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你是Alpha型男性吗?

Are You The Alpha Male of Your Group?

谈起人群及其所处社会阶层时
The term “ pecking order ” is usually used when we are talking about groups of humans
我们总会提到“啄食顺序”理论
and the hierarchies they form,
但这个理论最初是科学家们用于
but it was originally used when scientists were studying
对鸡群的研究
the hierarchy of chickens.
动物们通过在群体中相互啄咬来证明自己的实力
The animals demonstrate their power in the group by pecking each other.
听起来很残忍 但事实就是如此
Sounds brutal, and it is,
这只是自然规律罢了
but it’s just the way things work.
黑猩猩更是极其残忍
Chimpanzees can be incredibly ruthless,
群体中更强壮的黑猩猩 有时
with the stronger members of the group sometimes
简直会把弱者撕成碎片
literally tearing the weaker chimps to pieces.
更强的雄性黑猩猩会霸占所有的雌性
The stronger male chimps get all the girls,
最好的食物 夜间最舒适的睡觉区域
the best food, and the coziest place to sleep at night.
我们人类 具有意识和责任心
Us humans, with our consciousness and conscientiousness,
往往不会如此有敌对性 但是我们也形成了阶层
tend not to be so hostile, but we do form hierarchies.
你处于阶层中的哪个位置呢?
Where do you stand in this hierarchy?
这就是我们今天将要探究的
That’s what we’ll find out today,
在信息图表的这一段中
in this episode of the Infographics Show, Are you
你是团队里的大哥大吗?
the alpha male of your group?
首先 我们并不是在说
First of all, we are not saying
人类同某些动物完全一样 拥有一成不变的等级制度
that humans form a very rigid and structured hierarchy
比如前面提到的黑猩猩 尽管如此
exactly the same as some animals, such as the aforementioned chimps.
我们必定终身都在努力为自己创造一个身份
Nonetheless, we certainly do create a status for ourselves throughout life
人生中的成就也会为我们提供大量福利
and our success in life affords us lots of benefits.
备受争议的加拿大临床心理学家乔丹•彼得森
The controversial Canadian clinical psychologist Jordan Peterson
认为我们在这样的阶层里工作
believes we work in these
也一直是这样做的
hierarchies and have always done so.
他将我们的大脑比作龙虾的
He compares our brains to the brains of lobsters,
因为像甲壳动物一样
in that like the crustacean, our confidence
我们的自信和力量受血清素分泌物影响
and power is awarded with secretions of serotonin,
后者的增多会给我们更多力量
and that only gives us more power.
龙虾首领似乎很容易得到血清素分泌物
The alpha lobster seems to have it easy.
所以 alpha是什么意思呢?
So, what is an alpha?
词典上对于alpha男性的基本解释是团队中处于支配地位的
The dictionary terms for alpha male says basically it’s a dominant male
男性或一个
in a group, or a person
在特定情景中起支配作用或专业角色的人
that is dominant in certain situations orin a professional role.
看看那些对于alpha男性的各种各样的描述
Looking at various descriptions of alpha male,
你会发现某些东西经常被反复提及
you will find certain things are usually repeated.
据说他们通常很迷人 有魅力
It’s said they are usually charming, attractive,
找到女性伴侣也不会有任何问题
and will have no problem finding a female mate.
当一些专家声称那些alpha男性可能是地痞时,
While some experts state that these alpha males might be bullies,
其他人声明
others state that
真正的alpha男性将会是他的朋友的一个保护罩。
the true alpha male will be a protector of his friends.
他会打架 但是是公道有理的 而不会横行霸道
He can fight, but he is reasonable and will not lash out. Well,
我们应该告诉你 你也可以找一个alpha女性
we should tell you that you can also have an alpha female,
或者甚至一个alpha伴侣
or even an alpha pair,
那只是取决于我们谈论的是什么物种
it just depends what species of animal we are talking about.
对人类而言 一些科学家告诉我们
As for humans, some scientists tell us
人类甚至都没有这种等级系统
that we don’t even have this kind of ranking system.
这个话题一直以来都备受争论
It’s an ongoing debate.
我们的确会成群结队的行动
We certainly do have a way of behaving in groups,
在学术上叫做动物行为理论
and when studied, that’s called ethology.
我们会让你决定人类对动物是否有类似的统治力
We’ll let you decide if humans have similar dominance dynamics to animals.
有的种族会有alpha
Some species will have an alpha,
但是在指挥中也有居第二位的叫做beta
but there is also a second in command called the beta.
所以在“啄食顺序”中就会有处于最底层的
Then there is the lowest in the pecking order,
那些只能服从的不幸的生物
the unfortunate beasts that are submissive
在团队中地位也最低
and subordinate to others in the group.
这些群体叫做omegas
These are called omegas.
下面我们将用形容词快速总结一下
We’ll give you a quick rundown
alpha男性的其他性格特征
of other personality traits in the form of alpha male adjectives:
勇敢 有趣 健壮 滑稽 谦虚 聪明 健谈 努力 公正
courageous, entertaining, athletic,funny, humble, intelligent, talkative, hardworking, fair,
时髦 自律 有道德独立 慷慨 并且是令人信服的
stylish, self-composed, ethical, independent, generous, and persuasive.
当然还有很多其他的特质 但你已经掌握了精髓
There are more descriptions, but you get the idea.
据一些资料 alpha男性几乎是完美的男人
The alpha male according to some sources is pretty much a perfect man,
与横行霸道 凶残不堪的alpha大猩猩大相径庭
and far from the bullying, brutal alpha chimpanzee.
这种男人听起来像是虚构的人物
He almost sounds like a fictional character,
因为要拥有所有这些特质
given that to have all those traits is not
并不是件容易的事
an easy thing.
如果我们来看一看虚构的alpha男性
If we actually look at fictional alpha males,
甚至可以说某些人还不够完美
even some of those could be said to be lacking.
这些人包括
Some of those men include:
电影《搏击俱乐部》中的泰勒·伯登 詹姆斯·邦德 托尼·史塔克
Tyler Durden from Fight Club, James Bond, Tony Stark, Danny
《十一罗汉》里的丹尼·奥逊 甚至琼恩·雪诺
Ocean from Ocean’s Eleven, and even JonSnow.
现实生活中的alpha男性怎么样呢?
What about alpha males in real life?
根据作者斯特凡·约尔捷耶维奇 我们肯定可以做到完美
According to the author Stefan Djordjevic, we certainly do fill these rolls.
至少 他觉得男人可以
At least, he says, men do.
他写了一本书叫做《如何接近女性》
He wrote a book called, “ How to Approach Women –
是变得更加alpha的有效方法
Effective Ways to Be More Alpha. ”
在书中他探讨了alpha男性的定义
In the book he examines the concept of alpha males,
但是他说这些男性的特质
but he says that the traits of these
可以习得 而不是一些天生的
men can be learned, rather than something we are just born with.
这些特质我们已经讨论过了
The traits are what we have already discussed,
第一件要学的事是变得自信
and the first thing to learn is to be confident.
成功的奖励是血清素 血清素能建立幸福感和更多自信
Success pays in serotonin, and that buildshappiness and more confidence.
但这似乎太简单了
But this seems too simplistic.
在2017年《独立报》的一篇文章中
In an article in the Independent in 2017,
心理学家斯科特·巴里·考夫曼说
psychologist Scott Barry Kaufman said being
成为alpha男性是需要具体内容具体分析的
alpha male is context specific.
他举了一个例子
He gives the example
财富500强的CEO被赋予了很高的社会地位
of a Fortune 500 company CEO being given a very high social status,
但是如果这个CEO发现自己
but if that CEO were to find himself
身处美国一个最严酷的监狱里 那么他的社会地位
in one of the USA’s toughest prisons, his status
很可能很快就下降为beta或omega
would likely soon be beta or omega.
“你可以成为一个团体中的alpha
“ You can be an alpha amongst one group,
也可以成为另一个团体中的beta” 他说
and a beta in another, ” he said.
他还说使男人对女人有吸引力的东西
He also said that what makes men attractive
非常复杂 但可以确定的是
to women is very complicated, but certain
诸如自信 善良和魄力等特质总是很有吸引力
traits such as confidence, kindness, and assertiveness are pretty much always attractive.
权力和毫无疑问的冒犯可以视为没有吸引力 所以
Power and certainly aggression can be viewed as unattractive. So,
你可能是你橄榄球队的alpha男性
you might be the alpha male of your rugby team,
但在办公室可能将不是这样了
but that might not work in the office.
考夫曼对好斗的的alpha男性持否定态度 他说
Kaufman takes a dim view of the aggressive alpha male, saying,
“真正的alpha者更全面 更有深度
“ The true alpha is fuller, deeper,
精神更富有”
and richer.”
他说alpha男性必须有教养
The alpha male must be cultivated, he says,
这与强大的成吉思汗可汗式的alpha男性
which is a far cry from the powerful Genghis
有着天壤之别 但是
Khan type of alpha male. But,
别人是怎么看的呢?
what do others think?
alpha男性只是一个神话吗?
Is the alpha male just a myth,
或者这种人不存在某种政治立场吗?
or is denying that such men exist a kind of political correctness?
斯坦福大学教授罗伯特·萨珀尔斯基告诉我们这是个神话
Stanford Professor Robert Sapolsky tells us it is a myth,
我们人类过于复杂了因而没有
that we are too complex to have
这样一个结构化的等级制度 我们也需要花时间去应对
such a structured hierarchy and we also have many different groups
很多不同的团体 然而
of people we spend time with. However,
在2014年 《今日心理学》的一篇文章说
in a 2014 article in Psychology Today,
虽然在我们这些人中可能不存在alpha male
it was stated that while we may not have alpha males,
但我们在社会中可以占主导地位
we certainly have social dominance.
文章中说 高且强壮的男人通常占主导地位
strong men are usually dominant, the article said,
它还引用研究结果表明
and it cited research showing
身高甚至可以影响你能赚多少钱
that height can even affect how much moneyyou earn.
它还引用了一个关于“为什么
It also cited research related to how men
声音低沉的男性与女性相处得更成功”的研究
with deep voices are more successful with women,
这称为“巴里·怀特效应”
something called “the Barry WhiteEffect.”
不足为奇的是英俊的男人也被认为更有优势
Not surprisingly, handsome men also are said to be more dominant.
所以如果你身材高大 说话流利
So, if you are tall, a smooth talker,
并且拥有帅气冷峻的脸 那么
and have a handsome, rugged face, it is likely
女性想要和你啪啪啪的可能性就很大
that women will want to procreate with you.
在同一来源的另一篇文章中
In a separate article by the same source,
认为男性体内的荷尔蒙
it was said that hormones in men matter a
在吸引女性的时候很重要
lot when it comes to attracting a woman.
“在群体中 与他人有很强烈的联系感
“ A strong sense of connection to others
会提高催产素的水平
in the group increases levels of oxytocin,
它可以舒缓压力 并允许
which moderate stress and allows high levels
高水平的睾酮促进竞争行为” 这篇文章说 所以
of testosterone to promote competitive behavior, ” said the article.
为了促进这种激素的产生
So, in order to promote increases of this hormone,
我们需要共鸣 我们需要纽带
we need empathy and we need to bond,
这与侵略性的alpha男性形象再次相去甚远
which again is a far cry from the image of the aggressive alpha male.
我们查阅了更多有关这个争议话题的研究
We looked at more research regarding this controversial topic.
在2016年 《卫报》的一篇文章中
In a 2016 Guardian story,
一位叫迪恩·伯内特的神经系统科学家这样写道
one neuroscientist called Dean Burnett writes that certainly
某些男性必然会在社交中占主导地位
some men will be socially dominant,
这将归结为身体和
and this will be down to a combination of physical
心理素质的共同作用
and psychological qualities.
但是 这是一个很大的结论
But, and it’s a big but,
有时这些占主导地位的男性只是假装很有信心
sometimes these dominant men are just faking their confidence.
他们只是在作秀 这篇文章说
They are all show, said the article,
装成一个alpha男性 你经常
and by pretending to be an alpha male, you often
能得到你想要到的东西
get what you want.
但是 矛盾将再次出现
But again, contradictions will occur.
重申一下别人所说的话
Reiterating what others have said,
一个在工厂中占主导地位的男性很可能受到
a dominant man in the factory might well be under the
他爱人的掌控
thumb of his lover.
就研究而言 通用alpha的论点显然很没说服力
The argument for a universal alpha is apparently quite weak
所以我们需要
in terms of research, so we have
具体问题具体分析
to look at context.
他认为也许人类
He argues that perhaps the human
alpha男性实际上是“一个对男性欲望实现不满
alpha male is actually “ a combination of disgruntled
和运用边缘伪科学理由来诉诸欺凌 恐吓
male wish fulfilment and borderline-pseudoscientific justification for resorting to bullying, intimidation
以及一般彻底讨厌的行为的结合体”
and generally all-round unpleasant behavior.”
这似乎不是一件好事
This doesn ’ t seem like such a good thing,
但那只是一个观点
but then it is only one point of view.
你认为自己是朋友中的alpha吗?
So, do you think you are the alpha among your friends?
在评论中告诉我们
Let us know in the comments. Also,
同时 一定要看看另一个视频
be sure to check out our
名字叫“什么让受欢迎的孩子受欢迎?”
other video called What Makes Popular Kids Popular?
谢谢观看
Thanks for watching, and,
不要忘记点赞 分享和订阅
as always, don ’ t forget to like, share, and subscribe.

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视频概述

Alpha型男性到底是什么?

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

JANUS

审核员

审核员 LD

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWMYCClqYZc

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