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第11周:圣诞前就回?快速结束的幻想

Back For Christmas? - The Illusion Of A Short War I THE GREAT WAR - Week 11

速攻战转变为了持久的
The war of rapid victories was over and the continuous war in the filthy trenches had begun
终结了战争之初交战国的
ending the rush of optimism with which the warring nations had begun the war and
接踵而至的幻灭情绪将彻底压垮数百万
bringing in a heavy mood of disillusionment that would crush the spirits of the millions
正在死亡线上奋战的士兵们的精神
of men fighting and dying.
我是印地·奈德尔 欢迎收看《第一次世界大战》
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
上周 德军围攻比利时军的最后一道防线——安特卫普
Last week we saw the Germans laying siege to Antwerp, the last bastion of Belgian resistance,
东线的俄军包围了驻扎在普热梅斯的奥军
while in the East the Russians were laying siege to the Austrians at Przemysl
目前奥军已处于俄军的包围圈之内 同时还有另一只俄军…
the Austrian army now behind Russian lines. Another Russian army was on an endless march through Poland,
不过在法国的埃纳河战事未变 双方都深陷泥潭 随着战斗永无止尽地进行
but at the Aisne, in France, both sides were stuck in the mud, losing thousands of men every day
每日都有上千人阵亡 把目光转向非洲 德军正在牵制南非部队
as the endless battle continued. And in Africa, the Germans were tying down the South African troops
以防他们加入欧洲战场
preventing them from joining the fight in Europe.
西线战场 威廉二世亲自慰问驻扎在乔尼的德军
On the Western front, Kaiser Wilhelm himself had visited his German troops at Chauny
并告诉他们圣诞节前一定可以回家 巴黎方面 经过几周前的马恩河一役
telling them that they would indeed be home by Christmas, and in Paris, after the battle of the Marne
看好法国取胜似乎合情合理
a few weeks ago, there had been matching hopes for a French victory.
不过 法军内部可不这么认为 总司令约瑟夫·霞飞
However, in the French army, Commander in Chief Joseph Joffre abandoned his hopes of
已不抱击败德军取得大胜的希望 他现在最乐观的想法是
outflanking the Germans and winning a spectacular victory. He saw that his best hope now was
守住防线 阻止德军完成包围圈
just holding the line, preventing the Germans from achieving their own encircling maneuvers,
而本周 王储鲁普雷希特带领下的德军来势更为凶猛
but the Germans under Prince Rupprecht were coming on strong this week.
鲁普雷希特是最后一任巴伐利亚王储 尽管
Rupprecht was the crown prince of Bavaria, the last one actually, and though he got his
他因自身头衔而获任德国第六集团军总司令 但事实证明
appointment as commander of the German 6th army because of his title, he proved to be
他是整支德军中最出色的总司令之一 整个一战期间
one of the best commanders in the entire German army, remaining on the Western Front for the
他都留在西线战场 并最终荣膺陆军元帅
entire war and eventually reaching the rank of Field Marshall.
10月4日 鲁普雷希特差一点就在里尔和阿拉斯包围法军
He nearly managed to surround the French at Lille and Arras on October 4th.
当时费迪南·福煦将军统领法军与之抗衡 福煦的主要贡献在于
General Ferdinand Foch was in charge of dealing with this threat.
福煦的主要贡献在于
Foch’s main contribution turned out to be
士气的提升 他的铁血意志和坚决抵抗
one of morale- his iron determination and his absolute insistence that there be no retreat,
士兵要么顽抗 要么战死 最终 他们成功打退了德军对阿拉斯发起的一次猛攻
soldiers must hold or die. Which they did, and a major German push on Arras was knocked back.
到了6号晚上 法军防线
By the evening of the 6th, the French line was stable.
之后 德军便转移注意力 集中火力围剿比利时的安特卫普
The Germans then turned their full attention to the siege of Antwerp, Belgium, where they
自9月26日起 德军就在轰炸
had been shelling the surrounding forts since September 26th.
10月4号及5号 有8000千英国士兵被派往安特卫普 听上去声势浩大
Now, 8,000 British troops were sent to Antwerp on October 4th and 5th, which sounds great,
可多数士兵都是新兵蛋子 甚至从未上过战场 连枪都没有开过
but many of these troops were raw recruits and had never even held, let alone fired, a rifle.
不过这只是缓兵之计 还有22000人后续部队正在赶来
These men were merely a stopgap measure though, for a further 22,000 British troops, a full
这些人才是正规军 一旦他们到达战场 就会有30000名英军
professional division, was now on its way. Once they got there, the Belgians, with 30,000
援助比利时军
British troops to defend them
比军突然看到了胜利的曙光 他们认为德军会被步步击退
thought victory had suddenly arrived, and the Germans were slowly pushed back.
但这仅是幻想而已 因为法国政府突然
This was only an illusion though, for the French government suddenly
撤销了派遣军队的决定 缺少了法军的援助
decided not to send any French troops, as they had promised, and this lack of support
英军也开始撤军 或许这算不上什么坏事
caused the British to hold back. This was probably a good thing, as the British and
因为缺少了法军 英比两军在安特卫普击败德军只存在理论上的可能 撤军至少能减少损失
Belgians had no realistic hope of defeating the Germans at Antwerp without French help.
10月7日 不仅是堡垒 安特卫普也开始遭到德军轰炸
On October 7th, the German army began pounding the city of Antwerp itself, not just the surrounding
用的是17英寸的榴弹炮 比利时军
forts, with 17-inch howitzers. The defenders, quite literally, had no means of counter attack-
他们的枪射程不够
their guns just couldn’t reach
他们的枪射程不够 而缺少法军帮助的英军又裹足不前
and the British would not move forward without the missing French support.
10月8日 英军开始撤退
On October 8th, the British, began to evacuate,
10月10日 疲惫不堪 伤痕累累的比军束手无策
and on October 10th, the tired and battered Belgians could take no more, and King Albert,
名义上指挥比军的阿伯特国王被迫出逃安特卫普
who personally commanded the Belgian army, was forced to flee the city.
安特卫普的长时间沦陷 破灭了英比两军杀出重围
The long siege of Antwerp had dashed British and Belgian hopes of breaking out and claiming victory.
取得胜利的希望 幻灭的英比两军只能下决心尽力拖住德军
Disillusioned, they now only resolved to hold back the Germans long enough to move
以便驻扎在巴黎东北方的部队移至英吉利海港 并阻止德军
troops from their posts north east of Paris to the Channel ports and prevent the Germans
向大海进发 好在 他们做到了
from reaching the sea, which they did.
波兰东面 随着更加精良的德军面对无尽的俄军
In the east in Poland, disillusionment was spreading as well on both sides, as the technically
幻灭情绪同时在敌我双方蔓延 现在
superior German forces faced the enormous mass of the Russian army, now on the move
似乎移动都需要不灭的斗志才行
in a seemingly endless spirit-crushing march to positions along the Vistula River.
1914年10月9日 德军从一位俄国军官手中截获了
On this day, October 9th 1914, the German army captured the Russian order of battle
俄军作战命令 德军这才知道他们的18个师
from a Russian officer and they realized that they had 18 divisions against what was now
正与波兰的两支俄军 共60师作战 就算他们的武器更先进
60 Russian divisions in two armies in Poland, and even superior arms were not going to give
也无法为德军带来一场决定性胜利 所以现在德军的新一轮作战计划仅仅是
Germany a decisive victory, so the new German battle plan for the moment was just to follow
咬住俄军纵队 是的 就是这样 面对超出自身人数三倍的强劲对手
up the Russian columns. Really. That was it. Nobody wants to attack somebody that’s more
没有谁会选择主动进攻 这种情况下 你真的得伺机而动
than three times as strong as them. You really have to pick your battles.
And picking his battles is just what German General Von Hindenburg did, winning a series
And picking his battles is just what German General Von Hindenburg did, winning a series
他小心谨慎 伺机而为 取得了一连串的小胜 并在波兰境内
of carefully chosen small victories during these weeks, harassing the Russians throughout
不断骚扰俄军 尤其重要的一点是使得俄军无暇顾及
Poland, and very importantly keeping the Russian army too busy to help out with what was going
加利西亚以南的战事 那里的俄军依然在围攻
on further south in Galicia, where the Russians were still laying siege
身于普热梅斯要塞的奥军
to the Austrian army at the fortress of Przemysl.
两周前围攻开始时 由于要塞四周泥泞不堪 俄军
When the siege had begun two weeks ago, the Russians had been unable to bring in their
无法运来重型火炮 但他们还是展开了全面进攻
heavy artillery because of the mud surrounding the fortress, but they had made a full-scale
寄希望于在奥军增援部队到来之前击败他们 但俄军的算盘落空
assault anyway, hoping to win before the Austrians could bring in reinforcements. It was futile
其结果仅是造成40000俄军伤亡
and merely resulted in 40,000 Russian casualties.
现在 无论奥军 德军 还是俄军所战斗的土地
Now, the lands that these armies, whether Austrian, German, or Russian were now fighting
大多都居住着这些帝国中的少数民族 他们通常
in were mostly inhabited by minority peoples of the empires who were often unsatisfied
对自己国家的现状心存不满 纵观余下的战争
with their status within their country. What we see throughout the rest of the war is warring
交战国纷纷许诺 并暗示那
nations making promises and hints to disaffected or dependent peoples to try to win
以便获取他们的支持 从而赢得优势
them over in order to gain an advantage.
波兰于18世纪初被俄军吞并为省
The Russian provinces of Poland, which had been annexed in the 1700s, were being overrun
登堡和鲁登道夫率领的德军所占领 不少该地区的波兰人
by the German army under Hindenburg and Ludendorff,and many Poles in that region were beginning to
开始询问 “德国会给波兰自治权吗?” 波兰士兵
ask the question, “Would the Germans grant Poland autonomy?” Polish soldiers were also
也同奥军一起作战 希望奥匈帝国的胜利会重新
fighting alongside the Austrians, hoping that an Austro-Hungarian victory would re-establish
使波兰独立 奥匈帝国推崇这一信念 8月底 在约瑟夫·毕苏斯基的组织下
an independent Poland. The Empire encouraged this belief and the Polish Legion, which became
波兰军团成立 并独立于帝国军队
an independent part of the Imperial army, was formed by Joseph Pilsudski in late August.
毕苏斯基随后成为元帅 战后 波兰独立
Pilsudski, later Marshall Pilsudski, would go on after the war to be the leader of an
他将成为领导人 执政期是20世纪20至30年代
independent Poland in the 20s and 30s.
1914年少数族群的生存状态
Being a minority in 1914, much like today
和今天许多地方无异 他们多是被憎恨的对象
in many places, most often involved a history of being hated and violently repressed for
因自己的身份而遭到暴力压迫 被连年侵略 或因信仰而遭到谋杀
who you were, being invaded repeatedly over the years or being murdered for your beliefs,
至多只在名义上拥有生命权和土地权
and at best only having a token say in the control of your lives and lands, but with
但秋天的战争将会带来改变 随着各个帝国陷入看似无休无止的战争中
the autumn war came a change, as the reality of a seemingly endless war sank in among the
少数族群有了抓住有利条件的机会
powers, a reality that led them to grasp for any advantage and to search for new allies
在不太可能的地方找寻新盟友
in perhaps unlikely places.
独立的承诺 甚至仅是以忠诚换来公民身份
The promise of independence or even just citizenship in exchange for your allegiance is a powerful
是非常有力的 即使今天也是如此 1914年 许多少数族群
one, and one that is still relevant today. Many of the minority peoples asked to fight
请求加入战争 他们之前甚至毫无独立的可能 如今在独立的承诺下
in 1914 had never before even had a glimmer of hope of independence, and so they fought,
为了更好明天 他们加入了战斗 不幸的是
based on the promises of a brighter future for their people. Unfortunately, most of those
多数承诺都是空洞的幌子 数以百万计的人们将因谎言而死
promises turned out to be empty, hollow words and millions more men would die for lies.
所以现在 俄国人极力反对所有俄国境内的波兰人
So the Russians now encouraged all those Poles in the Russian domains not crawling with Germans
与德军 奥军为伍 对抗俄军 也可能是为了
and Austrians to fight with the Russians, also supposedly to further their nationalistic
现在波兰人正自相残杀 近200万波兰人
ambitions. Poles were now fighting against Poles. Nearly two million Poles fought in
各自加入不同的阵营 约450000人正在死去 他们大多都是为了争取独立
the war on both sides, with some 450,000 of them dying, mostly fighting to gain their independence.
英军甚至以未来阿拉伯的控制权为筹码
Britain was even trying to enlist the Sheik of Mecca with the promise of future Arab control
给予他奥斯曼帝国的大块控制权 不过鼓励少数族群参战的方式多种多样
of chunks of the Ottoman Empire, but you also see minorities encouraged in various other
比如 俄国为了联合境内的犹太人 征召他们入伍
ways- Jews in Russia, for example, were now allowed to rise to the ranks of officers in
给了他们晋升军队官员的机会 但犹太人依然
the army, to encourage them to join up and fight, although they still did not receive
不能成为俄国公民 需要正视的一点是 他们经常被当作俄军战败的替罪羊
full citizenship and, let’s face it, were often murdered by Russian townspeople who
而遭到俄国人的谋杀
needed a scapegoat for Russian military failures.
好 尤其是几周前 在坦嫩贝格
And there certainly had been their share of them, especially the colossal ones at Tannenberg
和马祖里河遭遇的大败 事实上 主要交战国中有四个
and Masurian Lakes weeks ago. Actually, four of the five major warring nations had now
都是有输有赢 而作为第五大交战国的奥匈帝国
seen their share of both victory and defeat, but the fifth, the Empire of Austria-Hungary
却只有蹩脚的军事失败
had seen nothing but military failures riddled with incompetence.
本周末
And there the Austrians were at the end of the week, still under siege in Przemysl
处于俄军的包围圈之中 北边的俄军仍旧
with the Russians pressing them. The northern Russian armies were still on their
朝着维斯瓦河阵地持续行军 至于波兰的德军
endless march to their positions along the Vistula, Poland, and as for the Germans after clever
在灵活地调遣部队之后 本周末 登堡距克拉科夫仅有19公里之遥
maneuvering, at the end of the week Hindenburg was only 19 kilometers from Krakow.
西面 最后一个比利时重镇沦陷 比利时野战军剩余的80000人
In the west, the last major Belgian town had fallen and the 80,000 men remaining in the
也已经撤退 不过围攻给英军 法军留出了
Belgian field army had retreated, but the siege had given British and French troops
转移阵地的时间 而德军意图包抄他们的最后一点可能性
time to move their positions and the final possibility for the Germans to outflank them
也消失了
was disappearing.
战争朝着持久 血腥的方向发展 现在所有人都心知肚明
The war was going to be long and bloody, and all sides now knew it.
四面不会有包围圈
There would be no encirclement in the west
俄军不会在东面取得大胜
no Russian colossus triumphant in the east
帝国不会在西南方向享受荣光
no glory for the empire in the southeast.
他们将面临的是 泥土中的阵地战持续不断
There would only be continuous battles in the muddy trenches with thousands
每天都有上千新兵阵亡 严寒天气下 永无止尽的行军
of new recruits dying each day, or endless freezing marches with soldiers dying by the
士兵们葬身于路旁的泥土中 雪中 这就是现代战争
roadside in the mud and snow. This was modern war.
本期节目到此结束 我们下周见
We’ll see you next week.
如果你
If you’re just joining us, here’s a good episode to watch next- when the German army
德军刚到达巴黎 奥军与俄军艰苦作战的情形 同时
had just reached Paris and the Austrians were in dire straits against the Russians.
请订阅我们的频道 随时获取新内容
One of the major turning points of the war. And click subscribe to get each new episode.
也可以向你的亲朋好友 街坊四邻安利我们的节目
Tell all your friends about us. And your neighbors.

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视频概述

人们总算见识到了现代战争的残酷,艰苦的作战环境,持续不断的战斗,无数的伤亡...而这,仅仅是四年战事的开端。

听录译者

叶孝安

翻译译者

叶孝安

审核员

瞌睡虫儿

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=errSHPhxl2Q

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