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如何成为理性探求者:掌握谈话的艺术 – 译学馆
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如何成为理性探求者:掌握谈话的艺术

Become an intellectual explorer: Master the art of conversation | #10 of Top 10 2019 | Big Think

So think about the last conversation you had where you thought,
回想最近一次交谈 那种你会想
golly, that was such a great conversation.
天哪 一场伟大的谈话
What did it feel like?
它带给人什么感受呢?
Why did it seem like a really great conversation?
它何以让人感觉伟大呢?
And the chances are good that it was a kind of conversation
极可能它是这样一种谈话
that left you feeling smarter
这场谈话让你回味着聪慧的余韵
It was the kind of conversation
它是这样一种谈话
where you felt like you discovered something new
在这场谈话里 你探寻到未知
it left you deeply curious about something else?
深深地种下求索之心
It might have been a conversation
它是这样一种谈话
that challenged you in all the right ways
冲击了你的观念却绝不令你难堪
That’s a truly great conversation.
这才称得上是一场伟大的谈话
It’s one where we
正是在这样的谈话中
we genuinely learn something or we come to a deeper understanding about
我们渴望学习 愈发理解
why someone else holds a particular point of view. Right?
为何他人持有异见 不是吗?
That deeper understanding and that learning
进一步的理解和所学
is what we’re after with great conversations.
就是我们在这场伟大的谈话中所追寻的
And so one of the things I’m interested in is
有一件事我也很好奇
what are the design principles of a great conversation.
一场伟大的谈话 需要遵循什么样的指导原则呢?
What are the essential elements that make a conversation truly a great conversation?
让一场谈话变得伟大的要素是什么呢?
And humility would be one basic design principle
谦逊应是必备的
that we should all start from.
我们都该以谦逊为始
Now with humility,
虽论及谦逊
I don’t just mean deference to expertise, right?
但我所说的不只是那种对专业知识的遵从
that you are so much smarter at that thing
这样的事你已经很理解了
so I’m going to have humility with respect to you on that thing
所以这件事上我得谦逊点 尊重你
because you know more about it than I do.
因为在某件事上你比我更在行
Now maybe that’s true, right?
我保持谦逊才对 不是吗?
But that’s not the kind of humility I’m talking about,
但这种谦逊不是我现在所讲的那种
because that’s a sort of humility that could come to an end, right?
因为此念必有终矣
I could learn as much about that particular topic, and therefore with that kind of thinking
无论何种话题 知识总可追平
I would say I can set aside my humility.
怀有此念 总有一日再不谦逊
The kind of humility I’m talking about is the kind that you can’t set aside.
我所说的谦逊 是那种你绝不会弃置的
Because the world is an incredibly complicated place.
因为世界如此复杂
None of us can ever have the full lock on truth.
无人可以永踞真理
We can only see the world from a particular vantage point.
我们只会从某个立场上 看待世界
And that means that our knowledge is going to be
这意味着我们的知识
going to have special insight because of our vantage point
因立场而独特
but it’s also going to be limited because of our vantage point.
但也因此而有局限
And so that sort of like limited knowledge that we can have about the world
我们对世界有局限的知识
means that we must enter into any conversation
需要我们在和任何人谈话时
with a deep sense of humility
谨守谦逊
because I need you to help me
因为 我需要你的协助
fill in my knowledge gaps. Right?
来填满我知识的空白 不是吗?
And you need me.
同时你也需要我
And that’s the cool thing about conversation, is that
谈话的魅力在于
is that it is mutual in the sense
有一些东西是相互的:
that both of us look at the same world from different vantage points,
双方从各自的立场看着同一个世界
and that means that we each have something to offer the other.
这让我们彼此都能给予
and that’s true whether one person is the expert or not,right?
无论其中一方是专家与否 不是吗?
We have the opportunity to gain in our knowledge
我们有机会增长知识
to learn from anyone.
师从任何人
With this way of thinking about humility, anyone can be your teacher,
怀此谦逊 世人皆可为师
whether it’s your professor, or whether it’s an elementary school student
无论是专业教授 还是小学生
who’s lived on the planet in different circumstances than you lived on the planet.
小学生与你生活在同一星球上不同的圈层
That elementary school student can teach you something
他也可以指导你
that you can only get by talking with them.
但你必须同他们交谈
That’s that deeper level of humility.
这是一种层次更深的谦逊
Some of the other key design elements of a great conversation would be
一场伟大的谈话还有其他关键的指导准则
for example
例如
critical thinking and sympathetic listening.
评判式思维 与 体恤地倾听
There’s a lot that gets said about critical thinking;
提及评判式思维 我们能从中学到很多
it is that ability and eagerness
它是一种能力和意愿
to identify gaps in logic
去发现逻辑上的漏洞
or shortfalls in evidence-based argumentation.
或实证论证中的不足
It is the cornerstone of what it means to have a liberal education,
它是博雅教育的基石
It’s to engage in that kind of critical thinking.
博雅教育就是去评判地思考
No less often discussed and surely less often celebrated
另外 人们常常讨论和赞扬的
is what I call sympathetic listening.
是体恤地倾听 我是这么称呼它的
And I use the word sympathetic
我用了“体恤”这个词
in the way that Adam Smith used the word sympathetic,
是学习亚当·斯密的用词
which is: you know
这个词表达的是
Am I really understanding from that other person’s point of view?
我真的有从别人的角度出发去理解吗?
That commitment
这个词承诺
to understanding the argument from the other person’s perspective.
从别人的角度出发 去理解
Now, what sympathy in this case means
这里的“体恤”
is not that I feel what they feel.
不是说我明白了他们的感受
It’s that I’m willing to set aside, even if it’s just temporarily,
而是我愿意 即使只是暂时
that hunt for the slightest misstep in logic or reasoning.
先不去挑逻辑和推理上的错误
Setting that aside for a moment
先搁置一会儿
so that I can listen really carefully to what my conversation partner is saying
以便可以真正用心倾听谈话人的发言
so I can understand from their perspective
可以从他们的角度去理解
what their intellectual project is
他们动脑筋研究了什么
or why it is that they are looking at the same world I’m looking at
又或者 我与他们看着同一个世界
but coming to a very, very different conclusion.
为何结论却相去甚远
I should assume that that person that I’m having that conversation with is intelligentand, is exercising reason,
我应假定谈话人聪敏机灵 发挥理性
so when I enter into the conversational space with that good faith
所以我怀着这种乐观的信念进行探讨
that they’re exercising reason,
相信理性制约着他们
then what that means is that
这也意味着
I need to set aside for a moment my hunt for the slightest misstep in logic
我必须暂时不去挑逻辑上微小的错误
so that I can really hear
如此 我才能真正听到
why it is that this smart person
为何那个聪敏的人
came to a different conclusion than I came to.
得出了与我大相径庭的结论

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视频概述

我们总记得有一场伟大的谈话,曾带给我们启迪,让我们回味着智慧的余韵,带我们探索到未知,深深地种下求索之心,它冲击了我们的观念却绝不另人难堪。它是怎样发生的呢?我们怎样才能主动发起一场伟大的谈话?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

晨晨

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9732bKTXQNk

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