The war of rapid victories was over and the continuous war in the filthy trenches had begun
ending the rush of optimism with which the warring nations had begun the war and
bringing in a heavy mood of disillusionment that would crush the spirits of the millions
of men fighting and dying.
I’m Indy Neidell; welcome to the Great War.
Last week we saw the Germans laying siege to Antwerp, the last bastion of Belgian resistance,
while in the East the Russians were laying siege to the Austrians at Przemysl
the Austrian army now behind Russian lines. Another Russian army was on an endless march through Poland,
不过在法国的埃纳河战事未变 双方都深陷泥潭 随着战斗永无止尽地进行
but at the Aisne, in France, both sides were stuck in the mud, losing thousands of men every day
每日都有上千人阵亡 把目光转向非洲 德军正在牵制南非部队
as the endless battle continued. And in Africa, the Germans were tying down the South African troops
preventing them from joining the fight in Europe.
On the Western front, Kaiser Wilhelm himself had visited his German troops at Chauny
并告诉他们圣诞节前一定可以回家 巴黎方面 经过几周前的马恩河一役
telling them that they would indeed be home by Christmas, and in Paris, after the battle of the Marne
a few weeks ago, there had been matching hopes for a French victory.
不过 法军内部可不这么认为 总司令约瑟夫·霞飞
However, in the French army, Commander in Chief Joseph Joffre abandoned his hopes of
outflanking the Germans and winning a spectacular victory. He saw that his best hope now was
just holding the line, preventing the Germans from achieving their own encircling maneuvers,
but the Germans under Prince Rupprecht were coming on strong this week.
Rupprecht was the crown prince of Bavaria, the last one actually, and though he got his
appointment as commander of the German 6th army because of his title, he proved to be
one of the best commanders in the entire German army, remaining on the Western Front for the
entire war and eventually reaching the rank of Field Marshall.
He nearly managed to surround the French at Lille and Arras on October 4th.
General Ferdinand Foch was in charge of dealing with this threat.
Foch’s main contribution turned out to be
one of morale- his iron determination and his absolute insistence that there be no retreat,
士兵要么顽抗 要么战死 最终 他们成功打退了德军对阿拉斯发起的一次猛攻
soldiers must hold or die. Which they did, and a major German push on Arras was knocked back.
By the evening of the 6th, the French line was stable.
之后 德军便转移注意力 集中火力围剿比利时的安特卫普
The Germans then turned their full attention to the siege of Antwerp, Belgium, where they
had been shelling the surrounding forts since September 26th.
10月4号及5号 有8000千英国士兵被派往安特卫普 听上去声势浩大
Now, 8,000 British troops were sent to Antwerp on October 4th and 5th, which sounds great,
可多数士兵都是新兵蛋子 甚至从未上过战场 连枪都没有开过
but many of these troops were raw recruits and had never even held, let alone fired, a rifle.
These men were merely a stopgap measure though, for a further 22,000 British troops, a full
这些人才是正规军 一旦他们到达战场 就会有30000名英军
professional division, was now on its way. Once they got there, the Belgians, with 30,000
British troops to defend them
thought victory had suddenly arrived, and the Germans were slowly pushed back.
This was only an illusion though, for the French government suddenly
decided not to send any French troops, as they had promised, and this lack of support
caused the British to hold back. This was probably a good thing, as the British and
因为缺少了法军 英比两军在安特卫普击败德军只存在理论上的可能 撤军至少能减少损失
Belgians had no realistic hope of defeating the Germans at Antwerp without French help.
10月7日 不仅是堡垒 安特卫普也开始遭到德军轰炸
On October 7th, the German army began pounding the city of Antwerp itself, not just the surrounding
forts, with 17-inch howitzers. The defenders, quite literally, had no means of counter attack-
their guns just couldn’t reach
and the British would not move forward without the missing French support.
On October 8th, the British, began to evacuate,
10月10日 疲惫不堪 伤痕累累的比军束手无策
and on October 10th, the tired and battered Belgians could take no more, and King Albert,
who personally commanded the Belgian army, was forced to flee the city.
The long siege of Antwerp had dashed British and Belgian hopes of breaking out and claiming victory.
Disillusioned, they now only resolved to hold back the Germans long enough to move
troops from their posts north east of Paris to the Channel ports and prevent the Germans
向大海进发 好在 他们做到了
from reaching the sea, which they did.
In the east in Poland, disillusionment was spreading as well on both sides, as the technically
superior German forces faced the enormous mass of the Russian army, now on the move
in a seemingly endless spirit-crushing march to positions along the Vistula River.
On this day, October 9th 1914, the German army captured the Russian order of battle
from a Russian officer and they realized that they had 18 divisions against what was now
正与波兰的两支俄军 共60师作战 就算他们的武器更先进
60 Russian divisions in two armies in Poland, and even superior arms were not going to give
Germany a decisive victory, so the new German battle plan for the moment was just to follow
咬住俄军纵队 是的 就是这样 面对超出自身人数三倍的强劲对手
up the Russian columns. Really. That was it. Nobody wants to attack somebody that’s more
没有谁会选择主动进攻 这种情况下 你真的得伺机而动
than three times as strong as them. You really have to pick your battles.
And picking his battles is just what German General Von Hindenburg did, winning a series
And picking his battles is just what German General Von Hindenburg did, winning a series
他小心谨慎 伺机而为 取得了一连串的小胜 并在波兰境内
of carefully chosen small victories during these weeks, harassing the Russians throughout
Poland, and very importantly keeping the Russian army too busy to help out with what was going
on further south in Galicia, where the Russians were still laying siege
to the Austrian army at the fortress of Przemysl.
两周前围攻开始时 由于要塞四周泥泞不堪 俄军
When the siege had begun two weeks ago, the Russians had been unable to bring in their
heavy artillery because of the mud surrounding the fortress, but they had made a full-scale
assault anyway, hoping to win before the Austrians could bring in reinforcements. It was futile
and merely resulted in 40,000 Russian casualties.
现在 无论奥军 德军 还是俄军所战斗的土地
Now, the lands that these armies, whether Austrian, German, or Russian were now fighting
in were mostly inhabited by minority peoples of the empires who were often unsatisfied
with their status within their country. What we see throughout the rest of the war is warring
nations making promises and hints to disaffected or dependent peoples to try to win
them over in order to gain an advantage.
The Russian provinces of Poland, which had been annexed in the 1700s, were being overrun
by the German army under Hindenburg and Ludendorff,and many Poles in that region were beginning to
开始询问 “德国会给波兰自治权吗？” 波兰士兵
ask the question, “Would the Germans grant Poland autonomy?” Polish soldiers were also
fighting alongside the Austrians, hoping that an Austro-Hungarian victory would re-establish
使波兰独立 奥匈帝国推崇这一信念 8月底 在约瑟夫·毕苏斯基的组织下
an independent Poland. The Empire encouraged this belief and the Polish Legion, which became
an independent part of the Imperial army, was formed by Joseph Pilsudski in late August.
毕苏斯基随后成为元帅 战后 波兰独立
Pilsudski, later Marshall Pilsudski, would go on after the war to be the leader of an
independent Poland in the 20s and 30s.
Being a minority in 1914, much like today
in many places, most often involved a history of being hated and violently repressed for
因自己的身份而遭到暴力压迫 被连年侵略 或因信仰而遭到谋杀
who you were, being invaded repeatedly over the years or being murdered for your beliefs,
and at best only having a token say in the control of your lives and lands, but with
the autumn war came a change, as the reality of a seemingly endless war sank in among the
powers, a reality that led them to grasp for any advantage and to search for new allies
in perhaps unlikely places.
The promise of independence or even just citizenship in exchange for your allegiance is a powerful
是非常有力的 即使今天也是如此 1914年 许多少数族群
one, and one that is still relevant today. Many of the minority peoples asked to fight
请求加入战争 他们之前甚至毫无独立的可能 如今在独立的承诺下
in 1914 had never before even had a glimmer of hope of independence, and so they fought,
为了更好明天 他们加入了战斗 不幸的是
based on the promises of a brighter future for their people. Unfortunately, most of those
promises turned out to be empty, hollow words and millions more men would die for lies.
So the Russians now encouraged all those Poles in the Russian domains not crawling with Germans
与德军 奥军为伍 对抗俄军 也可能是为了
and Austrians to fight with the Russians, also supposedly to further their nationalistic
ambitions. Poles were now fighting against Poles. Nearly two million Poles fought in
各自加入不同的阵营 约450000人正在死去 他们大多都是为了争取独立
the war on both sides, with some 450,000 of them dying, mostly fighting to gain their independence.
Britain was even trying to enlist the Sheik of Mecca with the promise of future Arab control
of chunks of the Ottoman Empire, but you also see minorities encouraged in various other
比如 俄国为了联合境内的犹太人 征召他们入伍
ways- Jews in Russia, for example, were now allowed to rise to the ranks of officers in
the army, to encourage them to join up and fight, although they still did not receive
不能成为俄国公民 需要正视的一点是 他们经常被当作俄军战败的替罪羊
full citizenship and, let’s face it, were often murdered by Russian townspeople who
needed a scapegoat for Russian military failures.
好 尤其是几周前 在坦嫩贝格
And there certainly had been their share of them, especially the colossal ones at Tannenberg
和马祖里河遭遇的大败 事实上 主要交战国中有四个
and Masurian Lakes weeks ago. Actually, four of the five major warring nations had now
seen their share of both victory and defeat, but the fifth, the Empire of Austria-Hungary
had seen nothing but military failures riddled with incompetence.
And there the Austrians were at the end of the week, still under siege in Przemysl
with the Russians pressing them. The northern Russian armies were still on their
endless march to their positions along the Vistula, Poland, and as for the Germans after clever
在灵活地调遣部队之后 本周末 登堡距克拉科夫仅有19公里之遥
maneuvering, at the end of the week Hindenburg was only 19 kilometers from Krakow.
西面 最后一个比利时重镇沦陷 比利时野战军剩余的80000人
In the west, the last major Belgian town had fallen and the 80,000 men remaining in the
也已经撤退 不过围攻给英军 法军留出了
Belgian field army had retreated, but the siege had given British and French troops
time to move their positions and the final possibility for the Germans to outflank them
战争朝着持久 血腥的方向发展 现在所有人都心知肚明
The war was going to be long and bloody, and all sides now knew it.
There would be no encirclement in the west
no Russian colossus triumphant in the east
no glory for the empire in the southeast.
There would only be continuous battles in the muddy trenches with thousands
每天都有上千新兵阵亡 严寒天气下 永无止尽的行军
of new recruits dying each day, or endless freezing marches with soldiers dying by the
士兵们葬身于路旁的泥土中 雪中 这就是现代战争
roadside in the mud and snow. This was modern war.
We’ll see you next week.
If you’re just joining us, here’s a good episode to watch next- when the German army
德军刚到达巴黎 奥军与俄军艰苦作战的情形 同时
had just reached Paris and the Austrians were in dire straits against the Russians.
One of the major turning points of the war. And click subscribe to get each new episode.
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