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啤酒与生物多样性 – 译学馆
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啤酒与生物多样性

Beer & Biodiversity

本地商店,在那些大品牌后面,你会看到一些小酒厂的疯狂啤酒名子
In the local shop, next to major beer brands, you might find microbrews with crazy names
像什么狂野臭鼬,琴头燃料或吃泥人烈酒,我还能列出更多。
like Wild Skunk Ale, Fiddlehead Fuel, or Mudsucker Stout, although I just made those up. While
当大品牌让明星,性感滑雪或扮成卡车恶棍,在电视上大肆广告的时候,他们的弱小竞争者
the big-brands run TV ads starring sexy skiers or tough guys with trucks, their small competitors
不得不挣扎在货架上引起人们的注意,这就像小灌木或
have to scrabble for attention from the store shelf. That’s because, much like a small shrub
青苔在森林的大树下,小酒厂就生活在那些大公司
or fern beneath the tall trees in a forest, microbreweries live in the shadows of their
的阴影里
larger corporate competitors.
而震惊的是,在巨大阴影下很多物种和公司竭尽全力的生存者
And, surprisingly, many species and businesses that eke out a living in the shadows of giants
在这个弱肉强食的世界里,各自使用着类似的策略成功的
employ similar strategies to succeed in their respective dog-eat-dog worlds of intense competition
获取有限的资源
for limited resources.
在森林或啤酒业务上的胜利者,是用绝对的体量来定义的
The winners of this competition in the forest or beer business, as defined by sheer volume,
是那些获得了最多资源–阳光和客户金钱的胜利者
are those that capture the most resources – sunlight in one case and consumers’ dollars
另外,机制不同,大树获得阳光靠长得更高更宽阔,
in the other. The mechanics differ – big trees capture sunlight by being tall and wide, while
而大酒商获得数十亿美元利润靠广泛的传播
large brewers earn billions of dollars of profits by having a broad reach, attracting
用低价,温和的风味和大量广告投入引诱消费者
customers with low prices, mild flavor, and large advertising budgets.
这个结果相同,虽然用了其他途径来获得最多的有价值资源
The outcome is the same, though – by capturing the most valuable resources before they reach
有统治力的树和企业会驱逐较弱的,使用同他们策略相同的竞争者
others, dominant trees and companies exclude weaker competitors who employ the same tactics.
而且权衡任何策略想成为平均最好的都几乎不可能
But there are trade-offs to any strategy, and being the best on average rarely works
在所有情况和条件下都不可能
in all cases and conditions.
那树叶下的青苔和小酒厂如何能成功呢,在这种条件下要靠专攻细分
That’s how understory ferns and microbreweries can succeed – by specializing in conditions
这些大家伙的弱点被称作空白生态
the "big guys" are not so good at: the so-called empty niches.
在阴影深处,一个青苔要放低姿态才能健康,避免直接的竞争才能生存
In deep shade, a fern can make a healthy, if modest, living by avoiding direct competition
并且将力量投入在仅仅够用的光合作用组织上,从昏暗的
and investing prudently in just enough photosynthetic machinery, to make a profit from the faint
阳光里获得利益,到达森林地面的,那些大树捕获后的残剩光线不值得去付出更多努力
sunlight reaching the forest floor– leftover light not worth the extra effort for the big
青苔甚至能够在不充足的光合作用下茂盛成长
trees to capture up above. Ferns can even thrive on a photosynthetic income that’s inadequate
谦卑的青苔可以和大树的后代并存
for the small offspring of many tall trees, and thus the humble fern coexists with the
与高大木材的竞争中获得自己的地位
tall timber above by competing on its own terms.
类似的,小酒厂把自己投入到奇怪,时髦和强烈的风味中,就能保持
Similarly, microbrews, which invest in being odd, trendy, and strongly flavored, can persevere
吸引那些狂热的爱好者,不受大酒厂的市场营销和低价影响
by attracting aficionados not swayed by the marketing and lower prices of larger breweries.
的确,少数人接受的类型,遮天蔽日的森林地面的几束阳光
Sure, fewer people fall into this category, just as fewer beams of sunlight fall through
这些地方的资源是有潜力提供
the canopy onto the forest floor, but where there are resources, there’s potential to
生存机会的
survive.
所以也不让人意外的是,这些幸存者的目标就是像青苔和这些小公司,
And survival is the goal of both ferns and firms, so it’s not really that surprising
自然和经济都被类似的竞争所推动
that both nature and the economy, driven by the same kinds of competition, give rise to
森林中被遮挡的植被生物,还有超市走廊的商品们,提升了生态单元和多样性。
niches and diversification, to canopy and understory in the forest, and in the supermarketaisle!

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