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哪个瞬间你才算死亡

At what moment are you dead? - Randall Hayes

在我们可追溯的历史中
For as far back as we can trace our existence,
人类对死亡和复活的话题沉醉不已
humans have been fascinated with death and resurrection.
世界上的每种宗教
Nearly every religion in the world
几乎都对生死做过诠释
has some interpretation of them,
从早期的神话到最近的影视大片
and from our earliest myths to the latest cinematic blockbusters,
死亡无处不在
the dead keep coming back.
但是死而复生真的可能吗?
But is resurrection really possible?
而且活人和死人之间
And what is the actual difference
究竟有哪些区别?
between a living creature and a dead body, anyway?
想要知晓死亡
To understand what death is,
我们需要先明了何为生命
we need to understand what life is.
有个古老的理论叫做生机论
One ancient theory was an idea called vitalism,
它认为生命体是独一无二的
which claimed that living things were unique
因为在生命体中充斥着一种特殊物质
because they were filled with a special substance, or energy,
或者说一种能量 即生命的本质
that was the essence of life.
无论它被称为”气”也好
Whether it was called qi,
“命脉”也好 “体液”也好
lifeblood, or humors,
对这种能量存在的认同
the belief in such an essence
遍及世界各地
was common throughout the world,
而且仍然存在于那些
and still persists in the stories of creatures
能从他人身上汲取生命力的生物的传说中
who can somehow drain life from others,
或者可以恢复生命力的神奇之水中
or some form of magical sourcesthat can replenish it.
随着17世纪科技革命的爆发
Vitalism began to fade in the Western world
生机论开始淡出西方国家
following the Scientific Revolution in the 17th century.
笛卡尔对生命做出了进一步的诠释
René Descartes advanced the notion
就本质而言 人体与机器
that the human body was essentially no different
没什么不同
from any other machine,
人之所以为人 是因为在大脑松果体中
brought to life by a divinely created soul located
有着有如神赐一般的灵魂
in the brain’s pineal gland.
在1907年
And in 1907,
Duncan McDougall医生甚至宣称
Dr. Duncan McDougall even claimed
灵魂是有质量的
that the soul had mass,
他称量了病人濒死和死后的重量
weighing patients immediately before and after death
试图以此来证明这一观点
in an attempt to prove it.
尽管这个实验不足信
Though his experiments were discredited,
更像是生机论的残余
much like the rest of vitalism,
但他的理论还是在大众文化中留下了印记
traces of his theory still come up in popular culture.
但这些不靠谱的理论留给我们些什么呢?
But where do all these discredited theories leave us?
据我们目前所知 生命的载体
What we now know is that life is not contained
既不是什么神奇的物质 也不是火花
in some magical substance or spark,
生命蕴含于每时每刻的生物进程中
but within the ongoingbiological processes themselves.
为了理解这种进程
And to understand these processes,
我们需要将目光
we need to zoom down
聚焦在生物个体的细胞层面上
to the level of our individual cells.
在这些细胞中
Inside each of these cells,
化学反应一刻不停
chemical reactions are constantly occurring,
由葡萄糖和氧气转化的能量载体为其供能
powered by the glucose and oxygenthat our bodies convert
这种能量载体又称ATP
into the energy-carrying moleculeknown as ATP.
ATP支撑着细胞的所有活动
Cells use this energy for everything from repair
修复 生长和分裂
to growth to reproduction.
不仅生成必要分子时
Not only does it take a lot of energy
需要消耗大量的ATP
to make the necessary molecules,
令这些分子各就其位时还要消耗更多ATP
but it takes even more to get them where they need to be.
熵的普遍观察结果表明
The universal phenomenon of entropy
分子扩散是无序的
means that molecules will tendtowards diffusing randomly,
从高浓度区向低浓度区扩散
moving from areasof high concentration to low concentration,
或者分裂成较小的分子和原子
or even breaking apartinto smaller molecules and atoms.
所以细胞为了稳定自身熵值
So cells must constantly keepentropy in check
就必须用能量在极复杂的层面上
by using energy to maintain their molecules
对自身的分子结构进行维护
in the very complicated formations
以便能实现生物的正常功能
necessary for biological functions to occur.
所有细胞屈从于熵时
The breaking down of these arrangements when the entire cell succumbs to entropy
这种自然分解就会导致死亡
is what eventually results in death.
这就是生命的火花
This is the reason organisms
一旦熄灭
can’t be simply sparked back to life
就不能重新点燃的原因
once they’ve already died.
我们能向人的肺里灌注空气
We can pump air into someone’s lungs,
但是如果
but it won’t do much good
呼吸周期中的其他必要过程实现不了
if the many other processes involved in the respiratory cycle
那一切就只是无用功罢了
are no longer functioning. Similarly,
同样 心脏起搏器的电击功能
the electric shock from a defibrillator
并不能让死寂的心脏重新跳动
doesn’t jump-start an inanimate heart,
而是让心率异常的心脏中的细胞再次同步
but resynchronizes the muscle cellsin an abnormally beating heart
使它们能找回正常的频率
so they regain their normal rhythm.
这能挽救濒死之人
This can prevent a person from dying,
却不能让人死而复生
but it won’t raise a dead body,
或由死尸拼凑出一个活的怪物
or a monster sewn together from dead bodies.
所以可见 我们所有经药物达成的奇迹
So it would seem that all our various medical miracles
似乎都只能延缓死亡
can delay or prevent death
而不能颠覆死亡重获新生
but not reverse it.
这并不像听起来那么简单
But that’s not as simple as it sounds
因为技术和医疗的进步
because constant advancementsin technology and medicine
直接影响着对诸如昏迷
have resulted in diagnoses such as coma,
这种有苏醒可能的状态的诊断
describing potentiallyreversible conditions,
以前被视为死亡的人 现在则诊断为昏迷
under which people would have previouslybeen considered dead.
未来 对死亡会有更深入的界定
In the future, the point of no return may be pushed even further.
据我们所知 一些动物可以通过
Some animals are knownto extend their lifespans
减缓自身的生物进程
or survive extreme conditions
使自己达到近乎生命暂停的状态
by slowing down their biological processes
来延长自身寿命或在极端环境下生存
to the point where they are virtually paused.
研究人体冷冻就是为了达成类似效果
And research into cryonics hopes to achieve the same
先把濒死的人冷冻
by freezing dying people
之后当有可行的新技术时
and reviving them later
再让他们苏醒
when newer technology is able to help them.
如果细胞被冷冻
See, if the cells are frozen,
那就没什么分子运动了
there’s very little molecular movement,
分子向四周的扩散也几乎停滞
and diffusion practically stops.
即使一个人全身的细胞进程
Even if all of a person’s cellular processes
都中断了
had already broken down,
也仍可以被一群纳米机器人
this could still conceivably be reversed
如预期般唤醒
by a swarm of nanobots,
让所有的分子各归其位
moving all the moleculesback to their proper positions,
同时将ATP
and injecting all of the cells
注入到所有细胞中
with ATP at the same time,
那大概可以让生物体
presumably causing the body
从被冻结的时间点苏醒
to simply pick up where it left off.
所以如果不把生命看成神奇的火花
So if we think of lifenot as some magical spark,
而是看成一种极为复杂的
but a state of incredibly complex,
固有的状态
self-perpetuating organization,
死亡只是打破了这一脆弱平衡的
death is just the process of increasing entropy
熵增的过程
that destroys this fragile balance.
而某人彻底死亡的标志
And the point at which someone is completely dead
不是固定不变的
turns out not to be a fixed constant,
而是要看我们当时可以逆转的
but simply a matter of how much of this entropy
熵值是多少
we’re currently capable of reversing.

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视频概述

死亡是一个永恒的话题,那死亡的评判标准是什么?

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收集自网络

翻译译者

🔥云四

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5c6C3rHOdf8

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