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乐高机器人技术

Beginning Lego Robotics

乐高初级机器人技术
LEGOBeginning Robotics
欢迎来到初级机器人技术课堂
Welcome to Beginning Robotics
设计该系列视频是为了教你如何制作更好的乐高机器人
A series of videos designed to help teach you how to build a better Lego robot
我的名字叫罗杰·布莱特
My name is Roger Bright
我是“马步里乐高积木驱逐舰”的教练
I’m the coach of the Mabry Lego the Destroyers
“驱逐舰”是第一支乐高联盟队伍3
The Destroyers are the first Lego league team
该队伍来自佛罗里达州坦帕市的马布里小学
at Mabry Elementary School in Tampa, Florida
任何参加过该游戏的人
Anyone who has ever participated in a game
都知道游戏的乐趣在于置身其中
knows that the fun of a game lies in playing it
但在玩这个游戏之前
But before you can play a game
你必须知道它的规则和各零件的作用
You have to learn what the rules are and how the pieces work
制造乐高机器人也是同样的道理
The same holds true for building a Lego robot
虽然你可能用了大量时间组装成套的乐高
While you may have spent countless hours putting together many Lego kits
但可能你并没有花时间去了解每个配件的作用
You may not have spent any time finguring out what each piece does
或它们如何一起运作的
or how they work together
这就是这个视频要讲的
That’s what this video is about
1 基础要素
1. The Basics
在乐高制作中 最基本的要素是“砖”
The most basic element in Lego building is the brick
不对 不是这样的砖
No. Not that kind of brick
有点接近了
Closer
纽瓦克市 新泽西州 “砖城”
Newark, New Jersey “The Brick City”
好吧 我知道这个笑话很冷
OK I know this is a stretch as far as jokes go
但新泽西州的纽瓦克市是很有趣的
but Newark New Jersey is always funny
并且没有那么多东西可以称之为“砖”
And there aren’t that many things that are nicknamed “The Brick”
就是这样的“砖”
There it is
当提到乐高积木 我们大多数人想到的就是这个
This is what most of us think of when we think of a Lego brick
尽管几乎所有人都曾以某种形式玩过这些
And although almost all of us have played with these at one point or another
但仍有许多和乐高积木相关的事 你可能是不知道的
There are a lot of things about the Lego brick you may not know
在许多时候
Most often times
措辞如那个叫什么的装置
Terms such as whosie-whatsits thingamajig and
和曾经流行的那个不知道叫什么的
and the ever-popular whatchamacallit
会在描述乐高配件时用到
are used when trying to describe Lego pieces
然而 对我们而言
For our purposes, however,
我们会用乐高公司使用的那些称呼
we’ll use the terms used by the guys at Lego themselves
拿之前搭的积木为例 整个在一起叫作积木
As we established before the whole piece is called The Brick
积木的一侧是墙体
The sides of the brick are the walls
在积木的顶部一些凸起的点叫作凸点
While the little nibs on the top of the brick are called studs
抱歉
Sorry
描述积木时 长、宽为一个积木单位
We describe a brick by giving a width-by-length description of the studs
例如图片顶部的积木
The brick in the top picture for example
是一个2×2的积木
would be a two-by-two brick
这个则是2×4的积木
While this would be a two-by-four
所有乐高积木都是以6比5的比例均匀制作的
All Lego bricks are made to a uniform ratio of 6:5
通过准确理解这些数据的意义
By understanding exactly what this means
我们能在更短的时间内组装更强大更复杂的机器人
We can build stronger, more complicated robots in shorter periods of time
做到这一点 我们必须要知道比率是什么
To do this, we have to know what a ratio is
简单地说 比率就是两个相关数据的数值关系
Put simply, a ratio is a numerical relationship between two related items
如果你用一个和另一个比较
If you’re comparing one thing with another
并且用数字来比较
And you’re using numbers to do it
那么所求的概率就会用到比率
then odds are you’re using a ratio
没有隐含意
No pun intented
也可以说有 因为几率是概率的一种
It’s a pun you see because odds are a type of ratio
当我没说
Forget it
让我们来看乐高动画
Let’s look at our cartoon
我们看到维京人在拿掠夺者的数量和村民对比
Now here our viking is comparing the number of plunderers to the number of villagers
想知道他的突袭能否成功
To try and figure out how successful his raid might be
举个例子说 如果村庄里有100个村民 而只有两个是掠夺者
If the village had one hundred villagers and he had only two plunderers, for example,
那么几率就是50个村民中会有1个掠夺者
Then there would be a ratio of fifty villagers for every plunderer
或者就是50比1
or fifty to one
糟糕的比例
Really bad odds
然而 如果有10个村民和100个掠夺者
If there were only ten villagers and one hundred plunderers however
那么村民和掠夺者的比例就是1比10
Then the ratio of villagers to plunderers would only be 1:10
这样的比率会使维京人袭击成功率大些
Much better odds for our viking plunderers’ raid
现在回到我们乐高积木单位
Now getting back to our Lego pieces
可以知道我们之前所谈到的比例
We see that the ratio we talked about earlier
可用来对比砖的高度和宽度
Compares the height of our brick to the width of our brick
当它们被视为独立的单位时
when they’re viewed as a single unit
这是我们看待乐高积木的方法
And that’s how we will be looking at our legos
不是用英寸或毫米
Not by inches or millimeters
而是将它视为单位
but by units
一个乐高积木单位是我们之前见到的“砖”
A Lego unit is the brick we have pictured
正方形底部
square bottom
顶端有凸点
with a single stud on top
再次抱歉
Sorry again
正如我所说的
As I was saying
乐高积木底部为正方形 顶部有凸点
A Lego unit has a square bottom with a single stud on top
且它的高和宽比值是6比5
and the height of the Lego unit compared to the width of the Lego unit is 6:5
这块积木是积木的标准高度
This brick is the standard height for a brick
宽则为标准积木的2倍 长为4倍
but 2 units wide and 4 units long
换句话说 尽管这是一块积木
In other words, although it is a single brick
实际上却是8个乐高积木单位
It’s actually 8 Lego units
但为什么这些如此重要呢
But why is any of this important?
我说的都是对的!
Because I said so!!!
好吧 可能这不是世界上最好的理由
OK Maybe that isn’t the best reason in the world
说实话 是因为这里的这个小家伙和它的那些同伴
Truth be told, it is because this little guy right here and all of his brothers
这是技术积木
This is a Technic Brick
一种乐高积木 不仅可以从上到下连接积木
a Type of Lego brick that can be connected not just top to bottom
而且能用大头针连接洞口的两边
But also on the sides where that hole is using plastic pins
就像普通的乐高玩具
Just like regular Legos
这种技术积木有各种形状和规格
These Technic Bricks come in all sorts of shapes and sizes
但它们的比例也是6比5
But they share that same 6:5 ratio
和我们之前说的乐高积木一样
as any other Lego brick we’ve talked about
该积木连接器是很重要的
The importance of that sign connector can be seen
当你考虑到所有的竞赛机器人必须忍受一切伤害
when you consider all of the abuse of a competition robot has to endure
它不仅由一群不同的人操作
Not only is it handled by a bunch of different people
还要捡东西 放下它们
But it must pick objects up, drop them off
撞墙 穿过颠簸的路形 这样的事情很多
bump the walls,go over bumpy terrain. The list goes on.
简而言之 竞赛机器人必须很强大
In short, a competition robot has to be strong
让我们来看一个简单的设计 像这个
Let’s look at a simple design like this one
只用了积木和金属板
Using nothing but bricks and plates
好吧
OK
“砖”不好笑
It wasn’t funny with the bricks
这个碟也不会好笑到哪里
It’s not any funnier with the plates
金属板看起来和积木差不多
A plate looks just like a brick
但是薄一些
but it’s thinner
更准确地说
To be more exact
三个金属板和一块积木等高
The height of three plates equals the height of one brick
回到起初的金属板和积木结构
Getting back to our original structure made of briks and plates
这个结构看起来很稳固
This structure would appear strong
并且是由它受力的方向来决定的
and depending from which direction force is applied, it is
如果从积木的顶部或侧面施力
If force were applied directly from the top of the bricks or straight from the sides
这个结构都会稳固
This structure would be strong
会一直保持原状
It would maintain its integrity
但是如果对该结构施加任何扭力
But if any type of torque or twisting force were applied to the structure
它就很容易倒塌
It would come apart very easily
因此解决方法是什么
So what’s our solution?
如何解决它呢
How do we fix this problem?
在十字撑条中能找到答案
The answer can be found in crossbracing
此时我们可看到一个简单的积木
Here we see a similar structure
无论从形状还是规格而言
In both shape and size
该结构和之前的结构有着同样的优点
This structure has the same strength as the old structure
到目前为止 顶部及两侧均很稳固
So far it is both strong from the top and from the sides
并且加上了十字撑条
But it has the added benefit of crossbracing
它不仅给顶部和两侧提供力量
Which gives it strength not just from the sides and from the top
而且将会运用许多旋钮
but from many torque that would be applied to it
这就是牵条
It’s these cross braces
应用在我们之前说到的工艺孔上
apllied to the technic holes we talked about earlier
它使结构变得稳固
That give this structure that strength
噢 我们在这里
O HAY R WE THER YET
好的 到这里我们就要讲完了
OK hang in there. We’re almost done.
回到狗狗的问题上 是的
And to answer our dogs’ question: Yes
我们在这里
We’re there
此时我们能看到
We’re now at the point where we can see
为什么我们之前谈论的高宽比如此的重要
why that height-to-width ratio that we talked about earlier is so important
当我们在设计乐高机器人时
when we’re designing the Lego robots
为了使用十字撑条
In order to use crossbracing
结构上的那些孔必须和横条上的孔对齐
The holes in our structure have to line up with the holes in the braces
但由于积木的高度长于其宽度
But since the height of our brick is bigger than the width of our brick
所以孔不能排成一排
the holes won’t line up
我们将无法把十字撑条固定在这个结构上
We won’t be able to pin the cross brace onto the structure
但由于乐高积木是统一的
Because our Legos are uniform however
我们知道技术积木的中心到孔的空间
We know that the space between the centers to the holes on our Technic Bricks
恰好等于乐高单位的宽
are exactly one Lego unit wide
同样的 我们知道 当我们将两个技术积木叠在一起时
Likewise we know that when we stack two of our Technic Bricks
每个孔中心的距离相当于乐高单位的高
The distance between the center of each hole is one Lego unit tall
从6比5的比例
Since we know from our 6:5 ratio
我们知道乐高的高长于宽
that our Legos are taller than they are wide
这意味着 五个乐高的长度等同于六个乐高的宽度
This means that it would take only 5 Lego heights to equal 6 Lego widths
正如画面上所展示的
Which is exactly what we have here
通过测量孔与孔之间的距离,我们知道我们有五个乐高积木的高度
We can see by measuring the space between the holes that we have 5 Lego unit heights
同样 通过测量我们知道了孔与孔间的距离
Likewise we can see by measuring the space between the holes
即六个乐高积木的宽度
That we have six Lego unit widths
由此得出6比5的比例
Giving us a 6:5 ratio
但谁会用这些乐高呢
But who wants to use all these Legos
当试着做一些和十字撑条一样简单的东西时
when trying to do something as simple as crossbracing?
当然 你不用做那些
Well you don’t have to
此时就需要用到金属板
And that’s where the plates come in
我们能看到把两块金属板夹在两块积木间
Here we can see that by adding two plates between two bricks
就可以将长宽之间的缝隙完美地契合在一起
We can line up the holes between in our height and our width perfectly
由此我们就得到了我们需要的强度和斜梁
Thus giving us the strength and the crossbracing that we need
我们也能用金属板统一空间
We can also use plates to make our spacing uniform
每摞金属板由四个组成是乐高高度的三分之一
Each of these stacks is the equivalent of 4 and 1/3 Lego units high
但是右边的这摞积木用金属板使空间更加平整
But the stack of bricks on the right uses plates to destribute the spaces more evenly
这样做用了一个大头针
and in doing so it’s able to use an extra pin
使结构更为稳固
and increase the strenghth of the structure
我理解这有些让人疑惑
I know this can be a little confusing
那么 拜托
So please
如果你没有从这节课里学到任何东西
If you take nothing else from this lesson
请记住下面的三件事
Please just take the following three things
1 用十字撑条加固你的机器人
Use crossbracing to strengthen your robot
2 两个积木间加固金属条可以将十字撑条整齐排列起来
2. Plates stacked between two bricks will usually allow you to align your cross brace properly
最后
And lastly
指导乐高机器人技术的人是世界上最美丽的人
That Lego Robotics coaches are among the most beautiful people in the world
希望你们喜欢这个视频
I hope you enjoy this video
希望下次玩乐高的时候 你们可以尝试视频里学到的东西
and that you’ll try some of these things the next time you play with your legos

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视频概述

乐高机器人技术者的天堂。如果你对乐高机器人感兴趣,那么这个课程则为你量身定制;如果你对乐高机器人接触的很少,那么这个课堂会让你爱上它;如果你不相信我的话的话,就请走入课堂,让视频给你惊喜。

听录译者

赖皮

翻译译者

制心

审核员

审核团MG

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWAjuRifQZc

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