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你在看本视频的时候会考虑呼吸吗?

Are You Thinking About Breathing While You Read This? (Now You Are)

我们在这里安静的呆一秒钟……
If we just hung out here in silence for a second…
没错 我们都还在呼吸 咻
Yep, we’re both still breathing. Whew.
它有很多名字 缺氧驱动 呼吸作用 呼吸…… 不用赘述了 你知道 它是什么
It has a lot of names: hypoxic drive, respiration, breathing… needless to say, you know what it is.
“它”就是这个[呼吸]
It’s this.
但你想过这个问题吗
But have you ever thought about it?
我的意思不是让你现在思考呼吸的方式 哈哈 想想吧
I mean not in the way that you’re thinking about breathing now. HA. Deal with that.
但你有没有想过 当你睡着或者注意力分散时 你的身体是怎样运转的
But have you thought about how your body does this when you’re asleep, when you’re distracted
又或是注意力相当集中的时候
or really focused.
不管你在做什么(在大多数情况下)你的身体都在为你而呼吸
No matter what you’re doing (for the most part) your body is breathing for you.
呼吸的动力很强大
That drive to breathe is strong.
你不需思考就能呼吸是因为你的脑干在做这项工作并做决定
The reason you can do it without thinking is because your brainstem is doing the work and making the decisions.
不过我们等会儿再聊这个话题
But we’ll come back to that in a sec.
呼吸真是一种复杂的平衡 即 从空气中吸入氧气
Breathing is a really complex balance of pulling oxygen in from the environment, and getting
同时将二氧化碳排出体外
carbon dioxide out of your blood.
虽然我们需要氧气才能活着 但是影响呼吸的主要动力却不是氧气
Even though we need oxygen to survive, the main influencer of the drive to breathe isn’t
而是二氧化碳 或者更确切地说 是二氧化碳溶于水的“习惯”
oxygen, but CO2 — or really, CO2’s tendency to dissolve into water.
在自然环境中 二氧化碳与水结合生成了碳酸
Out in the world, carbon dioxide binds with H2O to create carbonic acid… it’s why
这就是为什么一杯水隔夜后 喝起来怪怪的
a glass of water left overnight tastes funny.
因为二氧化碳进去了
It’s gots CO2 in it.
你的血液中二氧化碳越多 意味着酸就越多
The more CO2 there is in your blood, the more acidic it is.
大脑不希望血液中的酸太多或太少 所以它需要
The brain doesn’t like blood that’s too acidic or too basic, so it needs to monitor
持续监测
it constantly.
原因在这里 传递这些信息的是化学感受器…… 中枢化学感受器
That’s why, spread throughout all this are chemoreceptors … central chemorteceptors
(它们)在你的大脑里……末梢化学感受器在身体的血管里
are in your brain … peripheral chemoreceptors are in the body’s blood vessels.
这些感受器能够感受到血液中二氧化碳和酸的浓度的微小变化
Those receptors sense subtle shifts in the levels of carbon dioxide and the acidity of
然后将信息传递到脑干的呼吸中枢 就是髓质
your blood, and send that info to the respiratory centers back upon your brainstem, actually the medulla
根据那些化学感受器读取的酸浓度信息 你的大脑决定让肺做一点调整
Based on the acidity readings from those chemoreceptors, your brain directs your lungs to make little
调整呼吸的频率 尽量让你体内的二氧化碳含量保持平稳
adjustments in your rate of breathing to try and keep your CO2 levels as steady as possible.
这个过程时刻都在进行
It happens all the time.
现在你又在想你的呼吸了 哈
Now you’re thinking about your breathing again. HA!
有趣的部分来了
Here’s the fun part.
如果你说 换气不足 HYPER在医学教材中是有意义的 指的是“快速”
If you’re say, HYPOventilating, HYPER in medical context makes sense — it’s FAST.
Hypo的意思相反 缓慢地……
HYPO is the opposite. Slow…
所以当你在缓慢换气时
So you’re HYPOventilating…
二氧化碳水平就会上升 你的大脑就想摆脱它
When that happens, the CO2 level goes up, and your brain wants to get rid of it!
所以 这会导致你呼吸加快
So, it drives you to breathe more.
这叫做高碳酸血驱动呼吸
That’s called the hypercapnic drive to breathe…
缓慢地-快速地
HYPO – HYPER.
所以 如果换气过度 你的二氧化碳水平就会下降
Thus if you’re HYPERventilating, then your carbon dioxide level goes down… that’s
这叫做低碳酸血 会驱动呼吸放慢
called HYPOcapnia… the drive to breathe goes down as well.
这就都说得通了
This all makes sense.
可是 若不曾看到一些东西完美地运转或不会说
And yet, we wouldn’t be humans if we didn’t see something working beautifully and say,
“拿着我的啤酒” 我们就不能称为人类
“Hold my beer.”
缺氧驱动是自主性神经系统的一部分 瞳孔放大 心跳
The hypoxic drive is part of the autonomic nervous system — pupil dilation, heartbeat,
呼吸 消化 等等这些都是
breathing, digestion — all that stuff.
这就好像文明的莫洛克是你的身体
It’s like the Morlocks of the civilization that is your body.
书呆子的引用
Nerd reference.
管他呢
Anyway.
有时人们试着欺骗他们的大脑 造成一种低碳酸血的状态-低二氧化碳含量
Sometimes people try to trick their brains and create a state of HYPOcapnia — low CO2,
记得吗 通过有意过度换气
remember? — by hyperventilating on purpose.
谁会这么干呢 自由潜水员
Who are thoese people? Freedivers.
为了能够长时间憋气 一些自由潜水员会
To hold their breath for a long time, some freedivers will hyperventilate before ducking
在入水前快速换气
into the water.
(这样)他们可以在水下呆更长时间 但是
They can stay underwater longer BUT!! And there is a
但是
BIG B-U-T.
过度换气会引起一种“上升晕厥”的现象 这是致命的
This hypocapnic state can cause a phenomenon called “ascent blackout” which is deadly.
基本上 过度换气会排出更多的二氧化碳
Basically, the hyperventilation makes you get rid of more carbon dioxide, making you
让你放慢呼吸
want to breathe slower.
但是 在水下时 你显然没法换气
But, while underwater, you’re not replacing O2, for obvious reasons.
记住 不像 清除二氧化碳所驱动的那样 你的大脑不会被 对氧气的需求所驱动
Remember, your brain isn’t as driven by the need for O2 as it is driven by clearing CO2
所以 一段时间的低二氧化碳水平和氧气水平下降后 潜水员的氧气就用尽了
So, after a bit with low CO2 levels and decreasing O2 levels, the diver runs out of oxygen to
并最终失去知觉
burn, and passes out.
无需大脑 身体就会触发交感神经系统
All without the brain ever triggering the sympathetic nervous system to kick in and
强迫呼吸
breathe.
如若不然 潜水员必须浮上来并有意识地呼吸一段时间
Instead, the diver has to surface and intentionally take a breath in time.
这超级危险 千万不要这样做
This is super dangerous. DON’T DO IT.
真的 千万不要
SERIOUSLY. Don’t.
这在浅水中也会发生 叫做浅水昏厥
This can even happen in shallow water… it’s called shallow water blackout.
人们会因此而死
And people die.
当然了 虽然二氧化碳是驱动力 氧气也很关键
Of course, even though CO2 is the driver, oxygen still matters!
大脑会监测氧气含量
The brain does monitor oxygen levels.
如果氧气含量相当低了 身体就会逼迫其呼吸
If they drop really low, the body will kick that drive to breathe again.
但这在高纬度地区更关键 那里的氧气更少 (当然)那又是另一回事了
But this matters more at high altitudes where there’s less air — that’s a whole other thing.
看吧 总而言之 当你没在考虑呼吸时 你的身体
Look, the bottom line here is — when you’re not thinking about breathing your body is
为了让你活着做了很多事情
doing LOTS OF THINGS to keep you alive.
呼吸是活着的生物最基本的功能
Respiration is a base function of a living thing.
所以 即便被手机
So, we’re really good at doing this even when we’re distracted by our phones, or
开车 睡觉或者其他任何事分散注意力 我们也很擅长这个
are driving, or sleeping. or whatever
身体是一个多么神奇的机器啊
The body is such a cool machine.
没有赞助商就没有探索者系列
We can’t do Seeker episodes without our sponsors.
谢谢Graze赞助这集节目
Thanks to Graze for sponsoring this episode.
Graze 通过将有益健康的食材和我们喜爱的香料结合 使小吃变得令人激动
Graze makes snacking exciting by combining wholesome ingredients with flavors we all
创造了超过100种营养学家支持的小吃
love, to create over 100 nutritionist-approved snacks.
登录Graze.com网站 输入密码SEEKER 可以获得一箱免费样品 还送到您家
Go to Graze.com and enter promo code SEEKER to get a free, sampler box delivered to your
或工作单位
home or work.
你的身体不仅需要吸入氧气吐出二氧化碳 我们还需要食物 如果你打算吃东西
Your body doesn’t just need to take in oxygen and put out CO2 — we also need food; and if you’re going to eat,
也可能同时学到东西
you may as well learn too!
我们的朋友Thrillist 刚刚上线了他们的新节目 食物小组
Our friends Thrillist just launched their new show Food/Groups!
我的兄弟Dave将同食物专家聊天 因为他们
My buddy Dave is gonna talk to food experts as they hunt down dishs that’s
确实对与不同的社区 国籍或生活方式息息相关的菜肴穷追不舍
authentically tied to a different neighborhood, nationality, or lifestyle.
要看这集节目 如果你热爱美食 热爱学习人类文化 热爱卓越
Check out this episode if you love food and you love learning about humans, cultures and awesomeness!
还在想呼吸的事吗
Are you still thinking about breathing?
在这集节目中你想了多少次啊
How many times did you think about it during this episode?
在评论区告诉我们 一定要订阅更多的探索者节目 谢谢 观看
Tell us down in the comments and make sure you subscribe for more seeker, thanks for watching.

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视频概述

呼吸是怎么发生的?为什么不知不觉就可以规律呼吸?观看本视频,探索呼吸的奥秘。吸~呼~吸

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-6glhhvOYy8

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