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21世纪的信仰

Belief Out Of the Closet: Believing in the 21st Century | Hester Oberman | TEDxUofA

你是谁? 你为什么在这儿?
Who are you? Why are you here?
更重要的是 你要去哪里?
And more important, where are you going?
信仰是关键
Beliefs matter.
它决定了你是谁 是什么
Beliefs form who you are and what you are.
但你究竟是谁?
But who are you?
我们生活在一个两极分化严重的世界
We live in a very polarized world,
我们也认为自己是独一无二的
and we think that we are also unique
我们处境不明
that we’re in uncharted waters,
前途未卜
and that we’re going to an uncharted future,
无处探寻 不可描述
unknown, unscripted,
难以确定 果真如此吗?
undetermined, really?
一百年前
A hundred years ago,
1917年4月6日
April 6, 1917,
美国加入第一次世界大战
the United States of America entered World War I,
一场终结所有战争的世界大战
the war to end all wars.
伍德罗·威尔逊向我们保证 我们是为民主而战
And we were fighting, Woodrow Wilson assured us, for democracy.
第一次世界大战成为有史以来最血腥的战争
It went down in history as the most bloody war ever,
那表明了一些事情 因为它仅仅是一个开始
and that says something, because it was just a prelude
随之而来的是灾难和种族灭绝
to devastations and genocide to follow.
第二次世界大战结束后
The end or after the second World War,
有句名言就是:
the famous saying was,
“我们不知道”
“Wir haben es nicht gewußt”, we didn’t know.
真的吗?
Really?
当代人宣称无辜 结果遭到历史的严厉审判
History has not judged kindly on this plea of ignorance.
21世纪的我们会做得更好吗?
Will we in the 21st century do any better?
我们也会说“将来是未知的”吗?
Will we too say, “Oh, the future was uncharted,
我不知道 谁知道呢!
I didn’t know, die hanstig gewußt.”
我们明白自己生活在两极分化的世界
We live in a polarized world and we know it.
打开手机
We open our phones and
每隔两分钟 我们就收到突发新闻的轰炸
we’re bombarded by breaking news every two minutes,
迫不及待地想知道发生了什么
can’t wait, quickly see what happened,
我错过了哪些推特消息
what tweet did I miss.
这是后事实时代 世界正被所有人的观点分化
Post fact, a world that is dissolving in everybody’s opinion.
我们喜欢这么做
And we love to go there.
我们是发展到… 嗯 怎么说呢 我们进步到那个程度
We’re evolutionary… how it’s evolved to go there.
因为它在我们的脑海中
Because it’s in our mind
大脑的力量汇聚到杏仁核
and the power of brain to go to the amygdala.
杏仁核是大脑中产生“战斗与逃跑”的部位
The amygdala is that place in the brain where we have the fight and flight,
也是处理记忆中基本情绪的部位
where we go when we kind of have to process the base emotions of memory
特别是恐惧和愤怒
but more so of fear and anger,
我们可以编造出自己战胜敌人的励志故事
and we can make these wonderful narratives of us versus them.
而且故事中的英雄凑巧都是我们自己 对吧?
And we’re always surprisingly the heroes of our own stories, right?
我们是正义的
We are right.
我们有正确的价值观
We got the right values.
我们的意愿是正确的
We have the right intent.
但是其他人 其他观点
But the other, the other ring,
对手的非人化
the dehumanizing of the other opponent.
分歧就从这开始了
That’s where the, where the dichotomy begins and
我们在这剥走别人 别的团体的价值
where we kind of strip the other person, the other group of their values,
外表 尊严 甚至是他们的生命
of their faces, of their dignity, even of their life.
这些故事将我们送进监狱 甚至是战争
These are the narratives that send us into prison and into wars.
这是对待他者的另一指标
It’s that other ring of the other the dehuman…
将他者非人化
dehumanization of the other.
但是 感谢上帝
But thank God,
我们有个已进化的大脑 它并非只有杏仁核
we have an evolved brain that’s not just amygdala.
大脑的其他部分也已进化
But we have evolved other parts of our brain,
额叶和前额叶皮层
the frontal lobes and the prefrontal cortex,
我们作为一个物种 确实有些特殊
and we as a species are actually kind of special,
不是你们认为的那种特殊
not as special as you think.
因为我们还没有那么特殊
Because we’re not that special.
我们在某些方面很特殊
But we’re special in a unique way.
我们能合作 对吧?我们都在这儿
We can cooperate, right? We’re all here.
好吧 我知道你们会说其他物种做得更好
Okay. I hear you saying other species do that much better.
看看那些蚂蚁 白蚁 蜜蜂
Look at the ants, the termites, the bees.
作为人类 我们很多时候以为自己很特别
We as humans think a lot of the time that we’re so special.
但我想要带来的一个观点是
But one thing I really want to bring forward is
我们特殊在于我们在这里
that we’re special because we’re here.
不是因为我们在这个位置 这个地方
And not because we’re here, here.
而是因为我们有抽象的概念
But because we have an abstract idea.
我们在这听TED讲座
We all are here for TED.
TED是我们脑海中的一种想法 对吧?
TED is an idea. It’s all in our minds, right?
它不是你能触摸的东西
It’s no thing that you can touch.
但TED是一种想法 而且能增加思想的力量
But TED is an idea and it proliferates the power of ideas.
因为这些想法值得传播
Because they’re worth spreading.
我们人类具有抽象概念的独特能力
Our human capacity to have abstract ideas is unique.
因为许多其他物种会合作
Because a lot of other species cooperate,
但那种合作不是基于抽象和非真实的概念
but not on an abstraction and a fiction
正如我们在拉丁课上讨论的那样 很容易理解
and an easy fix as we would say in Latin class,
因此我们能在一起 不仅仅是为了听TED
so that we can come together, and not only for TED.
最普遍的就在你的口袋中
The most universal one is in the back of your pockets
很有可能就在你的脑海深处
and probably in the back of your mind.
股市的闭市情况是金钱引起的 这纯属想象
How the stock market closed is money, pure fiction.
我们达成了共识 让一张小小纸片值钱
We have this agreement that we give a little piece of paper
不幸的是 这张绿色的美元
and unfortunately the green piece of paper
比荷兰那看起来很好看的蓝色钞票
is more valued as the dollar over my Dutch currency
还要值钱
which is blue much nicer.
而且我们还决定
But no, it’s the green, we all decry… decided that
让绿色的美元
the green is going to, you know,
管理全球市场
regulate the whole global market.
真不可思议
That’s amazing.
然而 历史产生了很多想法
But we have a history of ideas.
我之间就提到了民主
I already mentioned democracy.
为了民主 我们以前打过仗 以后还会为之而战
We will fight for that and went to war for that.
但是 人权
But human rights,
有人看见过人权吗 触摸过人权吗?
anybody seen a human right, touched a human right?
这是一种思想 对不对?
It’s an idea, right?
然而 这是一个强有力的想法
But it’s a powerful idea and
这个想法值得传播
it’s an idea worth spreading.
最古老的思想体系
The most ancient construct of idea
就是你们在这里听我演讲的原因 那就是上帝
that’s why you’re here and listening to me, is God.
上帝 人类学家告诉我们
God, the anthropologists tell us that
自从已知文明开始的时候
God and the belief in religion has been with us,
我们都有对上帝和宗教的信仰
since the beginning of any civilizations that we know of.
有迹象表明 最早的人类文明中
The first civilizations already had signs of
早就有人相信有来世和灵魂
a belief in an afterlife or in a soul.
所以 这是一种很有力的概念
So this is a powerful, powerful construct
有力的信仰
and powerful belief.
但是 我想指出一点
But what I want to point out is
这是一个概念 而概念的力量来自你赋予它的价值
it’s an idea and an idea gets powered by the value you give it,
你对它的信仰有多大
the belief you lend it.
每个人都有信仰
And we all have beliefs,
而且 它们可以变得很强大
and they all can be very very powerful.
如果我们把它带到我们的前额皮质
If we bring it up to our prefrontal cortex
我们可以在大脑中进行处理
and in our… create a processing of our brain,
从而解决问题 想象 自动自发地做事
where we have problem-solving, imagination, spontaneity,
真正产生社交能力
and where we can actually have a social intelligence.
那是我们大脑中很复杂的部位
That’s a complicated part of our brain
我们可以回到进化过程中
or we can regress to that you know,
那种与他们相对抗的本能
evolutionary base instinct of us versus them.
那么我们的历史呢?
What about our history?
我们的传统 特别是基督教的传统呢?
What about this tradition, specifically the geo… Christian tradition?
我们喜欢把知识隐藏起来
We love to put things in the closet.
所以 如果你回顾《创世纪》
So if you think back, if you look at Genesis,
《创世纪》第2到第3章有个美丽的故事
Genesis 2 and 3, there’s this beautiful story
它讲的是一个花园
about this garden.
这是一个绿意盎然的美丽花园
This lush, tuff, meaning good, beautiful garden.
所有的一切都是那么美好 丰富
Everything is good and abundant
其实这里有两个人
and there are actually two people there.
他们是亚当和夏娃
They’re called Adam and Eve.
他们可以享受这所有的一切
And they can enjoy everything, everything and everything
想吃什么就吃什么
and they can eat to their heart’s desire
除了一个东西
except one thing.
这个东西是他们两个人都不能碰的
One thing is, for the both of them, is off-limits.
有一棵树上的果子 他们不能吃
One tree of which they shall not eat.
这棵树是什么
What is this with this tree?
它叫做“分别善恶的树”
It’s the tree of good and evil,
又称“知识之树”
the tree of knowledge,
当然 所有的希伯来学者都会立刻问
and of course immediately all the Hebrew scholars and all the academics are,
那是什么意思 那是什么意思
“What does that mean? What does it mean?
那棵树象征着什么
What would this tree symbolize?
那是一种比喻吗
Is it metaphorically?
还是一棵真正的树
Is it a real tree?”
或者 更多 那是夏娃
Or “no, better still. It’s Eve.
那是女人 那是性欲
It’s women. It’s sexuality.”
不如把性欲也加进去吧?
How about throw and add in sexuality therein as well?
但是我想你还是可在这里找到它
And I think you can still find it there,
特别是女性
especially the women.
原罪 当然还有科学
Original sin, and of course science,
都是关于禁忌世界的知识
knowledge of a world that should be off-limit.
从那时起 我们就把这些知识隐藏起来
We have put things in that closet ever since.
但是我们也曾把隐藏的知识揭露出来
But we also have experience to put things out of the closet
我们引以为傲的科学革命开始时
in the beginning of the scientific revolution that we’re so proud of,
我们就提出了一个想法
came up with this idea
阅读《创世纪》中亚当夏娃堕落之前
to start reading Genesis before Eden
甚至伊甸园之前的部分
and before the fall.
上面写道:
And there it says:
“上帝就照着自己的形象造人
“God created them in his image,
乃是照着他的形象”
in his likeness, imago Dei.”
我们像上帝一样理性
We are like God in that we are reasonable, rational.
我们拥有智慧
We have intelligence.
我们拥有道德指南
We have a moral compass.
如果我们把它们放在一起
And if we just put them together,
我们可以了解这个世界
we can discover the world,
我们可以征服世界
we can subjugate the world,
我们可以支配整个世界
we can take dominion over the world,
甚至希望有时候可以当世界的管家
and we hope maybe sometimes stewardship as well.
于是 大量科学知识被释放了出来
That unleashed incredible scientific and understanding discovery,
培根的时代为我们敞开了科学界的大门
really opened the scientific world for us after Bacon
imago Dei的概念是我们照着上帝的形象造出来后
and this concept of “imago Dei”, that we are in the image of God and
出去征服上帝制造的人类之书
go out and conquer the… the human book of God,
我们所了解的这个世界
the world as we know it.
但是在18世纪
But by the 18th century,
imago Dei逐渐浮现出衰朽的迹象
that imago Dei started to kind of get old and
我们会问 “不不不 我们究竟是谁?”
we said “no, no, no, who are we really?”
生物分类学之父
The founder and the beginning of biology taxonomy
卡尔·林奈说过
Carl Linnaeus said
不 你知道我们是什么吗 现代人种
“No. You know what we are? Homo sapiens.
我们是智人” 真的吗?
We are wise men.” Really?
如果此时你看向全世界
If you look at global world at the moment
你认为谁会觉得我们人类都是智慧的?
who would think that we are collectively wise?
但是在18世纪有一个人就相信
But somebody in 18th century believed that.
我们是智人
Homo sapiens we are.
因为我们除了有皮肤外 也具备知识
Because we don’t only have skins, yeah, knowledge.
他声称 我们也有辨别能力
We have also the ability, he claimed, to discern.
我们可以辨别什么是正确的行为
We can discern between what the right action is.
智人 但是不久后宗教学者就出现了
Homo sapiens, but then the religious scholars soon came
然后他们说“等一下 不
and they said, “Wait a minute, no.
我们可能不是智人
We might not be Homo sapiens.
因为只有当你信仰宗教的时候你才是智人
Because you can only be that if you are religious
或者说 只有“宗教人”才是智人
or if you’re Homo religiosus.
作为人类 我们感知到了角度的变化
We as humans hear the change of perspective.
作为人类 我们拥有战胜自我的能力
We as humans have the capacity to transcend ourselves.
我们可以游刃有余的应对不同的局面”
We can transcend into a different world.”
“不不不”其他人会说“不 所谓的宗教人
“No no no,” another said. “No, there are maybe Homo religiosus,
也许只有一个 例如佛祖
just one, like Buddha,
摩西 基督 穆罕默德 只有他们
Moses, Christ or Mohammad, they’re the single
才是重要的模范 他们被信徒们捧起……
grand exemplars, religious men that have lifted up…
有一大批群众将他们作为精神领袖
people and a following in the masses to follow in a moral compass.
但并不是我们所有人”
But not all of us.”
而后 在19世纪末一些独具慧眼的人指出
And then smart people at the end of the 19th century said,
涂尔干和伊莱亚娜曾说过
like Durkheim and Ilyana says,
“不 我们是不是宗教人与虔诚与否无关
“No, it has nothing to do with religious or non-religious.
我们是宗教人是因为我们能分辨
We are Homo religiosus because we can make a distinction,
进行重要的分辨
an important distinction,
分辨亵渎上帝的事情
the distinction between the profane, the everyday,
上课 工作等日常琐事 以及神圣的事情”
going to classes, going to work, and the sacred.”
安息日的开端
The beginning of the Shabbat,
教徒们在星期五下午前往教堂祷告
Friday, Friday afternoon prayers going to church
或者说 瞧 这里就是圣所
or voila, here, this is the sacred,
你们聚在一起听TED演讲
coming together for a TED Talk,
去看足球比赛 你称这为“超级碗”
going to that football game, you call it the Super Bowl.
但这代表着一个仪式对吗 你精心打扮
But it’s a ritual right? You dress up,
吃着特殊的食物 唱着歌 像个傻瓜 但这很庄严
you eat special food, you sing songs, you do silly, sacred.
然而 在20世纪
By the 20th century however,
上帝死了
God died.
他在一个寒冷的午后逝去
God died one wintery afternoon
就在奥斯威辛集中营的后院里
in the courtyard of Auschwitz.
纳粹党卫军在1944年的那一天绞死了三个人
Three men were hung that day in 1944 by the SS.
两个成年人和一个孩子
Two grown men and a child,
两个成年人当场毙命
the two men died instantly,
就在他们脚下的椅子被踢掉后
when the chairs were kicked under them,
大喊着“自由万岁”
crying, “Long live freedom!”
但那个男孩
But that boy,
他并没有立刻死去 因为他太轻
that boy did make it, the boy was too light
没有立刻被绞死
to die by his own weight,
他是窒息而死的
and had no breath to live
埃利·维瑟尔说
and Elie Wiesel said,
“上帝在那里被绞死了”
“There hangs God.”
上帝在奥斯维辛死去
God died in Auschwitz,
在20世纪的下半叶 人们对上帝的信仰消失了
and God was dead in the second part of the 20th century,
在欧洲与美国确实是这样的
definitely in Europe and in America.
所以我们是谁
So who are we,
我们扮演着什么角色
who are we?
如果我们不是宗教人 也不是智人
If we’re not Homo religiosus, not Homo sapiens,
那你觉得是这么呢?
what do you think?
作为人类 我们到底是什么
What are we, truly fundamentally as a human species?
在21世纪的今天 我们自认聪慧 对吗
Now in the 21st century, we think we’re very smart, right?
我们如此杰出 以至于可以凭借科学知晓一切
We are so brilliant that we through science can know everything.
不再需要认识或者信仰上帝
And we don’t… not know, need the hypothesis of God anymore.
我们将他抛在脑后是因为我们自身的强大
We got rid of it because we have ourselves.
但这真的是我们吗
But is that truly what we are?
我觉得我们都是“紧张人”
I think we are basically Homo anxius.
我们生来孤独 一丝不挂 一无所有
We are born alone, naked, with nothing.
或许多亏父母 我们得到了些什么
Maybe thanks to our parents we get something,
死去时也赤裸裸地独自离开
and we die alone and naked,
并没有什么天国列车可乘坐
and there’s no U-Haul truck that we can take,
在我们……
And in between with our…
大脑精妙的构造间
beautiful organ the brain,
我们近乎疯狂的尝试着赋予我们生活意义
we frantically try to make meaning of our lives here and now.
我们拥有的信仰
And we have beliefs
时而让我们灰心沮丧
that get us down in our amygdala
时而却又让我们奋发昂扬
or we have beliefs that rise us up.
最后我要说起2050年
I wanted to end with 2050.
在这个世界上 我们又会在宗教地图上的哪里
Where will we be globally on the map of religion?
我可以告诉你们
And one thing I can tell you we’re going to be
2050年依旧存在宗教狂热分子
furious religious as ever in 2050,
这是基于生育率 青年人口
based on fertility rates, youth populations
以及信仰的改变得出的结论
and people changing faiths.
世界将产生剧烈的变动 即穆斯林人数大幅上升
The big change will be there will be many more Muslims in the world.
无神论者 不可知论者与无宗教信仰者
Atheists, agnostics and those not affiliated with religion
将在2050年减少近百分之三
will diminish by 3 percent in 2050.
这对我们有什么影响?
So what does this leave us?
我们的终点又在哪里
Where are we at the end
未来的不确定因素又是什么
and what is the uncharted nature of our future
“我们不知道”不足以解释这一点
“Wir haben es nicht gewußt” is not going to cut it.
你知道的事
What do you know
你的信仰
and what do you believe
与想法跟你不同的人接触的方式
how you can engage with people who think differently with you.
这些才是重要的
That will matter.
谢谢大家
Thank you very much.

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