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银行是什么:钱和信用 – 译学馆
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银行是什么:钱和信用

Banking Explained – Money and Credit

国际银行体制仍是一个谜。
The international banking system is an enigma.
全球有超过30000个不同的银行,
There are more than 30,000 different banks worldwide
他们拥有令人难以置信多的资产。
and they hold unbelievable amounts of assets.
仅十大银行就占了大约25万亿美元。
The top 10 banks alone account for roughly 25 Trillion U.S. Dollars.
今天,银行看起来非常复杂,
Today, banking can seem very complex,
但它最初的想法是想让生活更简单。
but originally, the idea was to make life simpler.
11世纪的意大利是欧洲贸易的中心。
11th century Italy was the center of European trading.
来自各大陆的商人交易他们的货物。
Merchants from all over the continent met to trade their goods.
但是有一个问题:
But there was one problem:
太多种类的货币在流通。
too many currencies in circulation.
在比萨,商人要使用七种不同类型的硬币,
In Pisa, merchants had to deal with seven different types of coins
不得不时常兑换他们的货币。
and had to exchange their money constantly.
这个兑换业务通常发生在室外的长椅上,
This exchange business, which commonly took place outdoors on benches,
就从这我们得到了“银行”这个词。
is where we get the word "bank" from.
从意大利单词“banco”而来。
>From the word “banco,” Italian for bench.
航行的危险,假币和贷款的难度
The dangers of traveling, counterfeit money, and the difficulty of getting a loan
引起了人们的思考。
got people thinking.
是时候创造一个新的商业模式了。
It was time for a new business model.
典当经纪人开始给商人登记信用度,
Pawn brokers started to give credit to businessmen,
而热那亚商人也使用无现金支付。
while Genoese merchants developed cashless payments.
遍布欧洲的银行发放信贷,
Networks of banks spread all over Europe handing out credit,
甚至是给教堂和欧洲国王。
even to the church, or European kings.
那现在怎么样了呢?
What about today?
总而言之,银行在做有风险的管理业务。
In a nutshell, banks are in the risk management business.
这是它工作方式的简化版。
This is a simplified version of the way it works.
人们把钱存在银行并收回少量的利息。
People keep their money in banks and receive a small amount of interest.
银行拿着这些钱,以更高的利率借出去。
The bank takes this money and lends it out at much higher interest rates.
这是个计算的风险,因为一些贷款人会违约。
It’s a calculated risk, because some of the lenders will default on their credit.
这个过程对我们的经济体系是至关重要的,
This process is essential for our economic system
因为它向人们提供了购买东西的资金,像房子,
because it provides resources for people to buy things like houses,
或是拓展业务和发展的工厂。
or for industry to expand their business and grow.
所以银行从资金闲置的储户中获得资金,
So banks take funds that are unused by savers
并将它们变成有用的社会资金。
and turn them into funds society can use to do stuff.
银行收入的其他来源包括
Other sources of income for banks include
储蓄存款,信用卡业务,买卖货币,
accepting saving deposits, the credit card business, buying and selling currencies,
托管业务和现金管理服务。
custodian business, and cash management services.
现在银行的主要问题是
The main problem with banks nowadays is
很多银行已经放弃了它们的传统角色,
that a lot of them have abandoned their traditional role as
长期金融产品提供商,支持短期收益
providers of long term financial products in favour of short term gains
尽管承担更高的风险。
that carry much higher risks.
在金融繁荣期间,大多数银行采取了金融
During the financial boom, most major banks adopted financial
做法,这是几乎不能理解的,
constructs that were barely comprehensible and
它们自己做交易,企图赚快钱,
did their own trading in a bid to make fast money
赚取他们的高管和贸易商的红利。
and earn their executives and traders millions in bonuses.
这无异于赌博,
This was nothing short of gambling
破坏整个经济和社会。
and damaged whole economies and societies.
比如早在2008年,
Like back in 2008,
那时雷曼兄弟等银行几乎给所有
when banks like Lehman Brothers gave credit to basically anyone who
想买房的人贷款,
wanted to buy a house,
从而使银行处于极高风险的位置。
and thereby put the bank in an extremely dangerous risk position.
这导致美国和部分欧洲地区房地产市场的崩溃,
This lead to the collapse of the housing market in the US and parts of Europe,
造成股票价格暴跌,
causing stock prices to plummet,
这最终导致了全球银行业的危机
which eventually lead to a global banking crisis
和史上最大金融危机之一。
and one of the largest financial crises in history.
数千亿美元就这样蒸发了。
Hundreds of billions of dollars just evaporated.
成千上万的人失去了工作和钱。
Millions of people lost their jobs and lots of money.
世界上大部分的银行不得不支付数十亿的美元罚款,
Most of the world’s major banks had to pay billions in fines
银行家成为最不值得信赖的专业人士。
and bankers became some of the least trusted professionals.
美国政府和欧盟不得不一起提供
The US government and the European Union had to put together huge
救助计划去购买不良资产,以防止银行破产。
bailout packages to purchase bad assets and stop the banks from going bankrupt.
管理银行的新规定已经实施。
New regulations were put into force to govern the banking business.
强制银行应急基金已经执行
Compulsory bank emergency funds were enforced
去缓冲冲击,防止另一个金融危机再次发生。
to absorb shocks in the event of another financial crisis.
但是,其他一些严厉的新议案被银行家的游说成功阻止了。
But, other pieces of tough new legislation were successfully blocked by the banking lobby.
现在,其他融资模式取得迅速发展,
Today, other models of providing financing are gaining ground fast,
像新的投资银行,它们收取年费,不收取销售佣金,
like new investment banks, that charge a yearly fee and do not get commissions on sales,
从而达到了他们客户的最佳利益。
thus providing the motivation to act in the best interests of their clients.
或者信用合作社:成立于19世纪的合作协议
Or credit unions: cooprative initiatives that were established in the 19th century
去规避信贷骗子。
to circumvent credit sharks.
简而言之,它们提供与银行一样的金融服务,
In a nutshell, they provide the same financial services as banks,
但重视共享价值,而不是利润最大化。
but focus on shared value, rather than profit maximization.
它们声称的其目标是帮助成员创造机会,像开创小企业,
The self proclaimed goal is to help members create opportunities like starting small businesses,
扩大农场或建造家庭住宅,将投资投回社区。
expanding farms, or building family homes while investing back into communities.
它们都是由董事会中民主选出的成员控制。
They are controlled by their members, who also elect the board of directors democratically.
在世界范围内,信用合作社系统各有不同,
Worldwide, credit union systems vary significantly,
从少数的成员
ranging from a handful of members
到价值数十亿美元的组织,
to organizations worth several billion US Dollars
和到成千上万的成员。
and hundreds of thousands of members.
对其成员利益的关注
The focus on benefits for their members
影响信用合作社将要承担的风险。
impacts the risk credit unions are willing to take.
这解释了为什么信用合作社,尽管也受到挫折,
Which explains why Credit Unions, although also hurting,
但比传统银行更好地在上次金融危机中存活下来。
survived the last financial crisis way better than traditional banks.
不要忘记了近年来涌现的众筹形式
Not to forget the explosion of crowdfunding in recent years.
除了制做了很棒的视频游戏,
Aside from making awesome video games possible,
让人们从大批的小投资者中获得贷款的平台出现,
platforms arose that enabled people to get loans from large groups of small investors,
绕过了作为中间人的银行。
circumventing the bank as a middle man.
但它也同样为工业服务。
But it also works for industry.
许多新的科技公司开始在Kickstarter或Indiegogo上发展。
Lots of new technology companies started out on Kickstarter or Indiegogo.
投资人也很满意,成为更大项目的一部分,
The funding individual gets the satisfaction of being part of a bigger thing,
能投资到他们所信任的想法去。
and can invest in ideas they believe in.
风险被传播得那么广,
Whilst spreading the risk so widely
即使项目失败,损失也是有限的。
that if the project fails, the damage is limited.
最后,小额贷款。
And last but not least: micro credits.
很多非常小的贷款,
Lots of very small loans,
主要发放于发展中国家,以帮助人们摆脱贫困;
mostly handed out in developing countries that help people escape poverty;
是那些以前没有资格获得
people who were previously unable to get access to
却需要创业资金的人们,
the money they needed to start a business
只因他们被认为不值得。
because they weren’t deemed worth the time.
如今,小额贷款已经演变成一个数十亿美元的业务了。
Nowadays, the granting of micro credits has evolved into a multi‐billion dollar business.
所以,银行可能不是你的菜,
So, banking might not be up your street,
但银行为个人和企业提供资金的作用
but the bank’s role of providing funds to people and businesses
对社会非常重要,而且必须发挥这个作用。
is crucial for our society, and has to be done.
在未来,谁来做和怎样做
Who will do it, and how it will be done in the future,
还是由我们来决定的。
is up for us to decide, though.
字幕由Amara社区提供
Subtitles by the Amara.org community

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