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撕开创可贴时为什么会闪光?

Bandaids glow when opening?! - Everyday Mysteries

PBS数码工作室
感谢“好奇心流媒体”赞助
DIANNA: Thanks toCuriosityStream for supporting
PBS数码工作室
PBS Digital Studios.
当你独自在房间里打开了上百个创可贴
You start to question your sanity after you’ve
却一个也没有用上的时候
opened hundreds of Band-Aidwrappers alone in your closet
你会觉得自己脑子坏了
but you haven’t put any of them on yet.
你们好!我是戴安娜
Hey!I’m Dianna.
你正在收看的是“物理女孩”
You’re watching”Physics Girl”.
我之所以打开这么多创可贴
And the reason that I’ve beenopening hundreds of Band-Aid wrappers,
除了想要引领一个新潮流
besides the fact thatI’m trying to start a trend,
还因为当你在黑暗中打开它们时
is because when youopen them in the dark–
我知道 是我也不会想到尝试这个
I know, I wouldn’t have thoughtto try that either– they
它们产生了蓝色的光
produce this blue glow.
我将会向你展示几秒钟的镜头
I’m going to show youthe footage in a second.
事实上 这很难通过镜头看到
Honestly,it’s kind ofhard to see on camera.
所以我建议 去一个小房间试试
So I would suggest just going into a closet and trying it yourself.
让你的眼睛适应一会黑暗
Let your eyes adjust to the dark for a
同时放着视频
bit while you keep this video playing
这样你就能够听到非常有趣的科学解释
so you can hear the very interesting scientific explanation.
我甚至没说这是个甜蜜的观看时间
Not even saying that forthe sweet, sweet watch time.
是的 我说了
Yes I am.OK,
这是在正常速度下创可贴发光的片段
here’s the footageof the Band-Aid glowing at regular speed.
仔细看看这个光
Check out that glow.
撕了这么多年创可贴我竟从没发现这个现象
I never knew in all thoseyears of opening Band-Aids.
你能注意到并不是所有创可贴都这样
And you notice that itdoesn’t work as well for some Band-Aids,
就像有些特定的品牌比其他的效果好
like certain brandswork better than others–
这是“发生了什么”线索之一
clue number one asto what’s going on.
但我也拍摄了快速撕开创口贴的视频
But then I also filmedit in high speed.
所以这是四分之一速度的镜头
So here’s the footage ata quarter of the speed.
不幸的是 因为我的设置视频颗粒增多了
Unfortunately more grainy because I had to turn
我调高了感光度来获取光线
up the ISO to pick up enough light
能在高帧频下记录这个现象
to be able to film it at such a high frame rate.
没错 这毫无疑问是在发光
Yup,it’s definitely glowing.
我最喜欢提的问题——
Why– my favorite question–
为什么这些创可贴可以产生光呢
do these Band-Aids produce that glow?
至于“发生了什么”的线索之二就是
One clue as to what’s going on is
拆开它
that it’s the ripping open.
也就是分开它们的动作
It’s the motion orthe unsticking that
导致了光的产生
causes the light to happen.
接下来是另一个线索
Then here’s another clue.
你最后可能还是会自己进行尝试
You might have eventuallytried this on your own,
但这一现象同样出现在一些其他种类的贴布上
but this also workswith some types of tape.
我尝试了透明胶带 牛皮胶布 封箱胶带
I tried Scotch tape,duct tape, packing tape.
线索之三是它们必须具有粘性
But the clue is that it must be the sticking,
但不是所有胶带都能产生这种现象
but not all types of tape work.
最后一条重要的线索是
And the very lastimportant clue is
如果你尝试在除空气外的气体如氖气中进行实验
that if you try this in a different gas other than air,
那么它发出的光会是不同的颜色
like neon, then the glowis a different color.
什么?
What?
接下来如果你打算尝试通过
And then if you tryit in air but you
抽出空气制造出一个稳定的真空环境
suck out a bunch of the airand produce a moderate vacuum,
那么可能
then sometimes
透明胶带在被拉扯时会产生X射线
scotch tape being pulled can produce X-rays,
这些X光甚至可以显示你的手指骨骼
like enough X-rays to show the bones in your finger.
拜托
Come on.
我超爱实验室中的科学家们
I love that the scientists
他们在实验中竟然能想到用X射线照他们的手指
in that experiment thought to X-ray their finger with their experiment.
科学真是棒呆了
Scientists are great.
现在迎来了困难的部分
Ok,now comes the hard part,
尝试将所有线索以及
Trying to put all the clues together and also
描述此现象的科学论文连在一起
a bunch of scientific articles listed in the description
然后找出究竟发生了什么
and figure out what’s going on.
我对YouTube里声称这个现象依旧无法解释的视频
Listen,I’ve got a little bone to pick other You Tube
有一些小意见
videos that claim that thiseffect is not well understood.
这就像他们找到了自己最感兴趣的部分
It’s like they got to thisline in their favorite source
然后觉得 很好 这就够了
and were like, OK, that’sgood enough for me.
所以我们将去寻找问题的核心
So we’re going to get to the heart of what’s going on.
别担心 如果受伤了 我有创可贴
Don’t worry, if ithurts, I’ve got Band-Aid.
动作对于光的产生是非常重要的
Motion is important forthe light production.
有一个词用来描述两个表面的相对运动
There is a word for an effect where the relative motion
产生光的效果
of two surfaces creates light,
它叫“Tribo luminescence”
and it’s calledtriboluminescence.
我不喜欢使用专业术语
I’m doing the thing that Ihate, just naming jargon,
但这是一个很好听的词
but it is a pretty sweet word.
我查了一下 Tribo来自希腊语 意思是摩擦或摩擦力
Tribo,I learned, comes from theGreek for rubbing or friction
而luminescence 我又查了一下 是指在非由热引起的情况下发出的光
and luminescence,I relearned,is the word for the emission of light in situations not caused by heat.
举个例子 你可能听说过“bioluminescence”
For example, you may haveheard of bioluminescence,
就像最近发生在圣地亚哥的
like the recent glowingwaves in San Diego which
能在细菌中导致生物反应的发光的波
is caused by biologicalreactions in bacteria.
“evanescence”也是一种光
And evanescence is alsothe emission of light.
#从黑暗中拯救我#
#Save me from the dark.#
这就是 这是一个玩笑
That’s– that’s a joke.
有时候你必须科普视频里澄清玩笑
Sometimes you’ve got toclarify on scientific videos.
剧透警告 我们非常有信心这就是
Spoiler alert, we’repretty confident that this
摩擦发光
is triboluminescence.
但是什么导致了摩擦发光呢
But what causestriboluminescence?
现在我想要使之清晰明了
Now I want to make it clear
[清嗓子]我是从维基百科上看到的——
[CLEARS THROAT],, Wikipedia–that there something
这里有关于摩擦力的我们知道或
we do understand abouttriboluminescence and some
我们不知道的事情
things that we don’t.
我们知道摩擦发光
We do know thattriboluminescence
是由于增加了多余的电荷
is caused by the buildup of excess charge
或电荷粒子导致的闪光
or charged particlesthat lead to a spark.
这过程类似于 光的产生或者
It’s kind of like the process that produces lightning or an
你被金属门把手上的静电电了一下
electrostatic spark like when you shock yourself on a metal door knob.
原理大概就是这样的
It goes something like this.
你创造了电荷的分离
You create a separation of charges,
活跃的电荷在这边 消极的电荷在那边
say positive charges over here, negative charges over there.
然后活跃的电荷和消极的电荷之间仿佛是:我想你
And the positive and negativecharges are like, I miss you.
我需要在你身边
I need to be with you.
但电子实际上是不能直接跳过空气
But the electrons typicallycan’t jump through air
去到活跃电荷身边的
to the positive charges
因为空气是典型的分子绝缘体
because air is typically an electrical insulator.
但如果你积累了足够的电荷
But if you buildup enough charge,
并且拉力也特别大时
you get a super strong pull,
就能够到达一个点
and you can reach the point
在这时空气突然从绝缘体变为导体
where air violently turns froman insulator into a conductor.
这就叫“空气的介电击穿”
That point is called thedielectric breakdown of air–
更学术了
more jargon.
当这种情况发生时 电子开始在空气中流动
When that happens and the electrons start to flow through the air,
它们从左右的空气分子中剥离
electrons are stripped off of airmolecules left and right.
或者换句话说 空气分子已经电离
Or,in other words, the airmolecules become ionized,
而后当电子与电离分子碰撞时
and then light is producedin that moment when electrons
光就产生了
jump to the ionized molecules.
这个离子化的部分将会解释为何
This ionization part would explain why
在不同的气体中光会呈现出不同的颜色
the glow is a different color in different gases
因为不同分子或原子的离子化
because ionization ofdifferent molecules or atoms
会产生不同的光谱
produces differentlight spectra.
这就是为什么我们能在氖气中得到不同的光
That’s how we get thecolors in neon lights, which
讽刺且重要的是这些并不都是由氖气组成
ironically and importantlyare not all made of neon.
现在我们不知道的是到底是何种原理
Now,what we don’t knowis the exact mechanism
导致了电荷的分离
for how charges get separated.
当我们摩擦不同的物质时
We think we understand prettywell the triboelectric effect,
我们已经很好地理解了摩擦发光原理
which is that when you rub materials together
就像气球和你的头发摩擦 电荷产生了
like a balloon and your hair, charges build up
因为有些物质比其他的容易留下电子
because some materialshold on to their electrons more than others.
它们有不同的电子亲和力
They have differentelectron affinities, a good term to remember
如果想了解更多 需要记住这个术语
if you want to look up more about this later.
这就是为什么因材料的不同
That’s why the glow didn’t workas well with different bandage
不同品牌的创口贴产生的光也不同
brands and different types of tape because they’re made of different materials.
但摩擦发光还取决于湿度
But triboelectricity alsodepends on the humidity
和你撕开它的方式
and how you rip open the Band-Aid,
还有不同的动作
and it depends on the type of motion,
是单纯的分开还是有类似摩擦的相对运动
whether it’s unsticking or relative motion like friction.
使胶带粘在一起的能量就是范德华作用力
And the energy that holds the tape together is the van der Waals interaction,
这是一种比产生可见光还小一百倍的能量
which is a hundred times smaller than the energy needed to produce a visible light photon.
究竟是如何产生可见光的
So how do we getvisible light, and how
又是如何在真空的情况下产生X射线的
are the X-rays made in thissituation with the vacuum?
关于这些问题的答案也有很多假说
There are hypothesesfor that as well.
我将会与一些说明的起源联系起来
I’ll link to some of thesources in the description.
这依旧将是个探险
It’s still being explored.
并且我知道你们也在等待这个问题
And,I know some of you arewaiting for this question.
你会在粉碎糖果时得到
You can get a similar effect
与创可贴光芒同样的效果
to the Band-Aid glow by smashing candy.
但这其中一定存在着差异
Something differentmust be going on there.
假设在这种情况下电荷的分离
The hypothesis goes thatthe separation of charges
是晶体结构的断裂
in that situation is crystalstructures breaking
而不是材料的摩擦 老兄
rather than rubbing of materials. Dude,
对于在实验室里的科学家和单调屋子里的我们来说
there are still alot of unanswered questions
仍然有很多未得到解决的问题
for scientists in the lab and for us here in our boredom palaces.
这就是我们为何需要学习
That’s where thelearning happens.
你不一定会注意到某些很酷的现象
You don’t necessarilynotice the coolest phenomena
除非你将物体从正常环境中分离出来
unless you take objects outof their normal environment.
从表面上看最简单的现象
And the seeminglymost simple phenomena
通常得不到最简单的解释
don’t always have thesimplest explanation.
这就是今天我想要告诉你们的全部
That is all I have for you today,
但也许我应该花点时间
except maybe I should take a quick moment
来强调一下房间里的7位数的关注
to address the seven-digitelephant in the room.
我不敢相信我竟然有了一百万的关注
I can’t freaking believe wecrossed a million subscribers.
朋友们 当我开始做这个频道时
You guys, when Istarted this channel
我坚持追求比我文凭更高的平台
I stood on my diplomatrying to reach a higher shelf
因为我不知道能用物理学位做什么
because I didn’t know what to do with a physics degree.
这不是我最初认为最终会用物理学位做的事
This is not what I thought I would end up doing with it.
我的意思是 这仍然不是用物理学位最终做到的事
I mean, it still may not be what I end up doing with it,
但这将会成为生命中的一段旅程
but this has been thejourney of a lifetime.
天啊 我是如此如此地开心
My gosh, I’ve had somuch, so, so, so much fun.
你们问我最疯狂的问题
You guys ask me thecraziest questions.
你们发给我最疯狂的评论
You send me thecraziest comments.
我觉得要达到一百万的订阅者需要的
I feel like reaching amillion subscribers needs
不仅仅是我现在想都没想过的措辞
a little bit more than myunthought-through word vomit right now.
但我是如此感激 如此兴奋
But I’m just sothankful, so excited.
谢谢你们陪伴我的四年 五年 六年……谁知道呢
Thank you for four, five,sixish years– who even knows?
我们将要做些事情庆祝一下
We’re going to dosomething to celebrate.
我们会做一些事
We’ll do something.
与此同时 走向世界
But in the meantime,go forth into the world
提出问题 快乐物理
and ask those questions,and happy physicsing.
感谢“好奇心流媒体”赞助的PBS数字工作室
Thanks to CuriosityStream forsupporting PBS Digital Studios.
“好奇心流媒体”是一个订阅流媒体服务
CuriosityStream is asubscription streaming service
提供纪录片和来自很多制片人的非小说类图书
that offers documentaries and nonfiction titles from a variety of filmmakers,
包括“好奇心流媒体”原稿
Including CuriosityStream originals.
你可以搜索“突破性进展”
You can check out”Breakthrough”,
这是包括16个不同的科学突破性进展系列
which is a 16-part seriesabout different breakthroughs
例如基因编辑技术 重力波
in science like CRISPR,gravitational waves,
第一个美国人
the first humans in America.
想要学习更多 欢迎登录curiositystream.com/physicsgirl
To learn more, go tocuriositystream.com/physicsgirl
在注册页面输入优惠码”physicsgirl”
and use the promo code”physicsgirl” during the sign-up process.
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视频概述

创可贴撕下的一瞬间竟然可以产生光?感兴趣的话一起来看视频吧!

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DIILDg2d3Yk

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