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艺术能够治疗创伤后应激障碍的无形伤痕

Art can heal PTSD's invisible wounds | Melissa Walker

你是一个高级军官
You are a high-ranking military service member
现服役于阿富汗
deployed to Afghanistan.
你要对上百个
You are responsible for the lives
男兵女兵的生命负责
of hundreds of men and women,
你的基地遭到袭击
and your base is under attack.
散落的炮弹 在你的身边爆炸
Incoming mortar rounds are exploding all around you.
在尘埃和烟雾中 你挣扎着想看清
Struggling to see through the dust and the smoke,
去尽最大努力帮助伤者
you do your best to assist the wounded
并爬到附近的掩体
and then crawl to a nearby bunker.
意识清醒 但对爆炸感到迷茫
Conscious but dazed by the blasts,
你躺倒 尝试 思考刚刚发什么了
you lay on your side and attempt to process what has just happened.
当你重新获得 你的视觉的时候
As you regain your vision,
你看到了一个 流血的脸庞
you see a bloody face
盯着你
staring back at you.
这个画面让人恐惧
The image is terrifying,
但是你很快明白
but you quickly come to understand
这不是真的
it’s not real.
这个画面在白天和夜里 多次出现 并持续侵扰着你
This vision continues to visit you multiple times a day and in your sleep.
你决定闭口不谈 害怕会失去工作
You choose not to tell anyone for fear of losing your job
或被当成弱者
or being seen as weak.
你给这个画面 取了一个名字
You give the vision a name,
地堡中的血腥面孔
Bloody Face in Bunker,
简称“地堡血脸”
and call it BFIB for short.
你把“地堡血脸” 封锁在你的脑海里
You keep BFIB locked away in your mind,
不为人知地侵扰着你
secretly haunting you,
整整七年
for the next seven years.
现在闭上你的眼睛
Now close your eyes.
你能看到“地堡血脸”吗?
Can you see BFIB?
如果你可以 你就能够看到
If you can, you’re beginning to see the face
战争无形创伤的样子
of the invisible wounds of war,
称作“创伤后应激障碍”
commonly known as post-traumatic stress disorder
或者创伤性脑损伤
and traumatic brain injury.
虽然我没有得过 创伤后应激障碍
While I can’t say I have post-traumatic stress disorder,
但是我对它并不陌生
I’ve never been a stranger to it.
当我还是个小女孩的时候 我会在每个夏天拜访祖父母
When I was a little girl, I would visit my grandparents every summer.
我的祖父
It was my grandfather
他告诉我了战争的心理影响
who introduced me to the effects of combat on the psyche.
当我祖父在朝鲜战争 服役海军的时候
While my grandfather was serving as a Marine in the Korean War,
一颗子弹穿过他的脖子 让他无法叫出声
a bullet pierced his neck and rendered him unable to cry out.
他看见医护兵 从他身边走过
He watched as a corpsman passed him over,
以为他已经无药可治
declaring him a goner,
把他留下等待死亡
and then leaving him to die.
几年过后 当身体的伤痊愈
Years later, after his physical wounds had healed
他回到家
and he’d returned home,
他却很少在清醒的时候 说过自己的经历
he rarely spoke of his experiences in waking life.
但是晚上 我能够听到他的怒号
But at night I would hear him shouting obscenities
从走廊尽头的房间里传来
from his room down the hall.
白天我进入房间时会提醒我自己
And during the day I would announce myself as I entered the room,
要小心翼翼地 不要惊吓或激怒他
careful not to startle or agitate him.
他就这样 度过了剩下的日子
He lived out the remainder of his days
孤独和紧张的
isolated and tight-lipped,
找不到一个表达自己的方式
never finding a way to express himself,
那时候我还没有找到 能够引导他的方式
and I didn’t yet have the tools to guide him.
我也不知道 他那种疾病的名字
I wouldn’t have a name for my grandfather’s condition
直到我20岁的时候
until I was in my 20s.
攻读艺术疗法的学位
Seeking a graduate degree in art therapy,
我自然而然地 倾向创伤的研究
I naturally gravitated towards the study of trauma.
当我在教室 学习创伤后应激障碍时
And while sitting in class learning about post-traumatic stress disorder,
简称PTSD
or PTSD for short,
帮助像我祖父一样患病的军人为目标
my mission to help service members who suffered like my grandfather
开始在我心中确立
began to take form.
创伤后应激障碍有很多名字
We’ve had various names for post-traumatic stress
在战争历史上:
throughout the history of war:
乡愁
homesickness,
士兵的心病
soldier’s heart,
炮弹休克症
shell shock,
目光呆滞等等
thousand-yard stare, for instance.
在我攻读学位的时候 一场战争爆发
And while I was pursuing my degree, a new war was raging,
感谢现代装备和军用交通工具
and thanks to modern body armor and military vehicles,
军人爆炸受伤 的存活率达到历史新高
service members were surviving blast injuries they wouldn’t have before.
但是无形伤疤也达到新高
But the invisible wounds were reaching new levels,
这使得军医和研究人员
and this pushed military doctors and researchers
尝试真正理解创伤性脑损伤 也就是TBI
to try and truly understand the effects that traumatic brain injury, or TBI,
和PTSD对脑的影响
and PTSD have on the brain.
因为科技的进步 和神经影像的发展
Due to advances in technology and neuroimaging,
我们现在知道脑部的 布罗卡氏区 就是大脑语言部分
we now know there’s an actual shutdown in the Broca’s,
会在个人创伤经历后停止工作
or the speech-language area of the brain, after an individual experiences trauma.
这个生理变化
This physiological change,
经常被称作失语症
or speechless terror as it’s often called,
伴随心理创伤
coupled with mental health stigma,
怕被歧视和误解
the fear of being judged
的那种恐惧感
or misunderstood,
即使调离了军人岗位
possibly even removed from their current duties,
都有可能造成伤兵的无形的痛苦
has led to the invisible struggles of our servicemen and women.
一代一代的退伍军人
Generation after generation of veterans
都选择对他们 的经历闭口不谈
have chosen not to talk about their experiences,
一个人受苦
and suffer in solitude.
我的第一份工作非常适合我
I had my work cut out for me when I got my first job
是在国家最大的军用医疗中心 沃尔特-里德陆军医疗中心
as an art therapist at the nation’s largest military medical center,
担任一名艺术治疗医师
Walter Reed.
在一个心理疾病部门 工作几年后
After working for a few years on a locked-in patient psychiatric unit,
我被调到国家军人治疗中心 NICoE
I eventually transferred to the National Intrepid Center of Excellence, NICoE,
NICoE在现役军人TBI治疗方面处于领先地位
which leads TBI care for active duty service members.
我相信艺术治疗
Now, I believed in art therapy,
但是我需要说服一些军人
but I was going to have to convince service members,
强壮的男子气概的军人
big, tough, strong, manly military men,
和一些女兵
and some women too,
让他们尝试把艺术 当作心理治疗
to give art-making as a psychotherapeutic intervention a try.
结果非常可观
The results have been nothing short of spectacular.
我们的军人创造出了
Vivid, symbolic artwork
许多生动 具有象征性的作品
is being created by our servicemen and women,
每一件作品讲述着一个故事
and every work of art tells a story.
我们发现艺术治疗的过程
We’ve observed that the process of art therapy bypasses
绕过了脑部的失语症
the speech-language issue with the brain.
艺术创作接触到了 被封锁的大脑创伤
Art-making accesses the same sensory areas of the brain that encode trauma.
军人能够用艺术创作 表达他们的经历
Service members can use the art-making to work through their experiences
通过一个无害的方式
in a nonthreatening way.
他们能够把文字 用在创作上
They can then apply words to their physical creations,
重新连接左半边 和右半边大脑
reintegrating the left and the right hemispheres of the brain.
我们发现各种形式 的艺术都可以
Now, we’ve seen this can work with all forms of art —
绘画 素描 拼贴
drawing, painting, collage —
但是似乎影响最大的
but what seems to have the most impact
是面具制作
is mask-making.
最终 这些无形的伤疤 不仅仅有了一个名字
Finally, these invisible wounds don’t just have a name,
还有了脸
they have a face.
当军人创造这些面具的时候
And when service members create these masks,
真的 他们能够抓住创伤
it allows them to come to grips, literally, with their trauma.
他们能够打破和开始修复创伤
And it’s amazing how often that enables them
真令人惊奇
to break through the trauma and start to heal.
记得“地堡血脸”吗?
Remember BFIB?
那是一位我的病人 的真实经历
That was a real experience for one of my patients,
当他创作面具的时候
and when he created his mask,
他能够摆脱画面的困扰
he was able to let go of that haunting image.
刚开始 对军人来说 这是一个吓人的过程
Initially, it was a daunting process for the service member,
但是最后 他开始把 “地堡血脸”当成面具
but eventually he began to think of BFIB as the mask,
而不是他的内心世界
not his internal wound,
他离开治疗时
and he would go to leave each session,
他给我那个面具 并说: “梅丽莎 照顾好他”
he would hand me the mask, and say, “Melissa, take care of him.”
最后 我们把“地堡血脸” 放在盒子里
Eventually, we placed BFIB in a box to further contain him,
当那个军人 离开NICoE的时候
and when the service member went to leave the NICoE,
他选择留下“地堡血脸”
he chose to leave BFIB behind.
一年后 他只见到“地堡血脸”两次
A year later, he had only seen BFIB twice,
而且“地堡血脸”都在笑
and both times BFIB was smiling
军人不再感到紧张
and the service member didn’t feel anxious.
现在 当那个军人 被创伤记忆所侵扰时
Now, whenever that service member is haunted by some traumatic memory,
他会继续绘画
he continues to paint.
每一次他画这些 令人不安的画面时
Every time he paints these disturbing images,
他很少或者不会看到它们
he sees them less or not at all.
哲学家告诉我们上千年来
Philosophers have told us for thousands of years
创造的力量
that the power to create
是和摧毁的力量 紧紧相关的
is very closely linked to the power to destroy.
现在科学告诉我们
Now science is showing us that the part of the brain
造成创伤的大脑部分
that registers a traumatic wound
也是发生修复的部分
can be the part of the brain where healing happens too.
艺术治疗展示我们 如何将它们连接起来
And art therapy is showing us how to make that connection.
我们让一个军人
We asked one of our service members
去描述面具制作是怎样影响他的治疗的
to describe how mask-making impacted his treatment,
这是他的回复-
and this is what he had to say.
(音频) 军人:你好像进入了面具中
(Video) Service Member: You sort of just zone out into the mask.
你进入了绘画中
You zone out into the drawing,
对于我来说 它释放了积压
and for me, it just released the block,
所以我能够做下去
so I was able to do it.
然后当我在两天后看着 它的时候 我说:
And then when I looked at it after two days, I was like,
“我的天哪 这就是那个画面 就是那个钥匙 就是那个谜团”
“Holy crap, here’s the picture, here’s the key, here’s the puzzle,”
然后它就这样离开
and then from there it just soared.
我的意思是 治疗就这样结束了
I mean, from there my treatment just when out of sight,
因为他们让我解释一下这些
because they were like, Kurt, explain this, explain this.
然后23年来第一次
And for the first time in 23 years,
我能够像普通人一样 谈论这些事情
I could actually talk about stuff openly to, like, anybody.
如果我想 我现在 就能够告诉你们
I could talk to you about it right now if I wanted to,
因为它的封锁被解除了
because it unlocked it.
太神奇了
It’s just amazing.
它能够把我23年的PTSD
And it allowed me to put 23 years of PTSD
和TBI抛之脑后
and TBI stuff together in one place
从来没有过
that has never happened before.
不好意思
Sorry.
梅丽莎 沃尔克:过去的五年里
Melissa Walker: Over the past five years,
我们制作了一千个面具
we’ve had over 1,000 masks made.
很神奇 对吗?
It’s pretty amazing, isn’t it?
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
(Applause)
我希望我能够跟 我的祖父分享这个过程
I wish I could have shared this process with my grandfather,
我知道他会很激动
but I know that he would be thrilled
因为我们发现了
that we are finding ways
帮助现在和未来军人治愈
to help today’s and tomorrow’s service members heal,
和找到内心痛苦 的源头的方法
and finding the resources within them
让他们能够自省
that they can call upon
并自我治愈
to heal themselves.
谢谢
Thank you.
[掌声]
(Applause)

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视频概述

创意艺术治疗医师Melissa・Walker说:伤疤让受害者保持沉默。但是艺术能够帮助治愈那些受心理创伤之苦的人,帮助他们敞开心扉。在这个启发人心的演说中,Walker讲述了面具制作是如何让饱受折磨的军人们发现是什么缠绕着他们,并最终走出阴影。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qs9m8obl0AY

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