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再生大师:美西螈 – 译学馆
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再生大师:美西螈

Axolotls are Masters of Regeneration

这是美西螈
Meet the axolotl,
它是墨西哥蝾螈目动物 科学家和网友之类的人
a Mexican Salamander that scientists, and the internet alike,
喜爱它们能再生肢体的神奇能力
love for their amazing ability to regenerate limbs,
可能也喜爱它们那诡异的笑容
and probably for that derpy smile.
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《动物逻辑》 由丹妮尔·德芙特主持并讲解
ANIMALOGIC, hosted and illustrated by Danielle Dufault.
嗨 我是丹妮尔·德芙特 你正在观看的是《动物逻辑》
Hi, I’m Danielle Dufault, and you’re watching ANIMALOGIC.
美西螈是钝口螈科的成员
Axolotls are members of the ambystomatidae family,
它们原属于墨西哥的一个很小的区域
and they are native to a very small region in Mexico.
美西螈被阿兹特克人奉为神圣
Axolotls were revered by Aztecs.
阿兹特克人的首都建在美西螈栖息的岛屿和湖泊上
And their capital city was built on islands and the lakes inhabited by the creatures.
但西班牙人在1521年定居于此时 他们排干了湖泊
But when the Spanish settled in 1521, they drained the lakes,
在那里建立了城市 这是驱使美西螈灭绝的第一步
and built their city in its place, a first step in driving axolotls towards extinction.
随着墨西哥城不断发展和排放污染
As Mexico City continues to grow and pollute,
美西螈的数量越来越被推向灭绝的边缘
the axolotl population is pushed further and further towards the brink.
今天 野生美西螈只能在
Today, they can only be found in the wild
墨西哥城附近的霍奇米尔科湖中找到
in Mexico’s Xochimilco Lake complex, near Mexico City.
美西螈在蝾螈目中很特别 因为它们是幼态持续的
Axolotls are unique among salamanders, because they are neotenic,
意思是说 它们不经过变形就可以成年
which means that they reach adulthood without going through metamorphosis.
所以它们会保持所有的幼年特征 就像我们的千禧一代
So they retain all of their juvenile features, like us Millennials.
大多数蝾螈目动物都会成长
While most salamanders will grow up,
随着它们长大和爬上陆地 它们会失去背鳍中的鳃
lose their gills in their dorsal fin as they get bigger and emerge onto land,
但是美西螈会保留羽毛状的外鳍
axolotls will keep their feathery external gills,
永久生活在水下
and remain underwater permanently.
虽然极其少见 但有时美西螈确实会发育成熟
It is extremely rare, but sometimes axolotls will reach maturity,
经历变形
and go through metamorphosis.
但即使是那样 它们也倾向于在水中生活
But even then, they tend to keep to the water.
在实验室中 这一现象已通过给它们注射一针碘的方式实现了
This has been accomplished in the lab by injecting them with a shot of iodine,
注射之后 它们更像是它们的亲戚 虎螈
after which they more closely resemble their relatives, the tiger salamander.
美西螈能变得很大
Axolotls can get pretty big,
完全成长后 可以长到约一英尺或三十厘米长
measuring around a foot or 30 centimeters long fully grown.
它们的寿命也很长 野生大约十五年
And they have long lives, around 15 years in the wild.
但关于美西螈最有趣的可能是
But probably the most interesting thing about them is
它们强大的再生能力
their intense ability to regenerate.
很多两栖动物都有再生能力
Many amphibians do have the ability to regenerate,
但美西螈远远胜过它们
but axolotls blow the competition out of the water.
美西螈不仅能完美且似乎能无限再生肢体
Not only can they perfectly and seemingly, endlessly regenerate limbs,
而且还能再生脊椎 颌 尾 以及皮肤
but they can also regenerate their spinal cord, jaw, tail and skin,
再生后都不会有伤痕
all without scarring.
不论你切下它们的肢体几次
No matter how many times you cut off their limbs,
它们每次都会完美地长回来
they’ll grow back perfectly every single time.
你甚至都不能分辨出
And you wouldn’t even be able to tell that
你切下过它们的肢体
you would cut off their limbs in the first place.
你甚至还可以切下它们的一大块脊椎
You could also even cut out a chunk of their spine,
一个半月之后再回来看
come back in a month and a half,
它们就跟没事似的
and there’ll be no worse for wear.
它们还比其他动物抵抗癌症的能力强一千倍
They are also a thousand times more resistant to cancer than any other animal.
原理是这样的:
It works like this:
截肢后 截肢位置附近的细胞失去了特性
After the amputation, the cells at the side of the amputation lose their identity.
它们不再是皮肤细胞或血细胞
So instead of being skin cells or blood cells,
而是变得和干细胞相近 叫做多能细胞
they become similar to stem cells, called pluripotent cells.
它们可以形成任何身体需要用来修复自身
And they’re able to make any cell or tissue that
的细胞或组织
the body would need to repair itself.
在这种情况下 它们利用多能细胞生成
In this case, they use the pluripotent cells to generate
形成新的完美的肢体所需要的所有细胞和组织
all the cells and tissues needed to create new perfect limbs.
这一现象在科学界很受关注
This phenomenon is a favorite among the scientific community,
因为它可能帮助烧伤者 被截肢者 甚至癌症患者
for its potential to help burn victims, amputees and even cancer victims.
科学家做了实验 修改了美西螈的基因组成
Scientists have experimented with modifying the genetic makeup of axolotls
加入了绿色荧光蛋白
to include the green fluorescent protein,
这种蛋白能使水母生物性发光
which is the protein that makes many jellyfish bioluminescent.
我们不仅仅是让美西螈看上去更酷
We’re not just making axolotls look cooler,
这种发光的蛋白让科学家
the glowing protein allows scientists
美西螈的身体内部 这在之前是看不到的
to see things inside the axolotls that they couldn’t before.
例如 他们用这种蛋白标记癌细胞
For example, they’ll tag cancerous cells with the protein,
然后他们就能实际看到癌细胞如何在美西螈体内扩散
and then they can actually see how it spreads throughout their bodies.
更有趣的是 美西螈的身体部位是“即插即用的”
Even more interesting is that axolotls have plug-and-play body parts.
你可以切下一只美西螈的腿 然后放在另一只美西螈身上
You can amputate one axolotl’s leg and place it in another axolotl,
然后它就会长上去
and it’ll attach itself.
这是非常有有趣的
It’s especially interesting,
因为你甚至都不需要一整个肢体 只要一些细胞就够了
because you don’t even need the whole limb, just a few cells.
如果你取下一只荧光美西螈的一些细胞
If you take cells from a neon axolotl,
然后把细胞放在被截肢的白化的美西螈身体上
and place them on an amputated body of an albino axolotl,
白化美西螈就会真的长出一条荧光肢体
the albino axolotl will actually grow a neon limb.
由于它们的皮肤是很透明的 你实际上可以
Since their skin is quite translucent, you could actually
看见本来是白色的美西螈身上长出荧光绿色骨头
watch the neon green bone grow out of an otherwise white axolotl.
这导致了一些在伦理上妥协了很多的研究
This has led to some fairly morally compromising work.
在一项于1968年发表在《科学》上研究中
In a study published in Science magazine in 1968,
科学家成功地
scientists were able to successfully
把一只美西螈的头部移植到了另一只美西螈背上
transplant an axolotl head onto the back of another axolotl,
一只被移植的美西螈在手术后存活了65周
one subject lived for 65 weeks after the operation
它的第二个头就在第一个头旁边生长
with second head growing right along with the first head.
我下一个应该介绍什么动物?
What animal should I check out next?
请在评论区留言告诉我
Please let me know in the comments.
如果你想支持这个节目 并提前一周看到新一集
If you want to support the show, and get episodes a week early,
你可以报名参加视频流应用“爱自然”的免费试用
you can do so by signing up for a free trial of the video streaming app, Love Nature.
请订阅《动物逻辑》
Be sure to subscribe for new episodes of ANIMALOGIC
在YouTube上 它每两星期更新一次
every other week right here on YouTube.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching.
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视频概述

本视频介绍了美西螈的基本概况,重点介绍了美西螈神奇的再生能力,例如切下脊椎也能再生、一只美西螈的截肢可以接到另一只身上继续生长等等。

听录译者

红花老七

翻译译者

审核员

审核员 EM

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Eo50ctoOTWs

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