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开始平面设计:基础 – 译学馆
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开始平面设计:基础

Beginning Graphic Design: Fundamentals

设计原理是每种视觉设计的基础
The fundamentals of design are the basis of every visual medium,
从纯艺术到网页设计
from fine art… to modern
即使是字体这样的小细节 都会对效果产生很大影响
web design… even small details, like the fonts that make up most compositions.
这些例子有什么共同之处?
What do these examples have in common?
它们都是非常基本的元素 包括线条 形状 体块
Some very basic elements, including line,shape, form, texture, and balance.
纹理和平衡它们单独可能看似不能成立 但如果被组合在一起
They might not seem like much on their own,
它们可以变成我们看到和创造的所有
but together… they’re part of almost everything
东西
we see and create.
这些设计原理看似有些吓人
The fundamentals can be intimidating,
尤其是如果你不觉得自己是艺术家的话
especially if you don’t consider yourself an artist. However,
但是你可以从中学到很多
there’s a lot they can teach you
处理不同元素的办法
about working with different assets and creating
并且可以从头开始创造简单的视觉艺术
simple visuals from scratch.
让我们从最基础的元素
Let’s start at the beginning with one
——线条开始讲起
of the most basic elements of all… the line.
线是连接两个或两个以上的点的形状
A line is a shape that connects two or morepoints.
它可粗可细
It can be fat or thin… wavy or jagged.
可弯可折每一种变化都给它带来一些不同的感觉
Every possibility gives the line a slightlydifferent feel.
线条在设计中很常见
Lines appear frequently in design;
比如绘图表现 以及视觉元素中
for example, in drawings and illustrations… and graphic elements,
如纹理与图案
like textures and patterns.
文字排版中也常用线条来强调
They’re also common in text compositions,
、分割和组织内容
where they can add emphasis… divide or organize
甚至引导观众的视线
content… or even guide the viewer’s eye.
当使用线条时需要注意它的粗细、
When working with lines, pay attention to things like weight, color,
颜色、
texture, and style.
质感和风格这些微妙的特质可以对你设计所传达
These subtle qualities can have a big impact
的感觉带来很大的影响
on the way your design is perceived.
看看那些不易发现的线条
Look for places where lines are hiding in plain sight;
比如那些在文本中的
for example, in text.
即使在这里 不同的线也会产生不同的效果
Even here, experimenting with different line qualities can give you very different results.
形状是有可识别边界的二维区域
A shape is any 2-dimensional area with a recognizableboundary.
包括圆形 方形 三角形
This includes circles, squares, triangles,and so on.
等等形状分为两个不同的类别:
Shapes fall into two distinct categories:geometric (or regular) and organic (where
几何(常规)形态和有机形态(这种形状的形式更加自由)
the shapes are more freeform).
形状是视觉上交流思想的重要组成部分
Shapes are a vital part of communicating ideasvisually.
形状赋予图像体量 并图像容易辨认
They give images heft and make them recognizable.
我们辨识街道标志
We understand street signs, symbols,
符号 甚至抽象艺术很大程度上是因为形状
and even abstract art largely because of shapes.
形状在日常设计中非常常用
Shapes have a surprising number of uses ineveryday design.
它们可以帮你组织和分隔内容
They can help you organize or
创造简单视觉效果
separate content… create simple illustrations… or just add
或者只是提升你的作品的趣味性
interest to your work.
形状是如此重要 因为它们是很多东西的基本元素
Shapes are important because they’re the foundationof so many things.
学着从别的设计作品中寻找它们
Learn to look for them in other designs,
很快你会发现它们无处不在
and soon, you’ll start seeing them everywhere.
当一个形状变成三维 我们称之为体块
When a shape becomes 3D, we call it a form.
体块可以是三维的
Forms can be 3-dimensional and exist
真实存在在现实生活中的
in the real world… or they can be implied, using
或者它们通过一些技术手段得以暗示 如光 阴影 和透视 从而建立体块的错觉
techniques like light, shadow, and perspective to create the illusion of depth.
在二维设计中 体块给真实感带来可能没有它
In 2-dimensional design, form makes realismpossible.
一个跳跃的皮球只是
Without it, a bouncing rubber ball is justa circle.
一个圆一栋三维建筑仅仅是一系列的矩形
A 3D building is just a series of rectangles.
连平面的设计都使用微妙的技巧来暗示体块和进深
Even flat designs use subtle techniques to hint at form and depth.
在日常生活的组合体中 体块的作用是一样的
In everyday compositions, the purpose of form is the same,
但是作用在更小的范围里
but on a smaller scale.
比如一个简单的阴影可以创建
For example, a simple shadow can create the illusion
层次的错觉…
of layers… or give an object a
或给予对象一种空间感
sense of place.
基本的体块可以给你的作品
Basic forms can bring a touch
带来一些真实感 如果使用得当 它将是个强大的工具
of realism to your work—a powerful tool when used in moderation.
纹理是存在于表面上的物理状态
Texture is the physical quality of a surface.
和体块一样 纹理也可以是三维的
Like form, it can be 3-dimensional—something you
可以被你看到并且可以触摸
can see and touch—or it can be implied,
但它也可以被暗示 暗示某个形态会有这样的纹理 如果它真实存在
suggesting that it would have texture if it existed in real life.
在设计中 纹理给平面图案赋予了深度和触感
In design, texture adds depth and tactilityto otherwise flat images.
对象可以根据纹理的不同
Objects can appear smooth, rough, hard,
体现出平滑、粗糙、坚硬、
or soft, depending on the elements at play.
柔软等质感对于初学者来说 纹理是很好的背景素材
For beginners, textures make great background images
并且能让人对你的作品产生
and can add a lot of interest to your
兴趣
work.
仔细看你会发现纹理还存在于意想不到的地方
Look closely, and you may find texture
比如艺术化的字体
in unexpected places, like distressed fonts…
有光泽感的图标
and smooth, glossy icons.
只是小心不要使用过火
Just be careful not to go
集中了过多纹理的设计
overboard—too much texture in a single design can quickly
容易让人难以接受
become overwhelming.
平衡是视觉上体量的均等分配
Balance is the equal distribution of visual weight (
(换句话说 一样物体能吸引多少
in other words, how much any one thing
观众的目光)
attracts the viewer’s eye).
平衡可以通被很多因素影响
Balance can be affected by many things, including color, size,
包括颜色、尺寸、数字与负空间
number, and negative space.
掌握平衡对初学者来说会有些棘手 因为这需要些直觉
Mastering balance can be tricky for beginners, because it does take some intuition. Luckily,
幸运的是 设计的世界中有许多案例
the design world is full of examples
能帮你了解处理平衡不同的
that you can help you understand its different
形式
iterations.
对称的设计是指形态的在轴线的两侧是相同或相似的
Symmetrical designs are the same or similar on both sides of an axis.
它们带来平衡感 因为两边在感觉上是相同的(如果不是完全一样的话)
They feel balanced because each side is effectivelythe same (if not identical).
不对称设计是有不同的 但体量感仍然是均匀分布的
Asymmetrical designs are different, but theweight is still evenly distributed.
它的平衡感来自于它把人们的注意力引导向了正确的信息上
The composition is balanced because it calls attention to the right things.
许多人使用一种三等分法
Many people use a strategy called the ruleof thirds.
这种方法将你的图面划分为3×3的网格
This imagines your work area divided intoa 3×3 grid.
图像的焦点接近
The focal point of the image is placed
这些线中的一条
on or near one of these lines, creating visual
从而产生主体与其余空间的平衡
balance with the rest of the space.
我们发现这种排布方法具有吸引力
We find this type of composition appealing because,
因为研究发现
according to studies, the human eye
当扫视设计作品时 人眼会自然地跟随着这个路径
naturally follows this path when scanninga design.
设计的原则是服务
The fundamentals of design are all
于大局的
about the bigger picture—in other words, learning
换句话说学习欣赏许多组合中的小细节
to appreciate the many small details thatmake up every composition.
由此而产生的洞察力可以适用于几乎任何项目
This insight can be applied to almost any type of project,
无论是制作自己的图案
whether you’re creating your
或只是寻找简单的方法提高你的作品质量
own graphics… or just looking for simple ways to enhance your work.
感谢您观看设计的基本原则的视频
Thanks for joining us for the fundamentalsof design.
看看我们的设计主题的其余部分
Check out the rest of our design topics,
包括颜色 排版等
including color, typography, and more.

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