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艺术与建筑:奥斯卡·尼迈耶

ART/ARCHITECTURE - Oscar Niemeyer

《生命学院》
艺术与建筑
奥斯卡·尼迈耶
one of the most remarkable aspects of the modernist movement in architecture
现代主义建筑运动的标志之一
was the idea that buildings should pretty much look the same
就是地球上任何地方的建筑
wherever on earth they happen to be.
都应该看起来一样的理念
The key early figures of Modernism
现代主义早期的重要人物
were united in their opposition to any kind of regional architecture,
曾联合反对任何类型的地域建筑
which they saw as reactionary, folkloric and mediocre.
他们认为地域建筑保守 民俗且平庸
The Brazilian architect Oscar Niemeyer began his career
巴西建筑师奥斯卡·尼迈耶的职业生涯
as an orthodox modernist.
以一名正统现代主义者开始
He was born in Rio de Janeiro in 1907
他于1907年出生于里约热内卢
and developed a passion for architecture in his early teens.
并在十几岁时便爱上了建筑
As a young man, he fell in with a group
年轻时 他遇见了一群
that venerated the great European Modernist architects,
欧洲现代主义建筑师的崇拜者
especially Le Corbusier,
他们尤其敬仰勒·柯布西耶
who had insisted on making sure buildings made no concession whatsoever
他坚决不让建筑物
to the culture in which they happened to be located.
向当地文化做任何让步
Niemeyer’s professional dreams were realised when, in 1936,
1936年 尼迈耶的职业梦想得以实现
Le Corbusier came to Rio to design the new Ministry of Education and Health
勒·柯布西耶来到里约热内卢 设计新的教育卫生部大楼
and Niemeyer got a job on the project.
尼迈耶得以参与到这个项目中
While working with him
在与勒·柯布西耶一起工作期间
Niemeyer retained the utmost respect for Le Corbusier,
尼迈耶始终非常尊重他
but at the same time, he couldn’t help but observe
但与此同时 他又难以不注意到
how blind his guest was to the particularities of Brazilian culture and climate.
他的客人对于巴西特殊的文化和气候有多么视而不见
With what would become his legendary charm, Niemeyer managed to persuade Le Corbusier
凭借他那传奇般的魅力 他成功说服了勒·柯布西耶
to abandon some of his more hard-edged ‘universalist’ ideas,
放弃一些比较尖锐的“普遍主义”观点
and to start to make some concessions to local conditions.
并开始对当地情况做出一些让步
Under Niemeyer’s influence, the building’s windows acquired shades against the sun,
在尼迈耶的影响下 建筑物窗户使用了遮阳设计
and even an enormous traditional Portuguese piece of tile work
甚至还在一层公共区域放置了一件巨大的传统葡萄牙瓷砖作品
done up with beautiful abstract motifs, for the public areas on the ground floor.
上面装饰着美丽的抽象图案
Emboldened by his success,
在成功的鼓舞下
Niemeyer felt ready to break free from European Modernism.
尼迈耶做好了打破欧洲现代主义的准备
He is now celebrated for being the first modernist architect
如今他作为世界上第一位
anywhere in the world to practice a regional kind of Modernism,
实践地域现代主义的建筑师而闻名
in his case, a Brazilian-infused modernism.
他所实践的现代主义融入了巴西文化
His first wholly original work was completed in 1943, when he was 36,
1943年 年仅36岁的他完成了第一件完全独创的作品
the church of Saint Francis of Assisi in Belo Horizonte.
位于好景市的阿西西圣方济各教堂
The church had no straight lines on any plane,
这个教堂的任何平面上都没有直线设计
for Niemeyer now judged these to be European
因为尼迈耶认为这些属于欧式风格
and in many ways authoritarian.
在很多方面上代表独裁主义
Niemeyer was henceforth to include curves in all his buildings,
此后 尼迈耶在他所有的建筑中都加入了曲线
and saw these in a nationalistic light
并以民族主义的眼光看待这些建筑
as being particularly Brazilian in nature.
认为曲线在本质上是巴西特有的
He remarked “What attracts me is the free and sensual curve,
他说 吸引我的是自由和感性的曲线
the curve that I find in the mountains of my country,
它们在我国的山上
in the sinuous course of its rivers
在蜿蜒的河流中
and in the bodies of beautiful Brazilian women.”
在美丽的巴西女人的身体上
The latter point about women is telling
关于女人的这一点诠释着
Niemeyer was deeply responsive to female beauty throughout his life.
尼迈耶的一生都对女性美有着深深的迷恋
He was famous around Rio for his affairs
他的婚外情在里约热内卢家喻户晓
many with people dramatically younger than he was.
许多出轨对象都比他年轻得多
At 92, he acquired a girlfriend who had just turned 25.
92岁时 他交了一个刚满25岁的女朋友
As in the Ministry of Health, the Pampulha Church had tiles across it.
和卫生部大楼一样 潘普拉教堂内也铺上了瓷砖
They reminded the viewers that Brazil could be both modern
它们提醒观客 巴西既是现代化的
and yet recall its heritage,
又保留了一定传统
that a church might nod towards the forms of a futuristic airplane hanger,
一个教堂可能畅想了未来飞机库的形式
and yet could at the same time accommodate a depiction of Saint Francis.
也描绘了圣方济各
Niemeyer’s most audacious attempt to define Brazilian identity
尼迈耶定义巴西风格最大胆的尝试
came with his designs for the new capital, Brasília.
是他对新首都巴西利亚的设计
In 1956, President Kubitschek of Brazil asked Niemeyer to help
1956年 巴西总统库比切克请尼迈耶帮忙
create a wholly planned city in the centre of the country
规划一个位于国家中心的城市
free from the corruption of the old capital in Rio.
远离旧首都里约热内卢的衰败气息
Niemeyer drew up the National Congress, a cathedral, a cultural complex
尼迈耶起草了国民大会 大教堂 文化中心
many ministries and commercial and residential buildings.
许多政府部门以及商业住宅楼宇的设计
The atmosphere was dignified, hopeful, and in touch with the native environment.
气氛凝重而充满希望 与当地环境相协调
Apartment buildings were often lifted on stilts to allow vegetation to grow beneath them,
公寓常用支柱架高 植物得以在楼下生长
maintaining a connection with the local ecology and tropical climate.
保持着与当地生态和热带气候的联系
Of course, Niemeyer’s works depicted Brazil not as it was,
当然 尼迈耶作品所描绘的并不是巴西原来的样子
but as he believed and hoped it might one day be.
而是他相信和希望它将变成的样子
Brasilia imagines the Brazil of the future.
巴西利亚是对未来的巴西的想象
It is a glass and reinforced concrete ideal for the country to develop towards.
它是国家发展的一个玻璃和钢筋混凝土典范
In the future, so the capitol argues
如国会所说 未来的巴西
Brazil will be a place where rationality is powerful,
将是一个非常理性的地方
where order and harmony reign,
是一个秩序良好且和谐
where elegance and serenity are normal.
优雅而宁静的地方
Niemeyer was prolific until his very last years,
尼迈耶在晚年也依旧多产
teaching around the world, writing and designing sculptures and furniture.
他在世界各地教学 写作 设计雕塑和家具
He died in 2012, when he was 104 years old.
他于2012年去世 享年104岁
He was given a hero’s funeral and thousands joined the cortege.
他以英雄之礼出殡 前来送葬的人成千上万
What his nation was honouring was an architect
巴西所致敬的是
who had given it a workable yet ideal portrait of itself.
一位给予国家可行且完美蓝图的建筑师
He had enabled Brazil to break free from a sterile European modernism,
他使巴西打破了枯燥乏味的欧洲现代主义
and to create buildings that better reflected the nation’s uniqueness.
并建造更具有国家特色的建筑
Niemeyer remains an example to all architects
尼迈耶仍然是许多建筑师的榜样
who aspire to put up buildings that remember the distinctiveness of their locations,
他们渴望能建造出融入地域特色的建筑物
architects who may like their computers or their phones to be universal in design,
他们可能想让自己电脑或手机的设计更大众化
but are as keen for their buildings to be culturally specific.
但渴望自己设计的建筑物具有文化特色
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视频概述

巴西现代主义建筑师奥斯卡·尼迈耶的设计理念。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=37zF36oq0jE

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