纸
Exchanging insignia and newspapers.
柏林墙是在1989年11月9日倒塌的
The Berlin wall collapsed on November 9th, 1989. Earlier,
起初 边防军战士在成千上万的东德人云集墙边时
soldiers of the border troops had stood bewildered and overwhelmed
感到困惑且不知所措
as thousands of East Germans gathered near the wall.
人们要求通过检查点
Demanding to get through the checkpoints, a demand,
他们很快答应了这个要求
which they soon agreed to.
这道墙在边防人员不费一枪一弹的情况下倒塌了
The wall fell down without a single shot fired, and a year later,
一年以后 民德边防军解散了
The Grenztruppen would become disbanded.
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成为一个有影响力的人
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视频概述

想要了解柏林墙的具体含义以及德国边防军的生活吗?想要了解战后的德国经历了怎样的变革吗?本视频将满足你们在历史方面的需求!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

天虎

审核员

审核员H

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rPWQUOpBcBU

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