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宇航员克里斯·哈德菲尔德为你揭示太空谜团 – 译学馆
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宇航员克里斯·哈德菲尔德为你揭示太空谜团

Astronaut Chris Hadfield Debunks Space Myths | WIRED

五 四 三 二 一
5 4 3 2 1
你好 我是克里斯·哈德菲尔德指挥官
Hi, I’m commander Chris Hadfield,
我是宇航员 航天器指挥官 太空漫步者 兼职音乐家
astronaut, spaceship commander, space walker, part-time musician.
今天我希望消除一些关于太空的常见误解
I’m here today to hopefully debunk some common space myths.
很多人以为
Here’s this common perception
你一旦被吸出气闸
that you will immediately fry to a crisp
接触到未过滤的太阳辐射
by the unfiltered unadulterated solar radiation,
你就会立刻烧成灰烬
if you get sucked out in the airlock.
真实情况比这还要糟
In truth, it’s way worse than that.
在太空的阴暗地带
In the shade in space,
温度大概是零下250摄氏度
it’s like -250 degrees,
但身体要是接触到阳光
but the part of you that’s in the sun,
温度至少会有零上250摄氏度
it’s +250 degrees at least,
所以你会开始沸腾和燃烧
so it’s going to start boiling and burning.
感觉像躺在炽热的火炉上
So it’s like lying on a red hot stove
背上放着一块干冰一样
with a piece of dry ice on your back.
你肺里的气也会在一瞬间被吸光
And your lungs are gonna be sucked flat instantaneously,
但更糟的是
but even worse than that is
你的血会沸腾起来
your blood is going to boil
就像你打开一罐汽水时
like opening a can of pop
汽水会突然冒出很多小泡泡
or suddenly that all the little bubbles come out
因为周围没有气压了
because there’s no air pressure around you.
你会同一时间冷冻 沸腾 燃烧 患上潜水夫病
So simultaneously, you’re going to freeze, boil, burn, get the bends,
而且也不能再呼吸
and no longer be able to breathe.
好惨的死法
Not a good way to go.
我做过两次太空漫步
I’ve done two space walks,
多亏我身上穿着宇航服
and I was very thankful that I had a spacesuit around my body,
这些事情才没发生在我身上
so that none of those things happened to me.
有时候你会听说 你必须不断运动
Sometimes you’ll hear that you have to work out constantly
否则你会昏过去 可能还会在太空中死去
or you will pass out and possibly die in space.
这是假的
Not true.
在航天器生活 是人们想象中最懒惰的生活
Living on a spaceship is the most lazy existence you can imagine.
你处在无重状态
You’re weightless.
什么事都不用做
You do not have to lift a finger.
你不用把头撑住
You don’t have to hold your head up.
心脏循环血液时 不需要抵抗重力
Your heart doesn’t have to lift your blood against gravity,
在太空 你可以当宇宙中最懒惰的人
you can be the laziest person in the universe in space,
但你最终还得回到地球
but eventually you need to come back to earth.
如果你在太空的6个月里完全不运动
And if you don’t exercise for your whole 6 months in space,
你会变得像只海蜇
you’re sort of turning into a jelly fish.
所以我们在航天器里每天都会运动两小时
So we do exercise 2 hours a day on the spaceship.
我们有阻力运动机 有单轮车
We have a resistive machine, we have a unicycle,
我们有跑步机 它用松紧带把我们压下来
and we have a treadmill where elastics hold us down,
以让身体保持足够强壮
just to keep our bodies strong enough
让骨头有足够的密度
and our bones dense enough,
这样我们回到地球时
so when we get home,
不会像跌进水坑那样
we don’t just fall over like a puddle.
但你也不必时时刻刻运动
But you don’t need to work out all the time.
你可能听说过 太空有个气味
You’ve probably heard that space has a smell,
闻起来像烧焦的牛排或者某种烤肉
maybe like burnt steak or some type of barbecue.
这是真的
That’s true.
完成太空漫步回来时
When you come in from a space walk,
真空环境就在你周围
you are surrounded by the emptiness of space.
太空跟空气环境完全不同
It’s sort of like the opposite of air.
太空里什么都没有
There’s nothing there at all.
舱口迅速重新加压之后
When you quickly repressurize the hatch
舱口一打开 你就会闻到一股气味
and you open up the hatch and you smell
这股持续不散的气味
what is that lingering smell
来自接触过太空的地方
from a place that used to be exposed to space.
这股气味非常淡
The smell in there is a little bit like
闻起来有点像火药 或者烧焦的牛排
that trace of smell of gunpowder or burnt steak
我觉得它有点像硫磺
or, to me, it’s sort of like brimstone,
好像巫婆刚来过似的
like a witch has just been there.
这个淡淡的气味微凉 且经久不散
It’s a cool, lingering trace of a smell.
我觉得真实情况是这样
I think what it really is,
太空的真空环境
is the emptiness of space, the vacuum of space
实际上会把微量化学物质
is actually pulling trace chemicals
从航天器墙壁的金属中引出来
out of the metal of the walls of the ship,
平时你是不会闻到它的
little bits of stuff you never smell,
因为气压会让微量物质留在金属中
because normally there’s air pressure holding them into the metal.
金属会缓慢地释放微量气体和微量粒子
They’re slowly off-gassing those tiny little trace gases and trace particles
而这些物质平时不会进入鼻子
that otherwise they’d never get into your nose,
它有个铁的气味 好像火药似的
and those are released, sort of that metallic gunpowder iron smell.
气味正是来自金属
That’s where the smell’s coming from.
也许气味并不是来自太空
Maybe it’s not even coming from space.
它是航天器受到太空影响后产生的
It’s just sort of coming from space’s effect on our ship.
实际上 这股气味有点像烧焦的牛排
Yeah, in truth, it smells a little bit like a burnt steak.
很多人说
So there’s a lot of word out there that
如果你以光速飞行
if you’re going incredibly fast like the speed of light,
如果你可以以光速移动
if you could travel at the speed of light,
你就不会变老
then you won’t age,
就算过了数千年 你的身体也不会变
and despite thousands of years going by, you’ll stay the same,
但是你认识的人却都会死
but everybody that you know will die.
这种说法不太对
That’s not really true.
根据爱因斯坦提出的相对论
Einstein called it relativity ’cause what he meant was
你变老的速度会跟地球上的人不一样
your aging will be different, relative to people’s aging on earth.
你还是会变老 你还是会观察到时间流逝
You’ll still age. Time will still pass for you,
但是地球上的人变老的速度不一样
but people on earth will age at a different rate,
因此 你以极快速度飞行回来后
so that if you came back after going incredibly fast,
你飞行多久 就会变老多久
you would have gotten older by the amount of time that it took for you to travel,
但地球上的人会比你更快变老
but people on earth would have aged much, much faster.
对他们来说 流逝的时间较长
They would have had a longer period of time.
因为如果你的速度够快
’cause if you get going fast enough
你的速度与流逝的时间就会成正比
you speed is sort of proportional to the time passing,
所以你还是会变老
so you’ll still age,
只是你变老的速度不同于地球上的人
but you just age at a different rate than people back on earth.
爱因斯坦做了个很酷的思想实验
Einstein did this cool thought experiment.
想象你在看着时钟
Imagine if you were looking at a clock,
来自时钟的光传到了你的眼球
the light from the clock is coming and hitting your eyeballs
告诉你时间是12点
and telling you it’s 12 o’clock.
如果你可以以光速远离时钟
Imagine if you could move away from that clock at the speed of light,
它就只会显示12点
it would only say 12 o’clock
因为你和光会以同样的速度
because that light and you would be moving away
从时钟移开
from the clock at the same speed.
所以你会看到时间好像永远停留在12点
So for you it would look like it was always 12 o’clock forever.
你还是会变老
You’d still be getting older,
但时钟显示的时间看起来永远都会一样
but that clock would always look like it was the same time.
地球上的人继续活了下去
The people on earth were continuing to live.
不知道你正在以光速飞行
They are not aware if you’re going at the speed of light,
因此 你观察到的时间流逝
so you can see that the time for you because of your speed
将会不同于地球上的人
is relatively different than the time for the people on earth.
这是个难以捉摸的概念
It’s a really unusual thing to try and grasp in your head.
太空中发生爆炸会怎样?
What happens when something blows up in space?
太空中发生爆炸 会不会发出声音?
If something explodes in space, will it make a sound,
人会不会听得到?
and could a human hear it?
这个问题很简单
It’s a pretty easy question to answer.
太阳就是在爆炸
The sun is just an explosion.
太阳上的爆炸比任何人想象中还大
The sun is the biggest explosion any of us can imagine.
在太阳 大型的热核爆炸连续发生
It’s a huge, continuous, thermonuclear explosion.
史上所有原子弹的总威力
It’s every atom bomb we’ve ever built,
远远比不上太阳上的连续爆炸
way more than that, continuously exploding.
这是人们想象得到的最大声音
It would be the loudest thing imaginable.
爆炸不断地发生
It’s constantly happening,
但是我们完全听不到
but we don’t hear a whisper of it
因为太阳和我们之间没有能传达声音的媒介
and that’s because there’s nothing to carry the sound from the sun to us.
虽然这些爆炸很强烈
Even though it’s incredibly violent,
但是这些噪音引起的的压力变化
there’s nowhere for the pressure of all of that sound, all of that noise
无法透过太空的真空
to be carried across the emptiness of space
振动我耳朵的耳膜
to shake my eardrum in here
让我听到太阳的声音
and let me hear the sound of the sun.
这是好事 因为大家会被震聋
It’s a good thing. It’d be deafening.
所以太空中发生的爆炸是会发出声音的
So if something explodes in space, it makes sound.
但是声音无法通过太空传递
But there’s no way for that sound to be carried across space
让我听得到
so that I could hear it.
有些人以为
There is this idea out there that
制造重力的唯一方法
maybe the only way that we could really create gravity
就是将航天器转动
is to spin the spaceship
让人们紧贴在旁边
so that everybody is stuck to the sides
像在游乐园乘坐游乐设施时
like one of those rides at the fair
被贴紧墙壁一样
where you’re pinned against the wall.
就目前来看 真的是这样子
And for now, that’s actually true.
我们不会控制重力
We don’t know how to control gravity.
也没有办法控制重力
We have no way to control gravity.
我们可以转动航天器来模仿重力
We can sort of pretend there’s gravity by spinning a ship
这样大家就会紧贴在旁边
and everybody stick to the sides
就像绑在线的一端的球那样
like a ball at the end of the string.
可能有一天 我们会学会控制重力
Maybe some day we’ll figure out how to control gravity,
但是目前 整架航天器得要转动
but for now we have to spin the whole ship
只有中间的人才会没有重力
only in the middle would they be weightless.
有些人以为 NASA 正在研究曲速飞行
I’ve seen that people think that NASA is working on warp speed
让人们以光速飞到其它星际行星
so that we can travel at the speed of light to interstellar planets.
曲速飞行是科幻小说中的发明
Warp speed is an invention of science fiction.
要是会研究曲速飞行的话 我们早就做了
If we knew how to work on warp speed, we would.
我们离光速飞行还差得远
We don’t know how to go anywhere near the speed of light.
光速飞行需要无限多的能量
It takes an unlimited amount of energy.
飞行速度越快 所需的能量就越多
The faster you go, the more energy it takes.
E等于M乘以C的平方
E equals MC squared.
所以能量随速度的平方而增加
It goes up with the square of the speed in fact.
要怎样生产那么多的电力?
So how can you generate that much electricity,
质量又会怎样变化?
and what does it do to your mass?
我们不知道
We don’t know.
我们认为人类或许能飞得比光速还快
We think maybe it’s possible that you could go faster than the speed of light,
但我们目前还不知道具体方法
but we sure don’t understand how right now.
所以这方面的研究不多
So we’re not really working on it.
所以曲速飞行不存在 希望它会实现
So, it’s not really true. We’re hoping for it.
在很多电影中
In so many movies you see
人活着飞越星际去另一个行星的唯一方法
that the only way that they survive interstellar travel from one star to another
就是把自己冷冻 进入低温睡眠状态
is to freeze yourself into cryosleep.
这个我们不会做
We don’t know how to do that.
血和人体的主要成分是水
Right now when you freeze water
当水结成冰的时候
which is what we’re mostly made of our blood and everything,
冰就会形成晶体
it goes into crystals, it turns into ice crystals,
美丽嫩弱的人体一旦被冷冻
and if you allow the beautiful, delicate nature
体内的水分就会膨胀成冰晶体
of your human body to expand into ice crystals,
导致人体的结构被破坏 人也就会死
it’ll destroy the structure of you, it’ll kill you,
比如 手一旦被冻伤就会遭到破坏 发生坏疽
you know, frostbite destroys it so that you get gangrene in your hand.
人体最终会被完全破坏掉
You end up with entirely destroyed body.
所以我们目前还无法成功冷冻人体
So right now we do not know how to successfully freeze a human body
让人体不会遭到永久性的破坏
so that it is not gonna be permanently destroyed.
方法可能某天会找到
Maybe we would figure it out someday,
但是把船员冷冻起来的电影情节
but all of those movies that rely on freezing the crew,
完全不真实 我们根本做不到
we don’t know how to do that. It’s not real.
网上经常会看到
You see on the Internet all the time.
有人制作了一颗气球
Someone has built a balloon
把一个装上相机的小塑像发射上去
and they’ve launched some little figurine with a camera attached to it
然后用相机在大气层高处拍照
where they take a picture way up high in the armosphere
让你看得到地球的弧度
you can see the curvature of the earth.
非常酷
It’s pretty cool.
但是有些人认为
But there are some people thinking you could fly yourself
用高空气球就可以自己飞到平流层去
all the way up to the stratosphere with some sort of high-altitude balloon.
这件事可以做到 但是做起来会很复杂
You can actually. But it’s really complicated.
费利克斯·鲍姆加特纳曾经从气球上跃出
Felix Baumgartner, when he did his leap out of a balloon
超越音速往地球坠下
and actually go through the speed of sound
最后用降落伞成功降落
falling down towards the earth and landing with a parashute.
他当时就处在平流层的高处
He was way up into the stratosphere.
平流层的起点在距离地面9-11公里处
The stratosphere starts at about six or seven miles up.
它虽然不是很高 但是却非常厚
It is not all that high but then it goes on for a long way.
那里空气不够呼吸
There’s not enough air to breathe,
所以你需要一架有增压系统的飞机
you kind of need to have an airliner with the pressure inside
身体才能在如此高处保持健康
to keep your body healthy if you are that high.
但是只要带着合适的装备
But if you take the right equipment with you, yes,
我们就可以用气球升空
we can use a balloon to lift us high enough
升到平流层里面去
to get all the way up in the stratosphere.
所以要有合适的装备才能做到
So if you have the right equipment, it’s true.
你可能曾在网上读到
You’ve probably read somewhere on the Internet that
你一去到空间站
if you go to the space station,
身体就会变高 膨胀
your body will get taller, sort of expand,
让你感到疼痛 永远变高
and it’ll be painful and you’re gonna be taller forever,
而这一切是不可逆转的
an irreversible experience.
这种说法不属实
and it’s not really true.
当我站在这里说话时
As I’m standing here talking right now,
重力正在把我推向地板
gravity is pushing me down towards the floor.
我身体中的每一根骨头
Every single bone in my body
还有骨头之间的那点软骨
and the little bit of gristle that’s in between the bones,
比如脊柱的每个脊椎骨
like each of the vertebra of my back,
每个人的脊椎骨之间有个小盘子
everyone has a little disc in between each of the bones,
臀部和膝盖骨头也一样
and even my hip bones and my knee bones.
骨头之间有个小缝隙
There’s a little bit of a gap.
假如没有重力把我压下
Well, if there’s no gravity pushing me down,
这些缝隙会稍微扩大一些
then those gaps can all get a tiny bit bigger.
如果连续几周处在无重力状态
If you stay in weightlessness for a few weeks,
人体就会被拉长
in fact your body just sort of stretches
因为骨头之间的缝隙会稍微扩大
because the gap between each of the bones gets a little bigger.
我自己就长高了这么多
And in my case I got about that much taller,
但你并非真的长高了
but you aren’t really taller,
你只是暂时变长了
you’re just sort of temporarily longer.
这不是永久的
But it’s not permanent.
你一回到地球
As soon as you get home,
重力就会起作用 把你往地面压下
and gravity starts doing its work on you, and grinding you down.
一切会被压回到发射时的状态
Everything squishes back down to its launch.
所以在太空 你可能会变高一段时间
So you may be for a little while a little bit taller in space,
而且背部会有点痛
and it may hurt your back a little
因为人体会被拉紧
’cause everything’s sort of getting pulled tight.
有些宇航员会因此而背痛
Some people have back pain in space as a result,
但他们不是真的长高
but it’s not really growing,
他们的身体只是自然地被拉到了极点
it’s just sort of stretching to your natural maximum.
你一回到地球就会被压回原形
Then you’re gonna get squished back again as soon as you get home.
如果你在太空呆上几周后
If you do get maybe that much longer
真的长高了那么多
after you’ve been in space for a few weeks.
想想你长裤的样子
Think what your pants would be like.
你的裤管会高高地吊在脚踝上方
You know, they’re gonna be high above your ankle
要是穿上了量身定做的宇航服
and if you put on a spacesuit, who custom fit the spacesuit to the size of your body,
这件事一定会发生
but we know it’s going to happen
所以我们会事先计划好
so we actually plan in advance.
我们定做宇航服的时候
We fit our spacesuits
已经知道宇航员到了太空就会稍微长高
knowing that the astronauts are gonna be a little bit taller when they’re in space,
或者至少他们的身体会被拉长
or at least their bodies are gonna be a little bit stretched,
我们回返地球时坐的防撞椅
and even the seat that protects us
也必须特别定制
when we come back to earth, a crash seat,
才能在我们落地时保护到我们
so that when we hit the ground it protects us properly.
我们会考虑到
We allow for the fact that
在太空里 我们的脊柱会稍微变长一些
our back bones are gonna be slightly longer when we’re up there.
但你不会知道衣服合不合身
But your clothes, you don’t really know how they fit,
因为你在无重状态下到处飘浮
because you’re floating around weightless.
你的衬衫总是围着你身体飘浮着
Your shirt is always floating around your body,
所以在太空 你无法感觉到衣服合不合身
so you never really have a sense up there how well your clothes fit
因为衣服不会被重力往下拉
just because there’s no gravity to pull them down
因此你感觉不到衣服有多合身
and look and see how well they’re fitting on your body.
衣服更像是在你身旁飘浮着
It’s more like they’re just floating next to you.
我曾经读到过 在国际空间站上
I’ve read somewhere that on-board the International Space Station
细菌的繁殖速度比地球快了10倍
bacteria multiplies ten times faster in space,
所以要是生病了
so if you get sick,
你的身体就会被饥饿的变种沙门氏菌摧毁
your body is gonna be like torn apart by this ravenous strain of mutant salmonella.
不会的啦
Nah.
国际空间站跟地球不一样
It is a different place than earth, the space station.
我们都会随身携带一些小拭子
We run around with little swabs all the time
来检测有没有微生物 病毒等小生物
to measure what microbes and what viruses and what little tiny bits of life
在航天器上生长
might be growing on the spaceship.
我们经常也会用清洁器和湿纸巾
We also go around with little cleaners and wet wipes
把整个空间站彻底抹干净
and wipe down the whole space station all the time,
就像在医院一样 为的是保持清洁卫生
like in a hospital, to try and keep the whole thing clean and hygienic.
我们也发现
And we are finding that
在太空梭的高辐射 无重力的环境下
some of those primitive forms of life do mutate slightly differently
这些原始生物中有一些会发生些许变种
in the high-radiation, weightless environment of the spaceship,
但目前还没有人因为变种沙门氏菌而死亡
but no one has died yet because of the mutant salmonella.
我是克里斯·哈德菲尔德
I’m Chris Hadfield.
希望这个视频能够解答有关太空的一些常见误解
Hopefully this has helped to answer some of those common space myths.

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视频概述

宇航员克里斯·哈德菲尔德为你揭示太空谜团

听录译者

翻译译者

搬那度

审核员

审核员ZY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t6rHHnABoT8

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