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变得不可征服

Become Unconquerable | Stoic Philosophy

Bound upon me, rush upon me,
束缚我 撞击我
I will overcome you by enduring your onset:
我会忍受你的攻击 然后战胜你
whatever strikes against that which is firm and unconquerable
无论什么 若它企图攻击坚固 不可战胜的事物
merely injures itself by its own violence.
只会被自身的暴力伤害
Wherefore, seek some soft and yielding object to pierce with your darts.
所以 找一些温软柔和的物体 用你的飞镖刺穿
Seneca.
—塞涅卡
Why do you feel conquered?
为什么你觉得被征服了
Are you conquered when your country gets taken by another country?
当你的国家被另一个国家占领 你被征服了吗
Do you feel conquered when an enemy takes your house and the rest of your possessions?
当敌人夺走你的房子和其他财产 你被征服了吗
Or when you’re thrown into prison with your hands and feet tied together?
或者当你被绑住手脚 关进监狱?
Or perhaps when someone snatches away your prospect of dating the person you like?
还是当别人抢走了你和意中人约会的机会?
It’s probably different for every person
环境会在多大程度上引发失败感
to what extent circumstances evoke a feeling of defeat.
对于每个人来说可能都不同
The ancient Stoics produced a treasure trove of wisdom
古代的斯多葛学派创造了一个
on becoming unconquerable.
关于如何变得不可战胜的智慧宝库
They believed that people cannot be conquered by anything external,
他们相信只要人们不放弃支配自己能力的力量
as long as they don’t give away the power over their faculties.
就不会被任何外部事物征服
The only way external things can influence us
外部事物可以影响到我们的唯一途径
is when we, ourselves, let them.
是我们自己允许它们影响我们
If we feel that something has defeated us,
如果我们觉得有什么打败了我们
it’s us defeating ourselves on account of it.
其实是我们因为这些东西 自己打败了自己
If we want to become unconquerable,
如果我们想变得不可征服
we don’t need to conquer the world but ourselves.
我们不用征服世界 只需征服自己
This video explores Stoic philosophy on how to become unconquerable.
本视频探讨了斯多葛哲学关于变得不可征服的哲学体系
不可征服
The way we estimate external things decides how they influence us,
我们评估外部事物的方式决定了它们如何影响我们
not the things in themselves.
而不是事物本身
If we attribute a high value to something,
如果我们赋予某种事物很高的价值
there’s a risk that we develop a desire for it.
我们可能就会面临对它产生欲望的风险
If we then encounter what we desire, we feel elated,
如果再遇到这个我们渴望的事物 我们会感到很高兴
which is, of course, a great feeling.
这当然是一种很棒的感觉
But when we somehow can’t get what we want,
但当我们不知何故无法得到我们想要的东西时
we don’t feel so great.
我们会感觉不太好
And thus, we’ve put our emotional state
这样一来 我们就已经把自己的情绪状态
at the mercy of outside circumstances.
置于外部环境的支配之下了
Say you really fancy someone at work or school,
假设你很喜欢公司或学校里的某个人
with that person, you’ll be in the clouds.
和这个人在一起时 你会如在云端
But when this person cancels the date last minute,
但当这个人在最后一刻取消约会时
you’ll be disappointed and possibly upset.
你会感到失望 甚至可能难过
Even though things like flaking, rejection,
尽管在约会中 不受欢迎 被拒绝
or being dumped are prevalent in dating,
或被抛弃等现象很普遍
the way people respond differs immensely.
但人们的反应方式大不相同
Some just shrug it off and continue their lives.
有些人只是耸耸肩 继续他们的生活
Others become resentful and seek revenge.
另一些人会感到不满并寻求报复
But if rejection evokes a strong emotional reaction within us,
但如果我们由于被拒绝而引起强烈的情绪
we could say that this occurrence has conquered us.
我们可以说这件事已经征服了我们
It has the power to influence our emotional state
它能影响我们的情绪状态
and possibly influence our actions significantly.
并可能显著影响我们的行为
The same goes for insults.
侮辱也是如此
If some petty insults breed days of resentment,
如果因为一些微不足道的侮辱而怨恨了好几天
then the insulter has successfully conquered the insulted.
那么侮辱者已经成功地征服了被侮辱者
被暴君征服
But there are much more severe manners
但除了侮辱和拒绝这些我们让别人征服自己的情形
in which we let people conquer us than insults or rejection.
还有程度更为严重的
An example is a form of manipulation called blackmail.
例如 有一种操纵的形式叫做敲诈勒索
A commonly used form of blackmail
一种常用的敲诈勒索形式
is the prospect of one’s reputation being destroyed.
就是声称某人的名誉可能遭到破坏
Many people are very attached to their reputation,
许多人非常看重自己的声誉
so they might easily succumb to such blackmail.
因此他们可能很容易就屈从于这种敲诈
And if this happens, the blackmailer has conquered his target.
如果他们屈从了 那么敲诈者就已经控制了他的目标
Another example is interrogation accompanied by imprisonment and even torture,
另一个例子是伴随着监禁甚至酷刑的审讯
which was common practice in the Roman Empire.
这是罗马帝国时期的惯用手段
The effectiveness of these methods depends on how attached someone is to one’s body
这些方法的有效性取决于某人对自己身体的依附程度
and how much pain he’s willing to suffer.
以及他愿意承受多大的痛苦
The Stoics say that we always have a choice,
斯多葛学派认为 即使在如此可怕的情况下
even in such horrible circumstances.
我们也总有选择的余地
If we knuckle under the actions of our torturer,
但如果我们屈服于施刑者的行为
we’ve made a choice to be conquered by him.
我们就选择了被他征服
But if we refuse to give in,
但是 如果不管痛苦有多么强烈
despite the severity of the torments,
我们都拒绝屈服
the torturer may damage our bodies but fails to defeat us.
施刑者就只能伤害我们的身体 却无法打败我们
In the discourses of Epictetus, a vast collection of lectures by the 2nd-century Stoic sage,
在《爱比克泰德演讲集》中——该书收录了二世纪斯多葛学派圣人的大量演讲
we see Epictetus repeating over and over again
我们看到爱比克泰德一次次重复
how one’s ability to choose
一个人选择的能力
(or “moralchoice” as translated by some scholars) can never be taken away.
(有些学者翻译为“道德选择”)永远不会被剥夺
In every situation, no matter how terrible,
在任何情况下 无论多么可怕
we have a choice to maintain power over our
我们都可以选择保持对自己行为的控制权
actions or to submit to the circumstances.
或者选择屈服于环境
Epictetus explains this power
爱比克泰德告诉我们在面对暴君的威胁时他的反应
by telling how he’d react when a tyrant threatens him:
为我们诠释了这种选择的力量
If he says, “I will put you in chains” ,
如果暴君说 “我要把你锁起来 ”
I reply, “He is threatening my hands and my feet.”
我会回应 “他是在威胁我的手脚和身体“
If he says, “I will behead you,”
如果暴君说 “我要将你斩首 ”
I answer, “He is threatening my neck.”
我会回答 “他在威胁我的脖子 ”
If he says, “I will throw you into prison,”
如果暴君说 “我要把你关进监狱 ”
I say, “He is threatening my whole paltry body;”
我会回应“他是在威胁我整个微不足道的身体“”
and if he threatens me with exile,
如果暴君以流放威胁我
I give the same answer.
我也会给出同样的回答
End quote.
引用结束
Epictetus illustrates in this passage
爱比克泰德在这篇文章中阐明
that even though the tyrant tries to exercise power over him,
即使暴君试图对他行使暴权
he remains unconquerable.
他依然是不可征服的
Sure, the tyrant can chain his legs,
当然 暴君可以锁住他的腿
chop his head, or throw him into prison.
砍掉他的头 或者把他关进监狱
But these are simply outside factors that aren’t up to him,
但这些都仅是他无法决定的外部因素
and thus, according to
因此 根据爱比克泰德的说法
Epictetus, they’re nothing to him.
这些外部因素对他来说什么都不是
What counts are his actions,
重要的只有他对这些外部因素的反应
and no one but ourselves can decide these.
而只有我们自己才能决定自己的反应
忍受苦难
If we want to be unconquerable, we need to be willing to endure any hardship.
如果我们想不被征服 我们要愿意忍受任何苦难
We must be ready to have complete disregard for what people think,
我们必须充分做好完全无视他人想法
to lose everything we have (even our necessities),
失去我们所拥有的一切(甚至是我们的必需品)
to have our bodies locked away and abused,
身体被锁住 被虐待
and to part from everyone we love.
甚至远离我们所爱的准备
Any strong attachment we have,
任何我们非常依赖的东西
anything that we’re unwilling and unable to separate from,
任何我们不愿意也无法分离的东西
but also anything we can’t and won’t endure
任何我们不能也不会忍受的事情
have the potential to destabilize and influence our choices.
都有动摇并影响我们的选择的可能性
An example of being unconquerable
一个不可战胜的例子
is the psychiatrist and philosopher Viktor Frankl
是精神病医生及哲学家维克托·弗兰克尔
who survived three years of imprisonment in several Nazi concentration camps.
在几个纳粹集中营被监禁了三年 但他幸存下来了
In his book Man’s Search for Meaning,
在他的著作《活出生命的意义》中
he describes how Jewish prisoners became helpers of the prison guards,
他描述了犹太囚犯如何成为狱警的帮凶
doing terrible things to their own people
对自己的同胞做出可怕的事情
in exchange for food and better treatment.
以换取食物和金钱 以及更好的待遇
Frankl noticed how easily people succumb to harsh circumstances
弗兰克尔注意到人们很容易屈服于严酷的环境
and do anything to survive,
为了生存不惜一切代价
including betrayal and ill-treatment of others.
包括背叛和虐待他人
But other people refused to let the circumstances influence their values,
但有些人拒绝让环境影响他们的价值观
as they continued acts of kindness and compassion.
他们继续保持自己的善行和同情心
So, the Nazis were able to imprison, torture, starve, and exterminate these people;
纳粹可以监禁 折磨 饿死和消灭这些人
they could not conquer them.
但纳粹无法征服他们
Seneca stated that hardships aren’t the problem,
塞涅卡表示 困难本身不是问题
but our surrendering to them is.
我们向困难投降才是
Therefore, a Stoic sage will not be disturbed by hardships,
因此 一个坚忍的圣人不会被苦难所困扰
which means they can’t touch him.
这意味着 苦难无法奈何他
I quote:
以下为引用:
What element of evil is there in torture and in the other things which we call hardships?
酷刑和其他我们称之为苦难的东西中 究竟有什么邪恶的成分?
It seems to me that there is this evil, – that the mind sags, and bends, and collapses.
在我看来 思想堕落 扭曲 崩溃 就是这种邪恶
But none of these things can happen to the sage;
但这些事情都不会发生在圣人身上
he stands erect under any load.
他在任何重压下都站得笔直
Nothing can subdue him;
没有什么能制服他
nothing that must be endured annoys him.
任何必须忍受的事情都不会使他烦恼
For he does not complain
因为他不会抱怨
that he has been struck by that which can strike any man.
自己被任何人都可能面临的遭遇打击了
He knows his own strength; he knows that he was born to carry burdens.
他了解自己的力量 他知道自己生来就是要背负重担的
捍卫我们的战线
Of course, the ideal of the Stoic sage is challenging and almost impossible to reach.
当然 斯多葛派圣人的理想具有挑战性 几乎不可能实现
As with everything great,
与一切伟大的事物一样
becoming more unconquerable in the Stoic sense takes practice.
斯多葛主义中变得更加不可征服的理论需要实践证明
The ancient Stoics realized this as well
古代的斯多葛学派也意识到了这一点
but encouraged us and themselves to at least try to improve.
但鼓励我们和他们自己至少尝试一下去改进
Also, it’s tough to be purely ‘reasonable’ all the time,
而且 始终保持纯粹的“理性”很难
as our rational faculties don’t seem to have a complete grip on our emotions.
因为我们的理性能力似乎不能完全控制我们的情绪
The ancient Stoics noticed
古代的斯多葛学派注意到
that emotional reactions initially arise before we can intervene,
情绪反应在我们能够干预之前就产生了
so even the sages are startled sometimes.
所以即使是圣人有时也会受到惊吓
Hence they distinguished the passions from the emotions.
因此 他们区分了激情和情感
According to the Stoics, we have control over our passions:
斯多葛学派认为 我们可以控制自己的激情:
distress, fear, lust, and delight.
痛苦 恐惧 欲望和快乐
The Stoic sage ideally remains free from passions.
理想情况下 斯多葛主义的圣人是没有激情的
But most of us aren’t sages
但我们多数都不是圣人
and will most likely experience the passions at least from time to time.
更大的可能是 我们至少偶尔会体验到激情
The good news is that even when our passions strike us, we can still choose.
好消息是 即使激情袭来 我们仍然可以选择
Even if we lay on the ground weeping because of what has overcome us
即使我们因为打败自己的事物而躺在地上哭泣
and thus are to a certain extent ‘conquered,’
从而在一定程度上被“征服”了
we can still decide what we do next.
我们仍然可以决定接下来怎么做
So, we could say there are different defense lines the enemy can cross,
所以 可以说 敌人需要跨越不同防线
from which the final one is our ability to choose,
而最后一道防线是我们选择的能力
if someone crosses that line, he has fully conquered us.
如果有人越过了最后这条线 他便完全的征服了我们
So, if we want to become unconquerable
因此 如果我们想变得不可战胜
we have to defend our battle lines.
我们必须捍卫自己的战线
In this analogy, the line of the passions we can defend with reason and restraint.
在这个类比中 我们可以用理性和克制来捍卫激情这条战线
The video ‘How Not to be Pathetic’ explores this further.
视频《如何不可悲》进一步探讨了这一点
We can defend the line of our choice (or moral choice) with the same weapons,
我们可以用同样的武器捍卫我们的选择防线(或道德选择)
but it’s going to be a bit more challenging when the first battle line is taken.
但是 当第一条战线被占领时 捍卫选择战线将变得更具挑战性
If the enemy conquers our emotional state,
如果敌人征服了我们的情绪状态
they will influence our decision-making.
他们就会影响我们的决策
For example, when there’s a strong desire,
例如 当有强烈的欲望
we’re more likely to base our decision on it.
我们更有可能根据它做出决定
Or when we’re angry, we’re more likely to act out.
或者当我们生气时 我们更有可能表现出来
So, when the enemy stands on our doorstep,
所以 当敌人站在家门口
we need firepower to defend our ability to choose.
我们需要火力来捍卫我们的选择能力
We could say that this firepower is our inner strength:
我们可以说 这种火力是我们的内在力量:
the power to make the right decision
即使是我们被情绪淹没的时候
even when we’re overwhelmed by emotion.
也能做出正确决定的力量
An example of this we see in the movie Lord of the Rings
我们在电影《指环王》中看到的这样的例子是
after Frodo accepts an almost impossible mission:
佛罗多接受了一个几乎是不可能完成的任务:
to bring the One Ring to Mordor and throw it into the fires of Mount Doom.
把至尊魔戒带到魔多 扔进末日山的火焰中
The danger of the One Ring is its ability to create a strong attachment
魔戒的危险在于它能在它自己和其持有者之间
between itself and the carrier.
产生强烈的依附关系
Consequently, the person wearing the ring becomes so obsessed with it
因此 戴指环的人变得对于指环非常痴迷
that he’ll do anything to prevent separation.
为了不和指环分离 他可以做任何事情
Frodo indeed grows attached to his so-called “precious,”
佛罗多确实越来越喜欢他所谓的“宝贝”
just like Gollem, who’s trying to take it from him.
就像想从他那里夺走魔戒的戈勒姆一样
Now, although Frodo did give in
尽管弗罗多最终还是屈服于
to his attachment at the very end,
他对于指环的依附关系
he was able to carry the ring for thousands of miles,
他仍然能克服了无数次的诱惑
overcoming countless moments of temptation.
把戒指带到几千英里外
For example, most other characters would have probably surrendered to the ring much earlier,
而大部分其他人物可能很早就屈服于指环之下了
like Boromir for example.
比如博罗米尔
Again, according to the Stoics, there’s only one thing truly conquerable:
同样 根据斯多葛学派 只有一件事是真正可被征服的:
our ability to choose.
我们选择的能力
Everything else is outside of our control
而其他一切则是我们控制之外的事物
and will fall to the whims of Fortune anyhow.
无论如何都会落入命运的魔掌
We can lose everything, from our wealth to our freedom of movement to our reputations.
我们可以失去一切 从财富到行动自由到名誉
But our ability to form opinions,
但是我们形成 观点
desire, hate, accept, abstain, talk,
欲望 仇恨 接受 弃权 说话
or keep silent, remains ours.
或保持沉默的能力 仍然属于我们自己
As Viktor Frankl stated:
正如维克多·弗兰克尔所说:
“When we are no longer able to change a situation,
“当我们不再有能力改变一种情况时
we are challenged to change ourselves.”
我们面临着改变自己的挑战”
Thank you for watching.
感谢观看

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视频概述

不管外部环境如何 不管我们被如何对待 我们仍然可以 并且必须坚守住选择的能力 从而变得不可征服

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

早早

审核员

审核员MORI

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=teqOInIwoUI

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