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敦煌艺术展

Искусство Дуньхуана / Art of Dunhuang / 敦煌艺术

敦煌艺术
The wealth of the cultural heritage of the city Dunhuang
敦煌城因其独特的地理位置
is due to its unique geographical position.
而拥有了文化遗产财富
During a period of several centuries,
历史中有几个世纪
Dunhuang was a small Chinese border town.
敦煌曾一度是中国一个边境小镇
In the first millennum A.D. rich caravans passed through it,
公元1000年 富裕的商队途径敦煌
along with the caravans went pilgrims and palmers.
随行而来的还有朝圣者和僧侣的队伍
And as the city got richer,
随着敦煌城愈发繁荣
the local monastic buildings grew in artistic splendour.
当地的寺庙建筑开始绽放出艺术的光彩
At the beginning of the 20th century expeditions of European scholars flocked here.
20世纪初 欧洲学者考察队齐聚敦煌
The Russian scholar Sergey Oldenburg brought to Russia
我们在艾尔米塔什博物馆看到的敦煌展品
the exhibits we can see in the Hermitage.
就是由俄罗斯学者Sergey Oldenburg带回的
[音乐]
Halls of the Thousand Buddhas.
千佛洞
The Art of Central Asia in the Hermitage Museum.
艾尔米塔什博物馆的中亚艺术
The Art of Dunhuang.
敦煌艺术
In these two halls are exhibited art pieces
这两个展厅中的艺术品
which were brought by the Russian Turkistan Expedition under the direction of Sergey Oldenburg
均是由Sergey Oldenburg带领的俄罗斯土耳其斯坦考察队
from the cave monastery in the surroundings of the city of Dunhuang.
从敦煌城周边的佛洞寺里带回俄罗斯的
Murals are displayed here with sculptures
这里展示着壁画 还有雕塑
and paintings on canvas, on silk, on paper, fragments of cloth,
以及画在画布 绢丝 纸面 碎布
and various other materials, including working materials of the expedition.
甚至探险用的材料等其他各种材料上的绘画
The city of Dunhuang is situated on the north-west border of China.
敦煌城位于中国的西北边界
Trade routes ran through Dunhuang,
商路都途经敦煌
including the famous Silk Road.
包括著名的丝绸之路
In the environs of Dunhuang cave monasteries grew up in which monks lived.
于是在敦煌周围 僧人居住的佛洞渐渐多起来
They began to decorate some of these monasteries with mural paintings and sculptures.
他们开始用壁画和雕塑装饰部分佛洞
The monastery from which the objects in our collection was formed in the fourth century.
我们展览的藏品所在石窟形成于四世纪
They began to improve and decorate the caves where the monks lived.
那时 僧人们开始对自己居住的石窟进行修缮和装饰
Gradually a large number of caves were carved, about four hundred.
慢慢开凿出了多达大约400个石窟
These caves high on the bank of the river
这些位于河岸高处的石窟
formed the complex of the cave monastery of Mogao,
构成了莫高窟错综的佛洞结构
to which scholars from Europe came at the beginning of the twentieth century.
而二十世纪初欧洲学者正是来的这里
The monastery has existed over a period of almost ten centuries,
那些佛洞已经存在近十个世纪
or even a little more.
甚至更久
The earliest formation of the caves, and their decoration,
石窟最早的形成和装饰
goes back to the fourth century.
可追溯至四世纪
When the first Buddhist pilgrims appeared here on China’s borders
第一批佛教朝圣者来到中国边境时
they had to wait for permission to enter the Empire.
必须在这儿等待入境的许可
The period when they flourished was during the Sui and Tang dynasties.
入境朝圣兴盛于隋唐朝代
This may be located between the 6th and the 10th centuries A.D.
大约是公元6到10世纪之间
The complex existed still in the 11th-13th centuries.
至11到13世纪依然还有这种繁荣纷呈的景象
But during the Mongol invasions of these territories life ebbed away.
但随着蒙古人入侵 这里的繁荣景象衰退下来
However, monks continued to live here even after this.
然而之后僧人们仍继续住在了这里
People in general continued to populate these places later.
后来普通人也继续在这里繁衍生息
In 1900 there was an astonishing discovery.
1900年 一个发现惊动了世人
A bricked-up cave was discovered in Dunhuang
在敦煌发现了一个砖砌的洞窟
and in it a large collection of manuscripts, icons,
里面出土了大量的手稿 圣像
tapestries and Buddhist images on paper were unearthed.
壁毯以及纸本的佛像
When they discovered the cave in 1900,
1900年发现这个石窟时
European scholars grew interested in these materials.
欧洲学者们对这些物料产生了浓厚兴趣
The first to come here was Sir Aurel Stein from England.
最先来到这里的是英国人Aurel Stein爵士
Then came the French scholar Paul Pelliot.
接着是法国学者Paul Pelliot
In 1914 the Russian expedition arrived led by Sergey Fyodorovich Oldenburg
Sergey Fyodorovich Oldenburg带领俄国探险队在1914年抵达
Here Mahayana Buddhism became widespread.
大乘佛教开始在这里盛行
That is why these caves were called the Caves of the Thousand Buddhas
这些石窟之所以被称为千佛洞
because, as you see,
是因为 你看
in many pictures there is a repetition of very similar images.
许多画里都重复出现相似的画像
The monks and worshippers very frequently made offerings in the temple.
僧人和朝拜者在佛寺里频频布施
In this way, by rewarding the buddhist images,
他们希望通过供奉佛像的方式
they tried to attain immortality and hoped for salvation in further incarnations.
获得永生和得到更多的救赎
We very often see these people who left gifts
我们经常会看到这些献礼的人
in the representations: the donors.
他们称为:供养人
For example on certain wall painting
比如在某些壁画上
we see monks at the bottom.
我们会在画的底部看到僧人
In other images we see family members represented.
而在其他壁画中 我们看到的是家族成员
Even the names of the people who paid for these pictures and tapestries are given.
甚至还会看到这些画和壁毯买家的名字
The caves were decorated in a particular way according to a fixed principle.
这些石窟是按固定法则以特殊方式装饰的
Opposite the entrance there was generally a group of sculptures representing Buddha and boddhisatvas attendants.
入口对面通常有一组佛和菩萨侍者的雕塑
On the walls there were paintings.
墙上绘有壁画
These paintings in the caves have in many cases been preserved.
许多石窟壁画都保存了下来
They cover the cave wall more or less from floor to ceiling.
壁画几乎覆盖了石窟里从地面到藻井的墙面
In the lower part they can be representations of jataka tales –
靠下面的部分画的是本生经——
stories of the life and incarnations of the Buddha.
即佛陀降生和转世的故事
On the walls there were habitually a large number
按惯例墙面上会有大量的
of images of Buddha or various heavenly beings.
佛陀和各种天神的画像
The ceilings were painted with ornaments,
藻井画着装饰画
bright and colourful and with geometrical floral motifs.
颜色鲜亮多彩 呈几何花卉图案
Out of everything we see here maybe the most important is
这里所见的所有展品中
the painting representing the Western Pure Land (Sukhavati)
最重要当数描述阿弥陀佛主掌的
where the Buddha Amitabha presides.
西方净土(梵语Sukhavati)的绘画
The Buddha is represented in the centre.
佛陀位于画面中间
Two boddhisatvas stand on either side of him.
两位菩萨分别站在佛陀两边
Lower down are musicians playing on various instruments.
下面是演奏各种乐器的乐师
The Western Pure Land or land of Buddha Amitabha is the domain where Buddha Amitabha resides.
西方净土或阿弥陀佛之地是阿弥陀佛的居所
These lands may belong to other Buddhas,
这些可能是其他佛陀的地域
but here we see represented only Sukhavati.
但画面上我们只看到西方净土
There is a pond in this land
西方净土里有一个池塘
where the souls of the righteous are regenerated in lotus blossoms.
在这里 正义的灵魂在莲花中重生
They are awaiting their next rebirth, the crossing to Nirvana.
他们在等待下一次重生 走向涅槃
And in the Pure Land they have this happy life.
在净土中他们可以得到这种幸福的生活
Aside from this, you can observe sculpture.
除此之外 你还可以观察雕像
The sculpture also represents Buddhas, boddhisatvas, and monks.
这些雕像也是代表了佛陀 菩萨和僧人
Certainly, some of the most expressive works are the heads of the boddhisatvas.
当然 其中最具代表性的是菩萨头像
Unfortunately whole statues have not been preserved, just the heads.
很遗憾没能保存下全身而只保存下头部
The expressions on their faces are truly penetrating.
他们的面部表情实在太具感染力
If you stand in front of these faces and try to look them in the eye,
如果站在这些头像前凝视他们的眼睛
they exert their influence even on us.
我们甚至会被他们感染
So you can imagine the impression it made
于是你就可以想象到
upon the parishioners of the Buddhist temple.
它对佛寺的教区人民产生了怎样的影响
In this hall there are also relics
这个展厅里还有
from the cave monastery in the environs of Dunhuang.
敦煌周边佛洞寺里的文物
Here we see mainly paintings.
这里展览的主要是绘画
There are paintings on canvas, on silk, and on paper.
绘于画布 绢丝或纸面上的画
Fragments of paintings represent boddhisatvas or the terrain of Sukhivata.
一片片的画面展现了菩萨或净土之貌
And maybe a specially interesting example is
这幅画也许格外有意思
the painting on paper with a representation
这是一副纸本的画
of the pilgrim carrying the Buddhist scrolls and books.
描绘的是一个带着佛经卷轴和佛书的朝圣者
This pilgrim is a typical example of a Buddhist preacher.
这个朝圣者是讲经人的典型形象
There are several similar representations.
有几种类似的画像形式
One of them is contained in our collection.
我们的藏品中就有其中一种
The image of the donors is interesting.
供养人的画像很有意思
The donors are represented in paintings on the walls
供养人的画像
in the lower parts of tankas and banners in the paintings
画在墙面上短诗和横幅的下面
It is interesting that frequently the names of the donors
有趣的是 在供养人的画像旁
were signed next to the images.
常常会写上他们的名字
We can even speak of actual people
于是我们甚至可以谈论
who made it possible to build the Buddhist monastery.
这些让建造佛寺成为可能的真实的人们
Also, these two fanstastic beasts are also very interesting.
这两个神兽也非常有趣
These are creatures from mythology, suggestive of lions or dogs.
它们是象征狮子或狗的神兽
I assume, they sat at the entrance to the cave
我猜 它们负责坐在石窟的入口
with the job of guarding the Buddhist cave against intruders with wicked intentions or against evil spirits.
抵御恶意的侵入者或恶魔闯入佛洞
No more such sculptures from Dunhuang are known.
敦煌没有更多这样的雕塑了
These sculptures are made, like dolls,
和制作洋娃娃一样 这些雕塑的制作方法是
from bunches of straw covered with clay or loess and then painted.
先用一捆粘土或黄土包裹的稻草作出模型然后上色
They are very fragile.
它们非常脆弱
These sculptures were brought to St. Petersburg,
而这些雕塑被带到了圣彼得堡
and that’s why they were preserved.
才因此得以保存
They would hardly have survived in their original position in Dunhuang.
而它们在原产地敦煌却很难被保存下来
Author: Manas Sirakanyan
作者:Manas Sirakanyan

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视频概述

艾尔米塔什博物馆工作人员为你讲述敦煌佛洞寺文物的历史,包括莫高窟寺院群、千佛洞、菩萨头像、各种壁画等

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Joanna.J

审核员

审核员Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2qy1O0mBIe4

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