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阿希的从众实验:你能对抗群体思维吗?

Asch’s Conformity Experiment: Can You Withstand Groupthink?

Look at this line.
看着这条线
And now, look at these three lines.
现在 看着这三条线
Can you tell which of them matches that first line?
你能分辨出哪条线跟第一条相同吗?
And how sure are you?
你有多确定?
Hold that thought and listen to this story,
不要改变主意 听听这个故事
because most people can get this wrong.
因为大多数人会选错
Once upon a time,
从前
on the eve of a major religious holiday,
一个重要宗教日的前夕
a seven year old boy was observing his grandmother
一个七岁男孩观察着他的奶奶
as she poured an extra glass of wine.
因为她多倒了一杯酒
When the boy asked who the glass was for,
男孩问这杯酒是给谁的
she said that it was for the prophet.
她说是给先知的
The boy didn’t believe her,
男孩不相信她
so his uncle told him to just observe the glass closely.
叔叔让他密切关注杯子
Full of expectation, the boy watched the glass intently,
男孩期待满满地注视着杯子
and suddenly, he thought he saw the level of wine drop just a bit!
突然 他觉得自己看到酒的水平面下降了一点!
In 1951, decades after the incident,
事件发生几十年后的1951年
our boy became a pioneer in social psychology,
男孩成为了社会心理学的领袖
determined to rationalize what actually happened
他决定要为那个重要的夜晚
that fateful night.
实际发生的事做出合理解释
Did some of the wine really disappear,
酒真的消失了一部分吗?
or was he made to believe that?
他是被迫相信的吗?
To find out the truth,
为了找出真相
he devised an experiment to investigate
他设计实验调查
whether peer pressure can be strong enough to change our perception,
同伴压力是否强大到足以改变我们的想法
and make us believe in things that are not true.
让我们相信那些不真实的事
Solomon Asch’s conformity experiment was conducted with
所罗门·阿希的从众实验研究了
123 white, male college students.
123名白种男性大学生
who were told to be part of a study in visual judgment.
他们被要求参与视觉判断研究
Each student was introduced to a group of 6-8 other students,
每个学生加入到其他6到8名学生组成的一个小组
who were, in fact, actors who already knew what the experiment was about.
事实上 这几个人是已经知道实验内容的演员
The group was then gathered in a classroom and shown two cards.
小组在教室里集合 看了两张卡片
The first with one line, the second with three lines on it.
第一张有一条线 第二张有三条
Each student was then asked to say aloud
接着每个学生被要求大声说出
which line in the second card matched that first one.
第二张卡片中的哪条线与第一张相同
The group was seated in such a way that allowed the actors to respond first,
小组的座次能让演员先回答
leaving the real participant to respond last.
让真正的参与者最后回答
For the first two rounds,
前两轮
the fake students, also known as confederates, gave the correct answer
假扮学生的演员 作为同伙 给出正确答案
and the innocent student, known as the subject, said whatever he thought to be true.
天真的学生作为被试 说出他认为的正确答案
In the third round, the actors began to respond with a clearly wrong answer.
第三轮 演员开始作出明显错误的回答
For the next 12 rounds, dubbed “the critical trials”,
在接下来被称为“关键实验”的十二轮中
all the confederates would give the obviously wrong answer.
所有同伙给出明显错误的答案
So the innocent student could either ignore the majority or ignore the truth.
天真的学生可以无视大多数人 或者无视真相
So what did the experiment tell the researchers?
所以实验告诉了研究者什么?
Upon completing 18 rounds with all 123 subjects,
根据123名被试完成的18轮实验
the experiment came to the following conclusion.
得出以下结论
23% of the students always gave the right answer.
23%的学生始终给出正确回答
72% conformed to the majority at least once.
而72%至少有一次服从多数
And 5% completely succumbed to peer pressure
还有5%完全屈服于同伴压力
and always gave the obviously wrong answer.
始终给出明显错误的回答
Asch’s work also showed that if just one other acting student responded correctly,
阿希的实验还表明 只要有一位演员回答正确
the effect of peer pressure decreased substantially.
同伴压力的影响就会大大降低
The experiment also showed that the opinions of three peers
另外 三个同伴的观点就足以影响一个学生
are enough to influence a student to change his mind.
改变他的想法
Increasing the number beyond three confederates,
将同伴人数增加到三个以上
did not increase the levels of conformity among others.
并不会增加其他人的从众程度
Or put differently, if 3 people say something obviously wrong
或者换句话说 如果三个人说出明显错误的答案
and there is no one to disagree with them,
且无人反对
many of us agree with the wrong answer and start lying,
我们很多人就会认同错误答案并开始撒谎
due to our deeply human desire to fit in.
因为我们人类内心深处渴望融入群体
Since then, Asch’s experiment has been successfully replicated many times and
从此 阿希的实验成功重复了多次
the effect remains significant, especially among women and homogeneous peer groups.
效果依然显著 特别是在女性和同质化同辈群体中
In 1955, Asch famously said:” The tendency to conformity in our society
1955年 阿希有句名言“我们社会的从众倾向
is so strong that reasonably intelligent and well-meaning young people
太过强烈以致相当聪明又好心的年轻人
are willing to call white, black.
愿意颠倒黑白
This is a matter of concern.
这是个值得深思的问题
It raises questions about our ways of education
这引发了教育方式问题
and about the values that guide our conduct.”
以及指导我们行为的价值观问题”
What do you think? Would you have conformed or stuck to the truth?
你怎么看?你会从众还是坚持真理?
Do you see the Asch’s effect in your daily life or in social media?
你在日常生活或社交媒体中看到过阿希效应吗?
And what can we as adults or educators do
我们作为成年人或教育者能做些什么
to give young people today the strength to stand up and speak the truth?
来给予如今的年轻人站起来说实话的力量?
Share your thoughts in the comments below!
在下方评论区分享你的观点吧!
This and all other Sprouts’ videos are licensed under the Creative Commons.
本视频及Sprouts其它视频根据知识共享协议授权
That means teachers from all around the world can use them in classrooms, online courses or
这意味着全世界的老师可以在教室及线上课程使用
to start projects – and today, thousands already do!
或者用于开展课题——如今已有上千人这样做!
To learn how it works
想知道如何运作
and download this video without Ads or background music,
以及如何下载没有广告或背景音乐的视频
checkout our website or read the description below.
查看我们的网站或阅读下方介绍
If you want to support our mission and help change education,
如果你想支持我们的使命 帮助改变教育现状
visit our Patreon – that’s patreon.com/sprouts.
访问我们的众筹网站——即patreon.com/sprouts

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视频概述

阿希的从众实验体现了同伴压力对人们的影响,即人很难在群体中保持清醒而独立的认知。看过这个视频后,希望你能更勇敢地表达自己的观点,不再惧怕“不合群”。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

瑞瑞Rita

审核员

审核员DJS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WkK5eA_qhFk

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