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犰狳的种类及简介 – 译学馆
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犰狳的种类及简介

Armadillos: Tactical Assault Anteaters

本视频由《技能分享》Skillshare呈现给您
This episode was brought to you by Skillshare.
犰狳是自然界的坦克
Armadillos are nature’s tanks
如果坦克也是那么容易受惊或可爱的话
if tanks were skittish and very cute.
嗨 我是丹妮尔
Hi! I’m Danielle
您正在观看的是《动物逻辑》
and you’re watching Animal Logic.
犰狳是美洲的本土生物 是唯一幸存的有甲目生物种类的成员
Native to the Americas, armadillos are the only surviving members of the singulate order
它们现存最近的物种是树懒和食蚁兽
and their closest extant relatives are sloths and anteaters.
现存有21种犰狳
There are 21 extant species of armadillo,
大多数只存在于南美洲
the vast majority of which can only be found in South America.
中美洲有两种
Two species can be found in Central America,
并且只有一种——九带犰狳 生活在北美洲
and just a single species, the Nine-banded armadillo, has made its way up into North America.
犰狳的体型从最小的粉毛犰狳
Armadillos range in size from the adorable pink fairy armadillo,
其身长只有15厘米
which only measures 15 centimetres in length
到大犰狳
to the giant armadillo,
就像它的名字一样 体型庞大
which as its name suggests is quite large
算上它的尾巴 长度可达1.5米
and can measure up to a metre and a half in length, including its tail.
它们属于贫齿目特殊种类的一部分
They are part of the xenarthra super order and
就像它们的近亲食蚁兽一样
like their anteater cousins.
它们主要以无脊椎动物为食
Their diet is made up primarily of invertebrates.
一些犰狳专以蚂蚁和白蚁为食
With some species specializing in ants and termites,
有些种类的犰狳如九带犰狳
species like the Nine-banded armadillo
在食物匮乏的情况下甚至还以腐肉为食
will even eat carrion if they have to.
为了把蚂蚁和白蚁
In order to extract said ants and termites
从各种山地和丘陵地挖出来
from their various mounts and hills,
它们天生具有长而有力的爪子
they have long powerful claws.
此外 它们还有长而富有粘性的舌头
In addition to this, they have long sticky tongues.
让它们很容易地粘起
which they use to pick up
蚂蚁 白蚁以及其他小型的无脊椎动物
ants, termites and other small invertebrates.
对不同种类的犰狳
The various species of armadillo
(人们)通常多以其“铠甲”上的条带数
are most commonly described by the number of bands
来描述它们
that they have in their armour.
这些条带由柔软的组织相互连接
These bands are attached to one another with flexible tissue
犰狳的条带越多
and the more bands an armadillo has,
它们就越柔软
the more flexible they are.
即使确实会付出代价——安全问题
Though it does come at a cost, security.
南美洲的三带犰狳
The South American Three-banded armadillo
是唯一一种能够把身子
is the only species of armadillo able to roll up
蜷成球状来保护它们柔软的下腹部的物种
into a ball to protect their soft underbellies.
[音乐]
[Music]
当遭遇攻击时
When attacked,
其他物种更愿意奔跑和躲藏
every other species prefers to run and hide,
而不是依靠它们的铠甲作为第一道防线
rather than relying on their armor as their first line of defense.
作为它们最后的防线
As their last line of defense,
犰狳会使用它们又长又坚锐的爪子
armadillos will use their long sharp claws.
它们由皮质骨板构成的钢铁般坚硬的盔甲
Their iconic armors made of dermal bone plates,
上面覆盖着称为鳞甲的骨状细鳞
which are covered with little scale like bones called scutes.
犰狳易感染麻风病
Armadillos are susceptible to leprosy
因为它们身体常处于低温的状态
due to their low body temperature,
巧的是和人类皮肤处于一样的温度
which incidentally is the same as human skin.
34摄氏度
34 degrees Celsius.
正因如此 犰狳成为了这种疾病的携带者
Because of this, armadillos are vectors for the disease.
事实上 在欧洲人到达这里前
In fact, leprosy didn’t exist in the Americas
美洲大陆上没有麻风病的踪迹
before the Europeans got here,
这意味着犰狳是从人类身上感染的麻风病
meaning that armadillos got leprosy from humans
而现在它们又把病传染给了我们
and now they’re giving it back to us.
在南部各州 在乡村集市上
In the southern states, at county fairs,
我们经常能看到犰狳比赛
it’s not uncommon to see an armadillo race.
因为它们很不听话
They’re not great.
在这样的不成功的比赛中
The handling of armadillos at these less than okay races and
以及另一种人类与犰狳互相接触的活动中
another human armadillo interactions
可以看到更多的人被犰狳传染麻风病
has seen a rise in leprosy being transmitted to humans.
我们定好了时间
We set at the time,
犰狳正在秘密的训练架上
the armadillo’s getting shape for the race
为比赛而减肥
at secret training hangs.
我们只被允许看一点点激烈的运动
We were permitted to see just a few of the vigorous exercises
以及绝密的训练技术
and top secret training technics.
【音乐】
[music]
有很多种类的犰狳都颇熟水性
Many species of armadillo are quite decent in the water.
它们有时能憋气在水底行走
They can either hold their breath and walk along the bottom
或者像一些九带犰狳
or some species like the Nine-banded armadillo
可以吸入大量的氧气然后浮在水中
will swallow a bunch of air and become buoyant.
吸入的氧气充满它们的整个胃部和内脏
This fills their stomach and intestines
这样会使它们游起来更容易
and it makes swimming much easier for them.
九带犰狳也有一个奇怪的习惯
Nine-banded armadillo also have a quirky habit of
就是受惊时会腾空而起
jumping in the air when startled.
腾空的高度最高可以达到一米
They can jump up to a meter high,
这也是它们经常不幸地被小车撞飞的原因
which is unfortunately why they get hit by cars so often.
九带犰狳
Nine-banded armadillos
是唯一一种在美国很有名的犰狳
were the only successful armadillo in the United States,
主要是因为它们极高的繁殖率
primarily due to their high reproductive rate.
它们一般一胎生四个幼崽
They regularly give birth to kadru plants.
粉毛犰狳是体型最小的
The pink fairy armadillo is the smallest
客观来说也是最可爱的犰狳
and objectively cutest armadillo.
它们差不多和松鼠一样小
They’re about the same size as a squirrel and
而且还具有24条带的极柔软的毛皮盔甲
have highly flexible leather armor with 24 bands.
它们主要在夜间活动并挖洞穴
They’re primarily nocturnal and dig burrows.
这种行为也导致它们
This behavior has led them to
被当成犰狳中的地下工作者
be classified as a subterranean armadillo.
大犰狳是体型最大的一类
Giant armadillos are the largest and
除了乌拉圭 整个南美洲都能发现它们
can be found all over South America, except in Uruguay.
尽管它们体型庞大 但是它们喜欢小型猎物
Despite their large size, they prefer small prey,
最爱的小型蚂蚁和白蚁
their favorite being ants and termites,
它们一次就能吞下整个蚁群
of which they can eat an entire colony in a single setting.
在它们搬家之后
They dig very large burrows,
它们会挖出很大的一个洞穴
which after they vacate,
用来给其他动物当家
tend to be used by other animals.
不幸地是
Unfortunately,
由于栖息地的破坏和捕猎
giant armadillo populations are decreasing
大犰狳的数量正在减少
due to habitat destruction and hunting.
生态系统中大型犰狳的缺失
The loss of the giant armadillo from their ecosystem
将会产生连锁的影响
will have a cascading effect
因为其他动物将失去它们的栖息地工程师
as other animals will lose their habitat engineers.
尖叫多毛犰狳
The screaming hairy armadillo
可能是最可爱的动物吧
is quite possibly the greatest named animal.
它整个的躯体包括它的外壳
Its entire body including its armor is covered
都被锯齿状的绒毛覆盖
with scraggly little hairs,
这让它们看起来像腿上的椰子
making them look like coconuts on legs.
在阿根廷 玻利维亚 巴拉圭都能发现它们
They can be found in Argentina, Bolivia and Paraguay.
它们是挖洞高手
They are excellent diggers and tend to live in
喜欢居住在有疏松土壤的栖息地
habitats with loose diggable soil.
对了 它们害怕的时候会尖叫
Oh, and they scream when they’re frightened.
这种操作是不是很棒呢
They’re pretty great.
尖叫多毛犰狳真是太可爱了吧
The screaming hairy armadillo is pretty adorable.
但如果把动物的插图呈现在生活中
But I could be made even cuter
犰狳会更可爱
if brought to life through illustration.
如果你想要从2019年正式开始
If you want to start 2019 off right
上一堂关于动物角色设计的速成班
and take a crash course in animal character design,
那么你应该点击
then you should check out
《技能分享》上Melissa Lee老师的动物角色设计班课程
Melissa Lee’s character design course on Skillshare.
在她的课上
In her course,
她通过图解动物的过程来指导你
she guides you through her process of illustrating animals.
你将学会在参考照片中找到灵感
You’ll learn to find inspiration in reference photos.
然后你会用素描把角色带到生活中
Then you’ll start to bring your character to life with sketches.
她会在Photoshop中绘制完成的图像前
She’ll guide you through some tips and tricks
通过一些窍门和技巧来指导你
for developing your character before rendering the finished image in Photoshop.
你会带着值得崇拜的新的绘画方式
You’ll walk away from the course
离开课堂
with an adorable new drawing,
可能是犰狳的绘画法
perhaps of an armadillo
你还会拥有一个新的技能
and you’ll have a new skill as well.
《技能分享》是一个有超过25000节课程的
Skillshare is an online learning community for creators
在线学习社区
with over 25,000 courses and
这些课程包含
a lot of those are courses
图解 设计 商业等许多方面
in illustration, design, business and more.
完成这个课程时
When you finish this course,
总会有新的课程可以帮助你
there will always be a new course to help you
更进一步的提高你作为艺术家的技能
further develop your skills as an artist,
无论你的技能水平如何
no matter what your skill level is.
只要是会员就可以无限制观看
Premium membership gives you unlimited access.
因此你可以选择加入符合你及你的新年目标
So you can join the classes and communities
这样的班级和团体
that are just right for you and your new year goals.
不论你是想满足自己的好奇心
Whether you want to fuel your curiosity,
实现创造力还是作为自己的职业
creativity or even your career,
《技能分享》都是个完美的地方
Skillshare is the perfect place for you to
确保你能在2019年不断学习进步
keep learning and thriving in 2019.
如果你想支持动物逻辑学
If you want to support Animal Logic and
并加入有超过7百万创作者的《技能分享》
join more than 7 million creators, learning with Skillshare,
成为第一批500名会员中的一份子
be one of the first 500 people to
点击介绍中的链接来注册
follow the link in the description to sign up
获得为期2个月的《技能分享》的免费使用权
for two months of Skillshare for free.
下次我应该讲什么动物呢?
So what animal should I talk about next?
请在下方留言哦
Please let me know in the comments and
确保已经订阅
be sure to subscribe
为了观看每周最新的动物逻辑学的视频
for new episodes of Animal Logic every week.
感谢观看
Thanks for watching!
哦 我只是想说嗨
Oh! And also I just want to say hey
感谢大家
and thanks to everyone
在Magfest跟我打招呼
who came up to say hi to me at Magfest.
你们太棒了 再见啦
You guys are rad, take care.
音乐
[Music]

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视频概述

了解犰狳

听录译者

Felicity

翻译译者

.劣根

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ib4bWAQIYns

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