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At-Home DNA Tests Might Not Be as Accurate as You Think...

多亏现代科学和邮局奇迹般的发展 我们可以
Thanks to the modern miracles that are science and the post office it’s possible to get
在邮件里找到任何东西 从生餐到基因检测结果再到你家狗戴得假发
just about anything in the mail now, from uncooked meals to DNA tests to a wig for your dog.
说起戴假发的狗 我可以聊上一整天 但今天的视频
And while I could talk about dogs in wigs all day,
this episode is actually about those DNA kits.
Just how accurate are they, and how much stock should you put in the results?
私企提供基因检测已经十多年了 但直到最近它们才成为市场主流
Private companies have offered these DNA tests for over a decade, but recently they’ve gone mainstream.
We’ve an episode Amy and Trace tried them out.
方法相当简单 你只需要吐口唾液到试管里 然后把他送到一个陌生人手里
The concept is pretty simple, you just spit in a tube and send it off to a stranger, except
this time they actually want your spit for once.
The company’s lab extracts your DNA from the cells in your spit and compares it to
DNA in their database.
数月后 你将得到一份明细报告 关于你的血统
A couple of months later, you get a breakdown of information about your ancestry, how at
你患某些疾病的风险 还有一些其他东西
risk you may be for some disease, and a bunch of other stuff.
诸如还有百分之多少的非洲血统 极高的患槭糖尿病风险
Such and such percentage from Africa and a high risk for maple syrup urine disease and
so on.
听起来有点索然无味 但是这一过程中还是有很多需要注意的
It sounds cut and dry but there are a ton of asterisks along the way.
首先 你的DNA只有一小部分被检测了
First there’s the fact that only a small percentage of your DNA is getting tested.
你有46条染色体 它们是由60亿对碱基对组成的
You’ve got over 6 billion base pairs in your 46 chromosomes (go you) and they get
passed on randomly from your parents.
结果变化多端 即使在兄弟姐妹间也一样
The results can vary a lot, even among siblings.
一项对异卵双胞胎的检测发现 其中一个双胞胎的DNA中英国和爱尔兰血统
One test of fraternal twins found one twin’s DNA was nearly twice as British and Irish
as the other.
很显然他们有着相同的父母 因此有相同的家族历史
Obviously they have the same parents so they have the same family history, but the DNA
that was passed down to them and then tested was wildly different.
更复杂的是 没有一种决定性的基因能精确地确定
To complicate things further, there is no one definitive gene from anyone that pinpoints
where they’re from.
Instead there are sets of genetic markers that populations might share.
但该群体中并不是每个人都有那一整套基因 有些来自其他地方的人
Not everyone in that group will get all those genes, and some people from other places may
have some of the same genes by coincidence.
所以当你从这些检测中拿到结果 看到你有四分之一欧洲血统的时候
So when you get your results back from these tests and you see that you’re 25% european,
it doesn’t mean one quarter of your ancestors were european.
It means a quarter of the genetic markers they were able to test seem to be prevalent
the most in Europe.
另外 你所呈递的基因并不会与大量有代表性的样本比对
Plus, the DNA you send in is not getting compared to a massive representative sample — these
companies are using as few as 115 people from certain regions to define what the genetic
markers of people from that region are.
这可不是许多人 还要记住基因是变换无穷的 即使在兄弟姐妹之间
That’s not a ton of people, and remember how much genes can vary even between siblings.
So using these tests to trace where you come from is fuzzy at best.
但他们的确有种吸引人的用途 那就是鉴定你是否携带着某些疾病的基因
But they do have another compelling use: identifying if you carry the genes for certain diseases.
还是一样 这个也没你想得那么简单
Again, this topic isn’t as straightforward as you might think.
These tests can identify if you have genes associated with certain diseases, but they
但它们会错失基因的一些微小变化 让你觉得你没有患某病的风险
can miss minor variations to the genes, leading you to think you’re not at risk for a disease,
然而事实上 你有
when in fact, you are.
即使这些基因中有一个检验为阳性 也并不意味着你会百分百
But even if you do test positive for one of these genes it doesn’t mean you will 100%
患上那种病 仅仅是说你更可能患病
get that disease, it just means you are more likely to get it.
你有患病的风险 你能把这种风险传给你的孩子
You are at risk, and you can pass that risk on to your children.
如果你进行了一次DNA测验 发现你携有与帕金森症有关的基因
If you take a DNA test that shows you carry genes associated with parkinson’s disease,
你患病的风险更高 但诸如年龄等其他因素
your risk of getting it is higher, but other factors like age could have more of an impact
than just having this gene.
这些结果很微妙 找个能帮你明白这些结果真正意思的医生
These results are nuanced, and it’s important to go over them with a doctor who can walk
you through what they really mean.
这些结果是影响深远的 能让你了解到你是谁
These tests can be empowering and help you learn about who you are and what your future
might hold.
但它们可不是什么绝对真理 更像是结果更精准一些的占星术
But they’re less like the gospel truth and more like a horoscope with more accurate results.
I wouldn’t plan your entire identity and future around one DNA test.
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Trace and Amy actually tried these DNA tests to show you just how they work.
来发现Trace有多少比例的萨斯科奇人血统 在这里查看此视频
To find out what percentage of Trace is sasquatch, check out the video here.
Did you get your DNA Tested?
What were your results, and how serious do you take them?
在评论区告诉我们吧 订阅就能观看更多 感谢观看SEEKER
Let us know in the comments, subscribe for more, and thanks for watching Seeker.