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未来自动对焦老花镜

Autofocusing reading glasses of the future | Nitish Padmanaban

Transcriber: Leslie Gauthier Reviewer: Joanna Pietrulewicz
转录员:Leslie Gauthier 审稿员: Joanna Pietrulewicz
Every single one of us will lose
我们每个人每天都会失去
or has already lost something we rely on every single day.
或已经失去一些赖以生存的东西
I am of course talking about our keys.
当然 我是指我们的钥匙
[Laughter]
[大笑]
Just kidding.
开个玩笑
What I actually want to talk about is one of our most important senses
我真正想说的是我们最重要的感官之一
vision
视觉
Every single day we each lose a little bit of our ability
我们每个人每天都在一点点地丧失
to refocus our eyes
眼睛聚焦的能力
until we can’t refocus at all.
直到我们完全丧失
We call this condition presbyopia,
我们称之为老花眼
and it affects two billion people worldwide.
它影响着全球二十亿人口
That’s right, I said billion.
没错 我说的是亿
If you haven’t heard of presbyopia,
如果你还没听说过老花眼
and you’re wondering, “Where are these two billion people?”
可能会问“那二十亿的人在哪呢?”
here’s a hint before I get into the details.
在我详细说明前先解释一下
It’s the reason why people wear reading glasses or bifocal lenses.
老花眼就是人们戴老花镜或双焦镜的原因
I’ll get started by describing the loss in refocusing ability
首先 我将说明聚焦能力的丧失
leading up to presbyopia.
会导致老花眼
As a newborn, you would have been able to focus
当还是新生儿时 只要你愿意
as close as six and a half centimeters,
你的眼睛就能聚焦到
if you wished to.
六点五厘米
By your mid-20s, you have about half of that focusing power left.
到25岁左右时 聚焦能力将仅剩一半
10 centimeters or so,
大约为10厘米
but close enough that you never notice the difference.
但差别很小 你察觉不到区别
By your late 40s though,
而到了45岁时
the closest you can focus is about 25 centimeters,
可聚焦的最近距离约为25厘米
maybe even farther.
甚至更远
Losses in focusing ability beyond this point
超过这一点 聚焦能力的下降
start affecting near-vision tasks like reading,
会开始影响近视力的活动 比如阅读
and by the time you reach age 60,
等到了60岁
nothing within a meter radius of you is clear.
一米内的任何事物都会变得模糊
Right now some of you are probably thinking,
现在 你们当中有人可能会想
that sounds bad but he means you in a figurative sense,
虽然这听起来很糟 但是这个“你”
only for the people that actually end up with presbyopia.
只是针对那些有老花眼的人
But no, when I say you, I literally mean that every single one of you
不 我说的“你” 指的是你们每一个人
will someday be presbyopic if you aren’t already.
总有一天会有老花眼 即使现在还没有
That sounds a bit troubling.
这听起来有点可怕
I want to remind you that
我想提醒你们
presbyopia has been with us for all of human history
老花眼一直存在于人类历史中
and we’ve done a lot of different things to try and fix it.
我们已经做了各种不同尝试来解决它
So to start, let’s imagine that you’re sitting at a desk, reading.
首先 让我们想象正坐在桌子旁边阅读
If you were presbyopic,
如果你有老花眼
it might look a little something like this.
可能看起来会像是这样
Anything close by, like the magazine,
附近的任何东西 比如杂志
will be blurry.
都会模糊不清
Moving on to solutions.
那到解决方案
First, reading glasses.
首先 老花镜
These have lenses with a single focal power
这些镜片带有单一的焦距调整
tuned so that near objects come into focus.
因此能聚焦附近的物体
But far objects necessarily go out of focus,
但是远距离物体必定会无法聚焦
meaning you have to constantly switch back and forth
这意味着你得不断地在
between wearing and not wearing them.
戴或不戴之间来回切换
To solve this problem
为了解决这个问题
Benjamin Franklin invented what he called “double spectacles.”
本杰明富兰克林发明了一种“双光眼镜”
Today we call those bifocals,
我们现称之为双焦镜
and what they let him do was see far when he looked up
这种眼镜能让他向上看时 看清远处
and see near when he looked down.
向下看时 则能看清近处
Today we also have progressive lenses
现在我们也有了渐进镜片
which get rid of the line
没有焦距间的分界线
by smoothly varying the focal power from top to bottom.
可通过从上到下平稳地改变焦距
The downside to both of these is that
两种镜片的缺点是
you lose field of vision at any given distance,
在任何给定的距离都会失去视野
because it gets split up from top to bottom like this.
因为它会像这样从上到下分开
To see why that’s a problem,
为了更好地理解
imagine that you’re climbing down a ladder or stairs.
想象一下你正在爬下梯子或楼梯
You look down to get your footing but it’s blurry.
你低头想站稳脚跟 却一片模糊
Why would it be blurry?
为什么会模糊呢?
Well, you look down and that’s the near part of the lens,
因为往下看时 那是镜片的近端部分
but the next step was past arm’s reach,
但你的下一步超过了手臂的范围
which for your eyes counts as far.
这对你的眼睛来说算是远了
The next solution I want to point out is a little less common
接下来的这个解决方案不太常见
but comes up in contact lenses or LASIK surgeries,
但会出现在隐形眼镜或激光手术中
and it’s called monovision.
我们称之为单眼视
It works by setting up the dominant eye to focus far
它的工作原理是让优势眼聚焦远处
and the other eye to focus near.
另一只眼睛聚焦近处
Your brain does the work of intelligently putting together
你的大脑会智能地结合
the sharpest parts from each eye’s view,
每只眼看到的最清晰的部分
but the two eyes see slightly different things,
但两只眼睛看到的会略有不同
and that makes it harder to judge distances binocularly.
这使得用双眼很难判断距离
So where does that leave us?
那我们该怎么办呢?
We’ve come up with a lot of solutions
我们提出过很多解决办法
but none of them quite restore natural refocusing.
但都不能完全恢复自然的聚焦
None of them let you just look at something
也不能让你看某个物体时
and expect it to be in focus.
就能自动对焦
But why?
那这是为什么?
Well, to explain that
好 要解释这个
we’ll want to take a look at the anatomy of the human eye.
我们得看看人眼的解剖结构
The part of the eye that allows us to refocus to different distances
人眼中能帮助我们聚焦到不同距离的结构
is called the crystalline lens.
叫做晶状体
There are muscles surrounding the lens that can deform it into different shapes,
它周围的肌肉可以使它变成不同的形状
which in turn changes its focusing power.
继而改变它的聚焦能力
What happens when someone becomes presbyopic?
当人变成老花眼时会发生什么?
It turns out that the crystalline lens stiffens
结果发现 晶状体会变硬
to the point that it doesn’t really change shape anymore.
直到不能再改变形状
Now, thinking back on all the solutions I listed earlier,
现在 回想一下我列出的所有解决方案
we can see that they all have something in common with the others
可以看出它们都有共同之处
but not with our eyes,
但和我们眼睛的构造不同
and that is that they’re all static.
因为它们都是静止的
It’s like the optical equivalent of a pirate with a peg leg.
就像是装了义肢的海盗一样
What is the optical equivalent of a modern prosthetic leg?
那视觉中的现代义肢是什么呢?
The last several decades have seen the creation and rapid development
在过去的几十年中
of what are called “focus-tunable lenses.”
“可调焦镜片”得到了迅速发展
There are several different types.
有许多不同类型
Mechanically-shifted Alvarez lenses,
机械调节的阿尔瓦雷斯镜片
deformable liquid lenses
可变形液体镜片
and electronically-switched, liquid crystal lenses.
和电子开关液晶镜片
Now these have their own trade-offs,
它们都有各自的优缺点
but what they don’t skimp on is the visual experience.
但它们都很重视视觉体验
Full-field-of-view vision that can be sharp at any desired distance.
全视野可在任何所需的距离保持清晰
OK, great. The lenses we need already exist.
很不错 我们已经有了需要的镜片
Problem solved, right?
问题解决了 对吗
Not so fast.
没这么快
Focus-tunable lenses add a bit of complexity to the equation.
可调焦镜片有点复杂
The lenses don’t have any way of knowing what distance they should be focused to.
镜片无法知道应该聚焦到什么距离
What we need are glasses
我们需要的是让眼镜
that, when you’re looking far, far objects are sharp,
在看远处时 远处的物体就会变得清晰
and when you look near,
而在看近处时
near objects come into focus in your field of view,
附近的物体就会在视野中聚焦
without you having to think about it.
而不需要你去思考
What I’ve worked on these last few years at Stanford
我在斯坦福大学的这几年
is building that exact intelligence around the lenses.
一直尝试在镜片中建立精确的智能
Our prototype borrows technology from virtual and augmented reality systems
我们的原型借鉴了虚拟和增强现实系统的技术
to estimate focusing distance.
来估计聚焦距离
We have an eye tracker that can tell what direction our eyes are focused in.
内部的眼动仪可以追踪眼睛的聚焦方向
Using two of these,
运用这两个技术
we can triangulate your gaze direction
可以三角定位你的视线方向
to get a focus estimate.
来估计焦点
Just in case though, to increase reliability,
以防万一 为了增加可靠性
we also added a distance sensor.
我们也加了距离传感器
The sensor is a camera that looks out at the world
它是一个可观察外界和
and reports distances to objects.
报告与物体之间的距离的摄像头
We can again use your gaze direction to get a distance estimate
我们会利用你的视线方向
for a second time.
再次进行预估
We then fuse those two distance estimates
然后结合这两个距离估计值
and update the focus-tunable lens power accordingly.
并相应地调节可调焦镜片的焦度
The next step for us was to test our device on actual people.
下一步 我们在实际人员上测试了设备
So we recruited about 100 presbyopes
因此我们招募了约100名老花眼
and had them test our device
进行设备测试
while we measured their performance.
同时测量他们的表现
What we saw convinced us right then that
当时的结果使我们确信
autofocals were the future.
自动对焦将是未来
Our participants could see more clearly, they could focus more quickly
测验者可以看得更清楚 聚焦地更快
and they thought it was an easier
与当前的矫正相比
and better focusing experience than their current correction.
他们认为这次体验更轻松也更好
To put it simply, when it comes to vision,
简单来说 就视觉而言
autofocals don’t compromise like
相比目前的静态矫正
static corrections in use today do.
自动对焦不会损失其他视觉体验
But I don’t want to get ahead of myself.
但我不想过于激进
There’s a lot of work for my colleagues and me left to do.
我和同事还有很多工作要做
For example, our glasses are a bit —
例如 我们的眼镜有点——
[Laughter]
[大笑]
bulky, maybe?
笨重 或许吧?
And one reason for this is that we used bulkier components
其中一个原因是我们使用了较大的部件
that are often intended for research use or industrial use.
这些部件通常用于研究或工业用途
Another is that we need to strap everything down
另一个原因是我们需要更加精简
because current eye-tracking algorithms
因为当前的眼动追踪算法
don’t have the robustness that we need.
不具备所需的鲁棒性
So moving forward,
因此接下来
as we move from a research setting into a start-up,
随着我们从研究阶段转向创业阶段
we plan to make future autofocals
我们的目标是让未来的自动对焦镜
eventually look a little bit more like normal glasses.
看起来更像普通眼镜一样
For this to happen, we’ll need to significantly improve
为此 我们需要着力提升
the robustness of our eye-tracking solution.
眼动追踪解决方案的鲁棒性
We’ll also need to incorporate smaller
我们还需要整合更小
and more efficient electronics and lenses.
和更高效的电子产品和镜片
That said, even with our current prototype,
即便如此 即使使用我们当前的原型
we’ve shown that today’s focus-tunable lens technology
结果也已表明 当今的可调焦镜片技术
is capable of outperforming traditional forms of static correction.
能够胜过传统形式的静态矫正
So it’s only a matter of time.
所以只是时间问题
It’s pretty clear that in the near future,
很明显 在不久的将来
instead of worrying about which pair of glasses to use and when,
我们不必担心什么时候该用哪副眼镜
we’ll be able to just focus on the important things.
而是可以专注于重要的事情
Thank you.
谢谢
[Applause]
[掌声]

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视频概述

眼睛失去对焦能力后将会导致老花眼。老花眼该如何解决?现有老花镜仍不能满足自动调焦功能。而在未来,自动对焦老花镜能让你更轻松和更快速的聚焦,拥有更好的视觉体验。快来看看这款黑科技眼镜吧!

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9Y9ppMqXwkQ

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