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艺术与建筑:卡斯帕·大卫·弗里德里希 – 译学馆
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艺术与建筑:卡斯帕·大卫·弗里德里希

ART/ARCHITECTURE - Caspar David Friedrich

艺术与建筑
卡斯帕·大卫·弗里德里希
One of the unexpectedly important things that art can do for us
艺术能给予我们的意想不到的重要事情之一
is teach us how to suffer.
就是教会我们如何承受痛苦
It can do so by evoking scenes
它通过这种方式来达成这一点:
that are dark melancholy or painful
描绘阴暗忧郁或令人不快的景色
and that normalize and lend dignity to the feelings of suffering
将痛苦感视为生活的常态 并赋予其尊严
that we might otherwise be experiencing in isolation or confusion.
不然 我们可能会在孤独或混乱中经历苦痛
They reveal with grandeur and technical skill
这些景色以壮观的场面 通过画家的表现技法
that grief belongs to the human condition.
揭示了悲伤乃人之常情
Caspar David Friedrich a painter of sublime sadness
卡斯帕·大卫·弗里德里希是一位肃穆悲怆的画家
was born in 1774 in Greifswald,
他于1774年出生于格赖夫斯瓦尔德
an ancient trading town in the far north of Germany on the Baltic coast.
那是德国北部波罗的海沿岸的古老贸易城镇
It was a beautiful place in a severe northern sort of way.
它是一个美丽的地方 带有北方冷峻风格
As a child he loved the way the pinnacles spires and towers at the town
孩提时代 他就热爱初夏晨雾中
loomed above the trees in the haze of the very early summer mornings.
小镇的尖塔和塔楼 影影绰绰浮现于树梢之上
His father was a modest artisan of few words and little warmth
他的父亲是位谦和的工匠 寡言又冷淡
and his beloved mother died when he was only young.
他亲爱的母亲在他年幼时就离世了
When he was 13 he saw his younger brother Johann Christopher
13岁那年 他目睹了弟弟约翰·克里斯托弗
fall through the ice of a frozen lake and drown.
跌落于冰冷的湖泊中 溺水身亡
He grew up shy taciturn and intense.
他长成了一个害羞 沉默 感情强烈的男子
He was trained as a painter from an early age,
从早年起 他就接受了绘画训练
but there were many years of poverty and hardship
但是在自己独特的风格开始显露前
before his distinctive style began to emerge.
他经历了多年的穷困潦倒
The taste of the era favored sunny classical landscapes.
那个时代的品味偏爱阳光明媚的古典风景
Summer in Italy was the ideal.
意大利的夏日风景是最理想的
But Friedrich was drawn to aspects of nature that
然后弗里德里希却被大自然的另一面所吸引
up to that point people thought of as uninteresting and disagreeable
那些在当时被世人认为是无趣且令人不快的景象:
cold, damp mornings, glacial nights by the sea
寒冷潮湿的清晨 海边凛冽的夜晚
the pale hour before the sun rises, the flooded fields of late spring.
日出前天边那缕鱼肚白 晚春时洪水泛滥的田野
Frederich’s first mature work, his first big picture
弗里德里希开始展示自己人生观的
where he started to present his own view of life
第一幅成熟作品 第一幅大作
was a shock to his contemporaries.
震惊了他同时代的人
Instead of the conventional angels,
他笔下的基督受难
weeping saints and soldiers
没有传统的天使 哭泣的信徒和士兵
he depicted the crucifixion of Jesus
而是在日耳曼冷杉丛中
is happening on top of a mountainous crag amidst Teutonic fir trees
悬崖峭壁之巅 基督被钉在了十字架上
with the sun’s rays striking the clouds behind.
其时太阳正从云层背后发出绚烂的光
Friedrich realized then
弗里德里希那时意识到
that nature could express many of the solemn moods
大自然可以表达很多庄重情绪
that had previously been associated with the literal rendition of the Christian story.
而先前 提及庄重 人们联想到的是圣经故事的文字诠释
With time he dispensed with direct references to Jesus all together.
随着时间推移 他干脆摒弃了直接表现基督
But he retained the atmosphere of tragedy and grief associated with his life and death.
但是他保留了与基督生死相关的悲剧和伤感氛围
He found that tall trees mountains, mists,
他发现 大树 高山 薄雾
the rising of the moon, the stillness of water at night, open heathland, and fog
月儿升起 夜晚静谧的水面 空旷荒原 茫茫雾霭
could carry many the same messages about pain, love, suffering and redemption
它们可以传达很多关于痛苦 爱 苦难 和救赎的启示
as the Christian theologians once found in the Gospels.
就像基督教神学家在福音书中发现的一样
He remains a painter uniquely suited to those who no longer believe
他继续作画 他的画尤其为这类人所喜爱
but who remain attracted
即那类已不再信教
to the serious emotions that accompany belief.
却仍为信仰带来的严肃情感所吸引的人
In 1818 when he was 43
1818年 他43岁时
Caspar David married 25 year old Christian Caroline Bommer
卡斯帕·大卫娶了25岁的克里斯蒂安·卡罗琳·波默
they had two daughters, Emma
他们有两个女儿 艾玛和艾格尼丝·阿德尔海德
and Agnes Adelheid and a son Gustav Adolf.
还有一个儿子古斯塔夫·阿道夫
And it seems on the whole to have been a pretty good relationship.
总体看来家庭非常和睦
Caroline appears in many of his pictures
卡罗琳出现在他的许多作品中
although usually alone.
虽然通常都是独自一人
Friedrich was drawn to painting people on their own
弗里德里希沉迷于绘画人们独自一人的场景
as if what is most important about us only comes to the surface
仿佛只有在远离文明的喧嚣时
when we are away from the chatter of civilization.
对我们最重要的事情才会浮现
He himself only had a handful of friends and rarely left his simply furnished studio.
他的朋友屈指可数 也很少离开简陋的画室
Instead of solitude being something that we need to evade with business,
在他看来 孤独不是某种需要通过工作
drink, or sexual fantasies
杯中物 或者性幻想来加以躲避的东西
Friedrich suggests it is something that brings us into contact with our deepest possibilities.
反之 孤独可以带领我们遇见自身最大的潜能
He also believes
他同样相信
that harshness of nature
大自然的严酷
could put the sorrow of the human condition into a consoling and redeeming perspective.
能让人从安慰和拯救的视角来看待悲伤
Humans can be cruel, fate can be remorseless,
人类可以是残忍的 命运可以是冷酷的
but contemplating the ineluctable collision of icepacks takes us out of ourselve,
然而注视着冰群不可避免的碰撞
beyond the particular envy, wound, or disappointment that is tormenting us
我们可以摆脱折磨自己的那些嫉妒 伤痛 或失望
reducing our sense of personal persecution.
减轻我们个人的困扰感
Works like moonrise over the sea
他的作品 比如《海上月升》
make us aware of our insignificance in the vast natural world
让我们体会到 在广阔自然面前自身的渺小
exciting a sense of the pettiness of man’s disasters
与永恒的波涛相比较
in comparison with the waves of eternity,
人类的这些苦难是多么微不足道
leaving us a little readier to bow to
这使我们稍有几分心理准备
the incomprehensible tragedies that every life entails.
向每个生命所遭遇的难以理解的不幸低头
From here ordinary irritations and worries are neutralized.
由此 消除了我们日常的烦恼和忧虑
Rather than try to redress our humiliations by insisting on our wronged importance
与其坚持是别人轻视了自己 试图以此挽回颜面
we can, by the help of a great art work,
不妨在伟大作品的帮助下
endeavor to apprehend and appreciate our essential nothingness.
努力去理解和欣赏我们本身的无足轻重
Friedrich uses this striking jagged rock formation, a spare stretch of coast,
弗里德里希描绘犬牙交错的岩石 一望无际的海岸
the bright horizon far away clouds and pale sky
明亮的地平线 远处的云朵和苍白的天空
to induce us into a mood of redemptive sadness.
借这些夺目的景观引导我们进入救赎的悲伤情绪
The smaller islands of rock
那些较小的岩石岛屿
were once just as dramatic and thrusting as the major rock formations just beyond,
曾几何时也与边上的巨岩一样震慑人心
the long slow passage of time will one day wear them down as well,
时光悠长缓慢流逝 这些岩石终究抵不过时间的侵蚀
above them are clouds which catch light on their undersides
上方 光线透过云层照射下来
and pass on in their transient pointless way
光线在云层逐渐淡去 转瞬即逝
totally indifferent to all of our concerns.
对我们的忧虑漠不关心
The picture does not refer directly to our relationships
这幅画并未直指我们日常生活中的人际关系
or to the stresses and tribulations of our day-to-day lives.
也未直指日常生活中的压力和烦恼
Its function is to give us access to a state of mind
它的作用是引导我们获得这样一种心态
where we are acutely conscious of the largeness of space and time
即能够敏锐地意识到时空的广阔无涯
and the insignificance of our situation within the greater scheme.
以及在这盘宇宙的大棋中 我们自身的微不足道
The work is sombre rather than sad, calm but not despairing.
这一作品 哀而不伤 平静而非绝望
In that condition of mind
在那样的心境下
or to put it more romantically state of soul
或用更浪漫的说法 在那样的灵魂状态下
we are left as so often with Friedrich’s work better equipped
弗里德里希的作品 常使我们做好更充分的准备
to deal with the intractable intense and particular griefs that lie ahead of us.
来应对挡在我们面前的 棘手 强烈 极度的悲痛
Like many artists
就像很多艺术家一样
Friedrich was not terribly successful during his own lifetime.
弗里德里希生前并不十分成功
He was admired and his work purchased by a small group of serious people
他是作品仅为一小拨品味严肃的人所欣赏和购买
and two of the most delightful painters of the era Kersting and Dahl were his friends
那个时代广受欢迎的画家克斯廷和达尔都是他的朋友
he died in his mid-60s in 1840 almost forgotten.
他活到60多岁 于1840年去世 几乎被人遗忘
He did not know that,
他不曾料到
in the distant future his work would be deeply admired.
在遥远的未来 自己的画作会被高度赞赏
Not because it cheers us
并不是因为他的画作使我们愉快
but precisely because it knows how to reframe and express
而正是因为它以另一种方式表达了
the sadness that is part of all of us.
在每个人生命中都不会缺席的悲伤

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视频概述

卡斯帕·大卫·弗里德里希,寄情于自然来表现人类痛苦的画家,生前不为人赏识,在几百年后迎来了他的时代

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=go87azXN5Ms

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