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艺术与建筑:安德烈·帕拉蒂奥 – 译学馆
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艺术与建筑:安德烈·帕拉蒂奥

ART/ARCHITECTURE - Andrea Palladio

Vicenza. 25 miles inland from Venice,
维琴察 距威尼斯40千米的内陆城市
is one of the leading sites of global architectural tourism
是全球建筑旅游的主要景点之一
and for one reason.
原因之一是
Many of the works of Andrea Palladio
帕拉蒂奥的许多作品
are located in and around that town.
都在这个小镇及周边地区
Andrea Palladio was born at the end of November
1508年11月底 安德烈·帕拉蒂奥
in 1508 in Padua.
出生在帕多瓦
He was an apprentice stonemason,
他曾是一名石匠学徒
and later a stone carver;
后来成为了一名石头雕刻家
though it wasn’t until he was about thirty years of age
直到大约30岁时
that he began designing buildings himself.
帕拉蒂奥才开始自己设计建筑
Over the next forty years of his working life,
在随后四十年的职业生涯中
Palladio designed 40 or so Villas,
帕拉蒂奥设计了约40栋别墅
a couple of townhouses, and a handful of churches.
两栋联排房屋和几间教堂
Not a huge list,
参照当时在建建筑数量
given the amount of building that was going on at the time.
他设计的建筑数量算不上很多
For most of his career,
在职业生涯大部分时间里
he had a mix of professional successes and setbacks.
他经历过成功也经历过挫折
Though during his 60s,
但在60多岁时
He finally emerged as the top architect of Venice
他终于成为了威尼斯顶级的建筑师
about the richest and most powerful city in the world at that time.
当时的威尼斯是全球最富有最有权势的城市
Palladio held views on architecture almost
帕拉蒂奥对于建筑的看法
entirely opposite to those which are current today.
几乎与现在截然相反
One of these ideas is that architecture has a clear purpose
他的观点之一是建筑有着明确的目标指向
which is to help us be better people.
那就是帮助我们成为更好的人
Palladio thought we should build in order to
他认为我们修建房子的目的应该是
encourage good states of mind, in ourselves and others.
让自己和他人的内心产生良好的心态
In particular, architecture could help us with three psychological virtues:
建筑尤其能帮助我们提高3种心理美德
Calm, Harmony, and Dignity.
即稳重 和谐以及尊严
To achieve calm, he reduces what’s going on.
为了实现稳重 他摒弃了当时的建筑理念
All the elements in a room are centered; balanced, symmetrical.
室内所有元素都是居中的 平衡的 对称的
He only uses simple geometrical shapes.
帕拉蒂奥只用了简单的几何图形
Generally, the walls are plain, and there’s little furniture.
通常 墙壁会很朴素 家具也会很少
The serenity of the place is designed to calm us down,
这样朴素的设计是为了让我们平静下来
inviting us to focus, and be less distracted.
让我们注意力集中 不被分散
For harmony, Palladio was obsessed with making sure that
为了实现和谐 帕拉蒂奥致力于
every element of a building fitted perfectly with every other.
让建筑中的每个元素完美地融合在一起
He wrote,
他曾写道
“A fine building ought to appear as an entire and perfect body;
一个好的建筑应该像一具完美的躯体
Wherein every member agrees with its fellow,
其中的每一个元素都要互相协调
and each so well with the whole,
并且与整体也要协调
that it may seem absolutely necessary.
这点非常重要
The design of a window is related to that of the door.
窗户的设计与门的设计有关
Every opening is aligned with every other,
门窗的打开方向是相互对齐的
every room is a clear, simple shape.
每个房间都有清晰 简单的轮廓
The doors always line up.
门要排成一排
The building creates an environment
在这些建筑营造的环境里
in which provide us a limited but real
所有重要的东西都集中了一起
sense of everything important coming together.”
这种感官是受局限的却又是真实的
One of the ambitions of Palladio’s architecture
帕拉蒂奥建筑的目的之一
was to give greater dignity to parts of life
是让受到不公平看待 被贬低的部分人
that had been unfairly regarded as unworthy.
获得更大的尊严
At the Villa Barbara,
芭芭拉别墅
a farmhouse in the countryside about 40 miles north of Venice,
是威尼斯以北64公里的一间农舍
the barns and stables and grain stores
别墅的谷仓 马厩和粮仓
are just as grand as the owner’s not especially large house.
没有被隐藏起来或建在一定距离之外
Rather than being hidden away, or set at a distance,
而是和不太大的房子主体一样豪华
these working buildings are presented as honorable and important.
这些工作间得到了体面和重视
He wasn’t disguising the utilitarian reality of the farm;
帕拉蒂奥没有去掩盖农场的实用性
rather, he was demonstrating its genuine dignity.
相反 他在展现这里真正的高贵
In giving with the long classical tradition,
对于历史悠久的古典传统
Palladio believed that buildings should
帕拉蒂奥认为
help to compensate for our weaknesses.
建筑应该通过让我们
By encouraging us to be more collected, poised, and measured
达到能力之外的镇定 从容 和谨慎
than we manage to be day to day.
来帮助我们弥补不足
We need serene, harmonious, and confident buildings,
我们需要给我们带来宁静 和谐 自信的建筑
precisely because we’re not reliably like that.
原因是我们自己无法做到这样
Ideally, architecture embodies our better selves;
理论上 建筑体现了更好的自己
the ideal building is like the ideal person.
完美的建筑就像完美的人一样
In 1570,
1570年
Palladio published his four books on architecture.
帕拉蒂奥出版了《建筑四书》
It’s an early and very distinguished example of the “How-To” genre:
这是建筑入门领域早期比较杰出的一本著作
It gives instructions on how to build.
它给如何修建房屋提供了指导
There’s a practical guide to digging foundations,
里面有关于如何打地基
and how to judge the quality of cement,
如何判断水泥质量的实用指南
and the reliable ways of constructing walls and laying floors.
还有砌墙和铺地板的有用方法
He also develops rules of proportion,
帕拉蒂奥还提出了比例法则的观点
based on simple mathematical ratios,
认为建筑要基于简单的数学比例
to achieve a kind of visual harmony.
从而达到视觉上的和谐
The “Fancy Surrounds” are not the crucial thing.
美丽的周遭环境并没有那么至关重要
Without them,
纵然没有美景
the window opening will still look lovely.
敞开的窗户看起来依然漂亮
Because it is the proportions,
因为是比例让窗户
and not the decoration, that make it harmonious.
实现了和谐 而不是装饰
This meant that an equally beautiful building
这意味着我们可以花更少的钱
could be produced more cheaply,
修建同样漂亮的建筑
which was one of Palladio’s chief concerns,
这便是帕拉蒂奥的核心理念之一
because the same proportions are beautiful,
只要比例一致便会好看
irrespective of whether the building is made of marble,
无论是大理石建筑
brick, concrete, or wood.
还是砖砌的 混凝土的或木建的
He went on to provide a wide range of rules
帕拉蒂奥还提出了一系列
for making buildings attractive:
让建筑更具魅力的规则
They should be symmetrical,
建筑应该是对称的
there should be three, five, or seven openings on a side;
每个方向都应有3个 5个或7个门窗
not an even number.
数量不应该是偶数
Room should have a simple, geometrical shape,
房间的形状应该是简单的几何图形
the length should be 3/5 of the width,
长应该是宽的3/5
and the height 3/5 of the width.
高应该是宽的3/5
Palladio saw himself as a craftsman;
帕拉蒂奥认为自己是一名工匠
he was simply following a set of rules
他只是在遵循一套规则
which others could follow, too.
这套规则其他人也能遵循
He was working against the idea that architecture
他反对建筑需要特别的天赋
requires a special genius.
这样的观点
The ideal of a pattern book is that
样本簿的目的是
visually elegant buildings can be put up as a standard,
让视觉上优雅的建筑作为标准
as happened in London,
18世纪时的伦敦
and in many cities in the 18th century
以及其他很多城市的建筑
in large part due to Palladio’s influence.
很大程度上受到了帕拉蒂奥的影响
Palladio’s ideas have resonated down the ages,
帕拉蒂奥的理念被代代相传
but it isn’t when buildings have columns,
但并不是有圆柱的建筑
or make nods to ancient temples,
或是向古老的庙宇鞠躬的人
that they are their most “authentically Palladian”
才是真正的帕拉蒂奥追崇者
Buildings are Palladian when they are devoted to Calm,
帕拉蒂奥式的建筑崇尚的是沉着
Harmony and Dignity,
和谐以及尊严
on the basis of rules which can,
它们基于规则 这些规则可以
and should be, widely reused.
也应该被广泛使用
It’s then that they display the same underlying ambition
只有这样 建筑才能体现其潜在的目的
of which Palladio is a central advocate and exponent,
帕拉蒂奥是这一观点主要的倡导者
that it should be normal for buildings to represent us
建筑代表着我们最平静
for the seductive portrait of our calmest,
最高贵的自我
and most dignified selves.
这应该是最寻常不过的事情

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一起走进意大利建筑大师安德烈•帕拉蒂奥,感受其与众不同的建筑理念和建筑风格!

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