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《回到未来》钟楼场景——电影艺术 – 译学馆
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《回到未来》钟楼场景——电影艺术

Back to the Future Clocktower - Art of the Scene

“1.21吉瓦!
“1.21 gigowatts!
汤姆 我该怎样产生这种能量呢?”
Tom, how am I gonna generate that kind of power?”
当然是利用《回到未来》里的高潮
With the climactic scene in Back to the Future of course.
30年前 观众们站起来欢呼
30 years ago, audiences stood up and cheered
庆祝布朗博士和马蒂·麦克弗莱成功掌控了时间 空间还赢得了电影票房
as Doc Brown and Marty McFly gained mastery over time, space and the box office,
并推出了历史上最受欢迎的电影系列之一
launching one of the most beloved film franchises in history.
但是要呈现出导演罗伯特·泽米基斯作品中的神奇魅力
but it took more than just fancy DeLorean driving
光靠炫酷的德罗宁飞车是不够的
to create director Robert Zemeckis movie magic.
所以在本周的《电影艺术》中
So this week on art of the scene,
我们调高音量 听着休伊·刘易斯音乐来剖析电影的钟楼高潮场景
we’re gonna crank up the Huey Lewis and breakdown the clock tower climax.
电影艺术
《回到未来》灵感来源于编剧鲍勃·盖尔
Back to the Future was inspired by screenwriter Bob Gale,
他发现了父亲的旧年鉴
discovering his father’s old yearbook,
想知道他们在高中是否会成为朋友
and wondering if they would have been friends in high school,
他断定 “不 不会的”
he decided:”No, probably not.”
但是很幸运 他和朋友罗伯特·泽米基斯很有默契
But he did thankfully get along with his buddy Robert Zemeckis well enough
两人联合起来 共同创作了剧本
to team up and pin the script.
“要完成《回到未来》这样的剧本创作
“To write a screenplay like Back to the Future,
需要极其繁重艰巨的工作
it was just an immense amount of very hard back-breaking work.
我的意思是写剧本并没有什么真正的乐趣
I mean there was nothing really fun about writing the screenplay,
这真的很难”
it was really hard. “
尽管哥伦比亚最初很喜欢这个剧本
Despite Columbia initially liking the script,
但由于他们觉得剧本不够风流
they put it into turnaround in 1981,
所以 剧本于1981年就被搁置起来了
because it wasn’t considered sexy enough.
那个时代的团队电影都是相当低俗的
Team driven movies of the era were hyper raunchy rumps,
想想《反斗星》或《菜鸟大反攻》就知道了
think Porky’s or Revenge of the Nerds
“**”(少儿不宜)
“Hair pie…”
事实上 在接下来的四年里
In fact, for the next four years,
因为这个原因 所有工作室都不认可马蒂·麦克弗莱的不入流的纯真
every studio in tongue passed on the Ox innocence of Marty McFly for that reason,
迪斯尼公司的想法不同
except for Disney.
迪斯尼不认可是因为他们认为母亲爱上儿子这种反俄狄浦斯情结
Disney past because they didn’t think the reverse oedipal complex
不适合出现在电影中
of a mother falling in love with her son was appropriate.
那么这一切又是怎么改变的
So how did all this change?
金钱
Money.
因为泽米基斯无法使《回到未来》摆脱现状的束缚
Since he couldn’t get back to the future off the ground,
所以他执导了另一部电影
some mecca’s took a different directing assignment
就是迈克尔·道格拉斯主演的那部大获成功的
that became the Michael Douglas action-adventure romancing the stone
动作冒险电影《绿宝石》
which was a hit
泽米基斯乘胜追击
with this wind in the sails,
联合斯皮尔伯格开拍《回到未来》
Zemeckis approached Spielberg to produce Back to the Future,
之前的成就使他们与环球影业的合作顺理成章
and with that juice, they were able to set the movie up at Universal.
有了环球影业这张王牌电影的制作变得易如反掌
once it Universal the movie production was a cakewalk
而且“无论怎样都没问题”
and there were no problems whatsoever.
只有一点他们拍电影时没有请来迈克尔·J·福克斯
only except that they weren’t shooting the movie with Michael J Fox Fox
福克斯是泽米基斯的第一人选
Fox would Zemeckis his first choice,
可是《家族的诞生》不允许福克斯离开剧组去拍电影
but the producer of Family Ties wouldn’t let Fox leave work to shoot the movie,
因为福克斯的搭档梅雷迪斯·巴克斯特在休产假
because Fox’s co-star Meredith Baxter was on maternity leave,
他俩都不在的话 这部剧就没法正常拍摄
and without fox or Baxter, he would be out a bunch of series regulars.
所以泽米基斯邀请第二人选埃里克·斯托尔兹来拍电影
so Zemeckis moved ahead with his second choice Eric Stoltz.
拍了四周后 泽米基斯和盖尔觉得情况不妙
after shooting for four weeks, Zemeckis and Gale had an awful realization.
“他是个很有实力的演员
he’s a magnificent actor,
可是他的幽默感与我和鲍勃的作品要表现的那种感觉截然不同
but his comedy sensibilities were very different than what I had written with Bob.
而且我和他都过不了这一关”
and he and I just never were able to make that work.
斯托尔兹也意识到了这一点
Stoltz recognized this as well,
他对做导演的朋友彼得·博格达诺维奇坦言
admitting to friend and director Peter Bogdanovich
他不清楚泽米基斯的导演意图而且觉得自己选错了角色
that he was unsure of Zemeckis direction and thought he was miscast.
泽米基斯向斯皮尔伯格说明了情况
Zemeckis explained the dilemma to Spielberg
尽管重拍会导致预算增加三百万美元 他们还是一致决定用妥善的方法换掉埃里克
and they all decided to amicably part ways with Eric
而且当时已经可以请福克斯出演了
and now they were able to cast Fox since his family ties co-star was back from leave,
因为他在《家族的诞生》中的搭档休假回来了
even though the reshoots would add three million dollars to the budget.
但是福克斯必须在拍摄《家族的诞生》以外的时间过来拍电影
But Fox would have to do it when family ties didn’t need him,
也就是晚上
which was at night.
白天拍电视剧
Fox had to shoot family ties during the days
然后直接开车从《家族的诞生》的录制地点赶到《回到未来》的拍摄现场
and then would drive straight from taping ties to the Back to the Future set.
从下午6点半一直拍到凌晨3点左右
film from 6:30 to around 3 am,
睡两三个小时之后又起来重新开始工作
sleep for two to three hours and then repeat.
需要白天拍摄的场景就得等到周末才能拍
anything that needed to happen outdoors during daylight needed to be shot on weekends.
不光福克斯很辛苦泽米基斯也付出了很大的代价
in addition to Michael J Fox, it also took its toll on Zemeckis,
他说这样一来就得半睡半醒地拍摄电影
who said the result was him directing the movie half asleep,
身体发胖 身材严重走形而且不舒服以前从来没这样过
and was the fattest, most out of shape and sick I ever was.
影片情节中的非常关键一点就是加速至88英里/每小时
A very quick refresher on the plot just to bring you up to 88 miles an hour.
当时是1985年
the year is 1985,
马蒂·麦克弗莱与性格古怪的布朗博士是忘年交
Marty McFly is friends with kooky scientist Doc Brown
布朗博士发明了一台时光机并将其安装到一辆车上
who’s invented a time machine built into a car.
为了躲开恐怖分子 马蒂跳上时光机
Marty hops on the time machine to escape some terrorists
并被送到了1955年
and is sent back to 1955 in the process
在那里 他遇见了年轻时的父母
where he meets the younger version of his parents,
还打断了他们的相遇使得他似乎没有出生的可能了
and disrupts their meeting making it unlikely he’ll ever be born.
那么马蒂必须努力把他们撮合到一起
now Marty must work to reunite them
以保证自己的存在
in order to ensure his existence
他与博士必须找到一种能产生1.21兆瓦特电力的方法
and he and Doc must figure out a way to harness the 1.21 jigowatts
才能启动时光机 送马蒂回到未来
necessary to power the time machine to send Marty back to the future,
这也将我们带到钟楼场景中
which brings us to the Clocktower scene,
因为 正如我们所知 著名的山谷镇钟楼
because as we all know the famous hill valley tower
正好在晚上10点04分被闪电击中
was struck by lightning at precisely 10:04 p.m.
显然 闪电所蕴藏的能量足够1.21吉瓦
and apparently lightning bolts consists of 1.21 jigowatts worth of power
以上就是大致的电影逻辑
these are both obviously broad bits of movie logic,
我们一会儿会讲到这个主题
a subject we’ll touch on in just a bit.
钟楼场景是在环球工作室的外景场地中的法院大楼广场拍摄的
the clock tower scenes were shot at Courthouse Square on the Universal Studios backlot,
这座钟楼最初是为拍摄1948年的《杀妻记》而建
the clock tower was originally built for the 1948 film an act of murder,
也在《杀死一只知更鸟》《欢乐音乐妙无穷》
but had also been prominently featured in To Kill a Mockingbird,
乃至《小魔怪》中都成为著名景观
The Music Man and even gremlins.
法院大楼广场的其他部分用于拍摄山谷镇的闹市区
the rest of Courthouse Square was used for the downtown Hill Valley scenes,
1955年和1985年的场景
both the one set in 1955 and the ones in 1985.
对制片设计师劳伦斯·保罗来说
These two time periods were one of the greatest challenges
这两个时间段是最大的挑战之一
that face production designer Lawrence Paul,
他的作品有《银翼杀手》和《洛杉矶大逃亡》
of Blade Runner and escape from LA Fame.
当时是1985年人们没意识到50年代有什么时代特征
in 1985 people didn’t think of the 50s as a period yet,
很难找到合适的道具
making it difficult to find the right props.
编剧鲍勃·盖尔这样描述拍摄过程:
writer Bob Gale described the process thusly:
“我们决定先拍50年代的场景
“we decided to shoot all the 50 stuff first,
把场地做得看上去真的又美观又漂亮
and make the town look real beautiful and wonderful,
拍完后就大搞破坏
then we would just totally trash it down
把场地弄得破烂不堪再去拍80年代的场景”
make it all bleak and ugly for the 1980 scenes.”
令人唏嘘的是 现实中这片场地在2008年6月就惨遭破坏
sadly in real life had got totally trashed and Bleakley ugly on June 1st 2008
一场3A级火灾之后 周围的一切都化为灰烬
when a three alarm fire burned the surrounding set to the ground,
好在钟楼幸免于难
thankfully the clock tower was spared.
“救救钟楼……”
“Save the clock tower ……”
《回到未来》的高潮情节最了不起的地方或许在于
perhaps the most remarkable part about the Back to the Future climax
该电影几乎没有运用视觉特效
is how few visual effects were utilized
1977年拍摄的第一部《星球大战》中
the original Star Wars in 1977 had 360 visual effect shots,
有360个视觉特效镜头
by comparison for 1985’s Back to the Future,
而1985年拍《回到未来》时指派给工业光魔公司的特效镜头只有32个
Industrial Light and Magic were tasked with creating only 32
还没有利用前所未见的视觉特效
without relying on never-before-seen visuals,
电影所呈现的惊心动魄源于两个因素
the heart-pounding excitement was the result of two sources:
简单实用的特效
simple practical special effects
和泽米基斯高超的导演技术
and Zemeckis’s expert directing.
“开始!”
“Action!”
实用的特效包括闪电 火和布朗博士在顶台边缘的悬空这些部分
the practical effects consisted of lightning, fire and Doc Brown dangling off an edge.
闪电不是用CGI做出来的
the Lightning wasn’t CGI,
因为当时的电脑技术
because the computational abilities of the time
并不能达到视觉图像艺术家说的verisimilitude
weren’t capable of what visual graphics artists called verisimilitude,
这是个很高大上的词 说白了就是逼真
which is a fancy word for the appearance of being real.
所以 雷击和电流是用手绘影像描摹的方式添加的
so the lightning strike and power surge was added via hand-animated rotoscoping.
通常在进行此操作时动画师要在透明醋酸纤维纸上画一条黑线
traditionally this is done with an animator drawing a black line on clear acetate,
再将其覆盖在每一帧的放大照片上
then placing that over a photo enlargement of each frame.
然后将醋酸纸和底片组合起来拍摄
the acetates are then photographed composited,
再反转为负片 将深黑色变为炫目的白色
then flipped negative to turn the dark black into blinding white
然后再上色
and then colored.
标志性的火线为我们这部影片留下了非同一般的火景
the iconic flame trails left our film fire 101,
因为特效团队会将可燃气体和液体焦酚的混合物点燃
as the special effects team would light a mixture of gas and pyro fluid.
不幸的是 火焰常常在拍摄之前早就熄灭了
unfortunately the fires would often go out before they needed to start shooting.
特效师凯文·派克在用冷气制造飘散效果
special effects man, Kevin pike, encountered a similar problem with the cold steam,
来送走时光机时遇到了类似的问题
meant to waft off the time machine.
员工们对着德罗宁汽车喷液氮来制造烟雾
they would spray the DeLorean down with liquid nitrogen,
可液氮总是在开拍之前就挥发得干干净净
but it would frequently evaporate before it was time to shoot.
这就是为什么在拍摄前期的某些镜头中汽车结了霜
this is why the car is icy and some shots from the beginning of filming,
而后期镜头中的汽车却几乎没有霜的原因
and hardly at all at the end.
为了充分利用福克斯难得的拍摄时间他们基本上就不在特效方面浪费精力了
they essentially gave up on the effect to save precious Michael J Fox shooting time.
最后说说 布朗博士在法院大楼顶台悬空的惊险特技
lastly Doc Brown’s precarious courthouse ledge stunt work
是由鲍勃·耶基斯来完成的他发明了特技气囊
was done by the inventor of the stunt airbag Bob Jurgis,
还是马戏团的杂技演员
who was also a circus aerialist.
“……离开并在15岁时去了马戏团
“……and ran away and joined the circus when I was 15,
回来后获得了冠军并开始表演新型特技”
and then I come back in a winner and new stunt”
泽米基斯痴迷于讽刺滑稽的《最后安全》这是哈罗德罗伊德于1923年拍的无声电影
film nerd Zemeckis used the scene to pay homage
他模仿利用了其中的一个场景来表示对这部电影的敬意
to the iconic and hilarious 1923 Harold Lloyd silent comedy, Safety Last.
这不是有意忽略工业光魔和特效团队的功劳
not to understate the production contributions of ILM or the stunt team,
可是这部分高潮情节做得如此精彩
but it’s Zemeckis who deserves the lion’s share of the credit
泽米基斯足以称得上是最大的功臣
for making this climax so memorable.
因为他颇具匠心地确定了前面所提及的大致的电影逻辑
as he expertly established the aforementioned broad movie logic.
那么我们深入了解一下他怎样建立起这样一个场景的
so let’s push in and see how he sets up the scene
一个11分钟长的片段
which is really more of an 11 minute sequence.
首先用长镜头对钟楼进行特写
it opens with a long shot on the clock tower,
分针在走 为场景建立起一种动态的感觉
the minute hand moving forward, sets the scene in motion.
做为观众 我们知道闪电来临的时间
we, the audience, know the time the lightning will strike
而且屏幕上嘀嗒作响的时钟
and there is now literally a ticking clock on screen,
在对马蒂回到未来的时间进行着倒计时
counting down the amount of time Marty has left to get back
布朗博士进入画面 不断查看他的那几块表
Doc Brown steps into frame and proceeds to check multiple watches
然后朝着摄像机
watches before turning toward camera,
瞪大眼睛 “burning the lense”
going bug-eyed and burning the lens,
这句行话的意思是直接盯着镜头看
which his industry speak for looking directly at the camera.
这与其他电影是不同的 比如费瑞斯·巴勒
unlike, say, Ferris Bueller,
尽管是对观众说话 博士依旧未能冲破角色束缚
doc doesn’t break the fourth wall completely by speaking to the audience,
但是泽米基斯已经明确地奠定了高潮部分的主调
but Zemeckis has clearly established the tone for the climax,
就是极度夸张的倒霉荒诞 这些情况不一定符合现实生活的逻辑
over-the-top ridiculousness, in which real world logic doesn’t fully apply
而我们也是不愿让这些事情发生的
and we wouldn’t want it to.
“嗨 快点 我得换衣服
你觉得我能穿这身跳爵士舞的衣服回去吗?”
实际上 整个场景中
in fact, throughout the scene,
每当在泽米基斯需要制造麻烦或引发意想不到的严重事故时
anytime Zemeckis needs to have a beat hit or kicked a momentum in the pants
他就会在布朗博士做出疯子般的反应时抓拍定焦镜头
he’ll push for a tight shot on Doc Brown reacting like a madman,
无论是看到照片
whether it’s to the photo,
还是看到兽像
or a gargoyle,
亦或是看到断开的电缆时 都有这样的反应
or the cord coming unplugged
这种反应再加上狂风 持续不断的动作跳接
this plus the gusting wind, the constant cutting on action
还有马蒂和博士发疯似的来回折腾
and Marty and Doc maniacally running back and forth
使一个原本很死板的说明性场景变得生动活跃起来
live-ins up what would have been a very dull expositional scene,
同时也解释了时空旅行的逻辑操作性细节
explaining the logistical details of time-travel,
这些细节是布朗博士在影片前面的情节中讲过的
details that doc has already covered earlier in the movie.
当然 如果一切都顺利进行的话也就不会有高潮了
of course if everything was right, there would be no climax,
所以会有树枝掉落 砸断电缆的情节
hence the tree branch falling and knocking the cord free.
这就引发了一连串意外情况能出的岔子都出现了
this sets in motion a series of events where everything that can go wrong does.
博士脚下的顶台边缘碎裂
the ledge crumbles beneath Doc’s feet,
德罗宁汽车的引擎罢工
the DeLoreans engine cuts out,
博士刚把电缆的一端接好 另一端又开了
doc plugs the loose end of the court in only to have it come undone at the other end.
这部分的重点侧重于纯粹的科幻情节
the goal here is pure science fiction fantasy
但是所有这些意外情况都是普通人很容易遇到的
but all the obstacles are easily relatable to a normal human.
“拜托 拜托 发动!”
Please, please, come on!
这一系列雪崩般出现的意外事故
this avalanche of unfortunate events
本会让观众露出怀疑的眼神
would elicit I roles of the aw come on really variety
但泽米基斯已经巧妙地为影片奠定了这种滑稽搞笑的主导性基调
except that Zemeckis has already expertly established the broad jocular tone of the movie
到现在 对观众来说
by now it makes sense to the audience
熄火的汽车只有在你沮丧地用头撞方向盘才能重新启动
that a stopped car could only be restarted
这种事情是有道理的
with the frustrated bump of a forehead against a steering wheel.
这不是由于电流或自动机械系统的不稳定而产生的故障
it’s not because of electricity or due to wonky auto mechanics,
确切地说 这是因为只有最搞笑最令人满足 意想不到的举动才能奏效
it’s because of course only the funniest most satisfying storytelling choice would work this
这就是《回到未来》整部电影中几十处
this is why Back to The Future’s dozens,
(如果没有上百的话)不合逻辑以及与时代冲突的穿帮会被忽视的原因
if not hundreds, of logical and anachronistic errors throughout the film go overlooked,
至少你第一次观看时会忽视的
at least the first time you view it.
即使有魔术粘扣的鞋子直到1980年才开始流行
nobody cares that doc is wearing velcro shoes when he’s hanging from the clock tower,
没有人在意博士吊挂在钟楼时穿的就是这种鞋子
even though velcro shoes didn’t get popular until the 1980s.
重要的是 喜剧性和动作性的双重魅力
what matters is that both comedic and action momentum
一直吸引着观众紧紧跟着情节
is maintained to keep the audience racing forward
并把注意力集中在与故事有关的细节上
and focused on the details that matter to the story.
而不是那些被大脑的逻辑性思维无视的瑕疵
not the nitpicky ones that the logical side of your brain would spurn.
这就是为什么我们回头再看时
which is why in retrospect
会觉得泽米基斯当初所做的开掉斯托尔兹
it was so critical for Zemeckis to make the decision to cut Stoltz free
大胆追加三百万美元并邀请福克斯重拍的决定显得如此关键的原因
and bravely ask for an extra three million dollars to reshoot with Fox.
作为一名导演 他知道
as a director he knew that
如果没有选用合适的演员来诠释他的喜剧并建立起主调
if he didn’t have the right actor to land his jokes and and established the tone,
他绝不可能带着观众加入这场时光之旅
he’d never get the audience to come along for the ride
从过去一路回到未来
from the past all the way back to the future.
要注意的是 真正优秀的导演技术并不只是单纯的拼接镜头
it’s a reminder that truly top-notch directing is more than just assembling your shots
它是关于建立主调 最初的人物塑造
it’s about establishing tone and characterization from the very GetGo
并将其贯穿于高潮情节的技巧
and maintaining it through your climax.
几乎没有哪部电影能像《回到未来》这样细致地布局出丝丝入扣的故事节拍
few movies more meticulously planned payoff story beats better than back to the future,
而泽米基斯做的最重要的妥协
but the most important ceding Zemeckis did
就是及时回到未来 和马蒂·麦克弗莱重新开始 这是他一直想要的结果
was going back in time to start over with the Marty McFly he always wanted.
所以 我们将来仍然会喜欢这部电影
so we would still love this movie in the future.
嗨 朋友们 感谢观看解析电影《回到未来》的《电影艺术》节目
hey guys, thanks for watching art of the scene on Back to the Future.
这部电影是《电影小站》的最爱
this is one of the cinefix family’s favorite movies,
如果你觉得哪个场景比较精彩
if you have a scene that you think is iconic
想看我们对其进行的更细致的剖析
that you’d love to see us break down in more detail,
那就在下方的评论中告诉我们
let us know in the comments below
另外 若你还没有点击“喜欢”或“订阅”的话就点一点吧
otherwise click like click subscribe if you haven’t already,
还有 下一次要回到《电影小站》继续观看更多与电影有关的精彩内容哦!
and come back next time for more awesome movie content right here on Cinefix.

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译制信息
视频概述

30多年前,布朗博士和马蒂·麦克弗莱成功掌控了时间和空间,也让我们觉得好像时间真的可以倒流。那么这部电影真正吸引人的到底是什么?我们来剖析一下至关重要的钟楼场景。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

没有如果

审核员

审核员 YF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ncvSHJw38uQ

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